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Adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation.

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What kind of owl does this moth look like?

I found this moth and I noticed that it looked like an owl to me and remembered something about how some moths camouflages look like predictors? What kind of moth this is and what owl does this moth ...
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Are we evolving as fast as the oxygen is depleting?

How much oxygen saturation have we lost in the last 100 years? As oxygen levels dwindle and industry, deforestation, and population increases, at what year and saturation will the low levels of ...
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What is the adaptive significance of temperature dependent sex determination?

Why do some reptiles have TDSD ? Is it because one of the genders is healthier than the other that only they, can survive high temperatures?
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What to call a trait that has current utility but unclear evolutionary origin?

I'm looking for a commonly used term to describe a trait that has clear current utility but an evolutionary origin that is uncertain and that we do not necessarily wish to emphasize in our description ...
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What is the cause behind negative afterimages in our visual system?

Quoting Physiology of Behaviour by Carlson, 2013, The most important cause of negative afterimages is adaptation in the rate of firing of retinal ganglion cells. When ganglion cells are excited or ...
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What natural defence mechanism does the human body have against lead poisoning?

It is known that lead ion takes place of necessary ions, like calcium, in the body, but does not perform their task, hence wrecking the system. So how does the body eventually recognise this threat ...
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Why does my room suddenly look 'reddish'? My eyes seem to adapt to color

To get the context of this question clear, I would like you to walk through some parts of my house. We'll start with one of my rooms as it appears normally - As evident, this part of my house has a ...
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Does a camel have large nostrils and why?

I think camel has large nostrils. This is because:- The purpose of the nostril is to keep the inhaled air warm and moist. Since camels live in deserts and the air is already quite warm, the ...
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Do similar adaptations result in similiar genetic code?

Sometimes organisms within the same species evolve similar adaptations to similar living conditions without interbreeding. Let's say we have two human populations which need to adapt to a colder ...
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Do the trichomes of Air plants enable it to absorb water vapour and if so, how?

I'm aware that the trichomes of air plants enable their leafs to act as their main water-absorbing organs. But do these trichomes only absorb water in the liquid form or do they absorb water vapour ...
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What of Gould's contributions to evolutionary biology are still accepted in the mainstream?

I have been reading Daniel Dennett's Darwin's Dangerous Idea, in which he picks apart many of Stephen Jay Gould's criticisms of neo-Darwinism, particularly in the chapter 'Bully for Brontosaurus'. ...
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How can just random mutations explain mimicry? [closed]

I have been reading this article on drug resistance which explained that how random mutations in a bacterial colony can lead to development of drug resistance among some organisms in that colony. A ...
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What is this passage trying to say about Darwin's difficulty in explaining variation?

This passage, from the book "How humans evolved" by Robert Boyd, says that one of the problems Darwin had at the time was that he struggled to convincingly explain how variation could be maintained; ...
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How do migrating geese handle hurricanes?

I live on the East coast of the United States, where we are in hurricane season. This week during my morning bike rides in Charlotte, North Carolina, I have seen migrating Canadian geese. I'm curious ...
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Why do humans grow taller than their ancestors?

I'm taking the Introduction to Genetics And Evolution course and in the first lecture it was said that: Evolution in a biological sense is simply change through time. And very importantly, that is ...
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152 views

Can a human increase cold resistance through some practice?

Can cold showers, moderate underdressing in cold weather increase your cold resistance? What is responsible for cold tolerance? It's physiology/psychology or it's genetic thing? By increasing cold ...
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Does Batesian mimicry rely on constant reinforcement?

If the species being mimicked, the monarch butterfly, for instance, were to become extinct, would the species mimicking it loose all of the benefit gained by their Batesian mimicry immediately? I ...
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385 views

Excessive sweating in dry heat [closed]

It's pre-monsoon season here in India. The temperatures in the Northwest of the country really take a spike around mid April. Apparently the heatwave-like conditions seem to have announced themselves ...
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242 views

How do coyotes remove cactus needles from their paws?

Here, in Arizona, coyotes roam and hunt in the desert. While hiking with dogs, I often see spiny bits of Teddy bear cholla cactus on the ground. Dogs often step on these and get stung by the ...
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Which organisms require the least fluctuation in ambient temperature?

Note that I am NOT asking "which organism can survive the most extreme temperatures." Many extremophiles like the tardigrade can survives extreme heat, but also extreme cold. Many heat adapted animals ...
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What makes delayed onset muscle soreness stop occurring?

If someone lifts weights or takes a long jog after not doing it for a while, they can experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). However, when they return to the same exercise days afterwards, ...
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Why is reducing the amount of detail required to remember the location of an object in one's environment adaptively significant?

In Campbell's Biology Chapter 51, question 36 reads: Which of the following shows the adaptive significance of cognitive mapping to animals that employ this type of learning? A) It ...
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Why Lungs can't work in water and gills can't work in air? [closed]

Animals-with-lungs (such as most terrestrial mammals) cannot continue breathing if merged in water, and soon die. Whereas fishes can breathe in water (at least for few-hours in case of some fishes ...
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Adaptation by standing genetic variation and fitness variance [duplicate]

I've read a couple of paper on Fisher's Fundamental Theory of Natural selection that states: $W(t+1) = W(t) + Var_{W}(t)$ Given a population with some degree of genetic variability, and assuming that ...
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Why aren't there any transitional animals today?

