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What is the phenomenon, when a normal useful tissue, organ, body part or an inborn reflex or instinct existed in the infant organism and normally should disappear or at least completely lose its function in the adult organism but it won't? Atavism and vestigiality don't seem the right terms. Is there a specific word that refers to the phenomenon?

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"Remnant" is the closest term I can think of; "residual" is also used. You can find both used to describe the foramen ovale for example, which typically closes at birth (and has served its purpose at that point), but remains patent in a substantial proportion of adults, sometimes causing symptoms.

However, these terms are of course not specific for the circumstance you describe; I don't know of any that is.

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