You have probably heard this question before and in different formats. Usually, it is used as a "proof" to disprove the theory of evolution. I understand that the apes we descended from are not the ...
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Do any terrestrial herbivores use auditory crypsis for predator avoidance? [closed]

Some terrestrial predators "stalk" their prey: they sneak up on it slowly, maintaining a low profile, while keeping as close to silent as possible. This makes sense from an evolutionary perspective: ...
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What is the difference between natural selection and adaptation?

From what I've read it seems that the only actual difference is that creationists use adaptation and people who believe in evolution use natural selection. But otherwise, from my understanding, the ...
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What are Some Classical Examples of Local Adaptation?

Question Can you please give a list of classical (textbook) examples of local adaptations? How to answer Examples don't necessarily need to include what evidence supports this specific example of ...
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A question regarding trichomes in plants

Trichomes in general are features of xerophytic leaves, which reduce water loss by evaporation by trapping water vapor and increasing humidity (as a result lowering the water potential gradient). BUT ...
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Did the number of rods changed from ancient time?

Correct me if I am wrong, but I know that rods work under limited light conditions only. But now we are in a world that always have lights everywhere unlike ancient time when humans had to deal with ...
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Is addiction adaptive?

Addiction and addictive traits seem common amongst animals. A pubmed query shows it's been studied in everything from humans to worms. My personal favorite of these is: "Individual Consistency of ...
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Good model for comparative genomics in relation to temperature adaptation

Can anyone suggest any highly related bacterial or parasitic species which live at very distinct temperatures, which might be a good model for comparison of genomes in regard to temperature adaptation....
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Do lunar rhythms have really impact on plant growth?

It is commonly known that lunar rhythms have influence on plant growth, and there are even lunar calendars to know when planting, pruning, transplanting, harvesting, etc. I know that the lunar cycles ...
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327 views

Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule: endotherms and ectotherms

Surface area to volume ratio (in terms of heat conservation) is not the only mechanism, but it is still an important mechanism for explaining Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule. Given that, I want to ...
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Why do some bad traits evolve, and good ones don't?

If a trait would be advantageous to an organism then why hasn't it evolved yet? Conversely, if a trait is not advantageous or mildly disadvantageous, why does it exist? In other words why does ...
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The ermine's colour and geographical range

Ermines turn white during the winter, with only the tip of the tail remaining black. However, in the southern regions of the ermine's range it clearly doesn't get so white. Encyclopedia of Life says ...
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Can nociceptors die because of too much mechanical stress?

In martial art people hit their body (e.g., with small bean bags) to become more insensitive to pain. Can the sensory neurons die during this procedure? I think this is just an urban legend. Instead, ...
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Is Batesian mimicry more important for females?

Myrmarachne plataleoides is a jumping spider that mimics the Kerengga or weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) in both morphology and behaviour. However, the two sexes appear different: Myrmarachne ...
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Why is Pilobolus phototropic?

Pilobolus is a fungal genus whose fruiting bodies consist of a stalk ending in a spore mass that is launched via turgor pressure to disperse the spores. The fruiting bodies grow towards light, which ...
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Sensory adaptation regarding smell and hearing

Imagine the scenario. My friend and I are playing a game of chess near a highway. Initially, I notice the sound of the highway. While I'm playing chess, however, I do not notice it. After the game my ...
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How to evolutionary explain menstrural cycles synchronization? [closed]

Sorry, I can not indicate the source, but I read that menstrual cycles of women who live in the same house over time sync. Is it true? How does it work?
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What is the progressive evolutionary advantage that leads to flying?

As far as I understand, all life started as non-flying and flying came about by natural selection. What is the evolutionary advantageous "path" to flying? Or is there something else to explain this?
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Does sociality evolved before or after the ability of motility?

According to book Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions o Evolution. (Lane, N.;2010), Motility has indeed transformed life on earth in ways that are not immediately apparent, from the ...
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Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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Among xerophyte plants, which one grow faster and consume water the least? [closed]

In an effort to select for the most suitable plants to possibly colonise desert and stop its expansion, what would be the xerophyte plants that grow the faster and expand on surface, while using the ...
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recolonize earth desert with plants : which plants first?

if willing to recolonize earth desert , let's say sahara or any dehydrated and sterile land, without intensive human intervention, what would be the first plants / algae / fungi /bacteria to grow ? ...
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Why is green fur not a thing?

In most biomes on earth, and certainly in the most densely-populated, the best camouflage color or pattern for an animal would be a variant of green, so as to blend in with the leaves and grasses of ...
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Cross-integration of puma subspecies populations

A major concern of conservationists in south Florida is the population of native Pumas, the Florida Panther. Until recently, it was thought that the Pumas were a genetically distinct subspecies, ...
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Why do rabbits often have white hindquarters?

There are several species of herbivores that have a very visible white hindquarters: several kinds of deer, rabbits, antelopes, etc. Does the white fur serve a functional purpose, or is it purely ...
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What exactly does adaptive mean?

This is a quote from Dey et al 2014: Hatching asynchrony is thought to be adaptive because... What exactly does adaptive mean here? Does it mean hatching asynchrony has fitness benefits? Or does ...