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Questions tagged [anatomy]

The study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Is the allantois considered a part of the placenta?

Is the allantois considered a part of the placenta? I know that it connects the embryo with the placenta and it eventually becomes a part of the vein in the umbilical cord.
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Average width of the male body

I've been looking for the average width (at widest point) of the average American male body but couldn't find it anywhere so far. When I say "widest point", I mean that if you draw a rectangle (that ...
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How “unique” human vagina is?

Regading penis Dixson showed that it is not really unique and complex. This argument (and there were some others) was used against the idea of human polygynandry. But what about vaginal shape? I know ...
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Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?
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There is any way to know from what animal a piece of bone came from?

On one of my recent trips i found some broken bone pieces, probably from a rabbit. Then i put myself on the mind of a paleontologist and i was curious on how could one person clasiffy bone shards, for ...
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69 views

Why are oil glands next to hairs in skin?

today I saw this picture and I saw an oil gland next to a hair. I was wondering what is the use, it came to my mind that it's to make the skin slide over the hairs while they were growing outwards. ...
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Biceps contraction

i am currently developing a mechanomyography device to read biceps muscle shortening during biceps curl. My result shows that as the weight is increased, (1.25, 2.5 and 5 kg), the muscle will shorten ...
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Do birds have quadriceps and thighs fused into their hips?

I'm looking at 3D modeling a large bird like an emu or ostrich, but I don't know how the muscles surrounding the femur connect to the hips/back. It seems weird that the entire thigh and quadriceps ...
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48 views

What does “molecular” mean in the context of anatomy, for example the molecular layer of cerebral cortex

The first apical layer of the cerebral cortex is also called as the molecular layer, I could not find the exact reason of the naming. What I found: Molecular alongside its primary meaning in ...
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49 views

Are there any anatomy books focusing on etymology?

I noticed that I can remember names for a very long time if I now their etymological background, the reason is easy I love etymology, especially when it is connected to mythology. However when I learn ...
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1answer
642 views

Ventricular Filling : Systole or Diastole?

As the Blood goes down from the Atrium to the Ventricles: The Tricuspid Valve ( Right Atrioventricular Valve) Bicuspid Valve (Mitral Valve ) The atrial pressure is INCREASES WHEN ATRIA ( THE ATRIA ...
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Is this claim about equine anatomy true?

While bumping through obscure corners of the Internet, I encountered the following image posted somewhere. The horse anus is a marvel of evolutionary biology. Like most mammals, rhythmic ...
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44 views

What does it mean for sodium and water reabsorption to be “coupled” in the nephron?

If sodium is transported across the tubule membrane down the concentration gradient established via the $Na^+$/$K^+$ exchanger via symport with glucose and antiport with hydrogen, and water is ...
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34 views

Anatomy of heart

What is an auricle and is there any similarity between auricle and ventricle or atria because in my anatomy book many times the author refer to auricle as ventricle?
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1answer
398 views

What are the max angles of human eyeball rotation?

How much can our eyeballs rotate towards the nose, away from it, towards the top and bottom?
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1k views

Why do eyes change colour after death?

Why exactly do eyes turn black when we die? (Or even change colour at all). The source of inspiration to this question is due to this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6mNs_TcUyHc&t=627s (it's ...
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1answer
67 views

Are the transverse septum in sharks and the diaphragm in mammals homologous structures?

Are the transverse septum in sharks and the diaphragm in mammals homologous structures? I have searched on Google Scholar and Web of Science, but haven't found substantial evidence to prove or ...
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1answer
42 views

What are the small lumps in the mouth of the fish, and what is its function?

Today I was performing a fish head dissection to investigate the gas exchange process in biology. Then when I opened the mouth I noticed these small hard structures at the base, I assume they may be a ...
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389 views

Are humans anotomically herbivores? If so, why do many say we are omnivores?

I'm fairly curious about whether someone can provide me with reliable sources constituting humans are omnivores, and not herbivores. I know that this might come off as stupid, ignorant, idiotic or ...
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232 views

How can paleontologists identify morphologically different fossils as members of the same species?

I recently saw a documentary about Tyrannosaurus rex, which detailed the growth stages of the dinosaur. Apparently, it underwent a huge growth spurt at around 14 years of age, growing into the massive ...
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52 views

Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
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1answer
68 views

Why did some animals evolve inward-slanted legs?

Something I noticed looking at reference images is some animals have legs that are slanted inward relative to the length of their body, like in the two images below. Why have animals evolved this ...
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How do emus/ostriches/rheas have their upper leg connected to the rest of their body?

I'm working on a model for educational graphics of an emu in conjunction with other information, but there aren't a lot of great reference images. The thing that's most unclear is how the upper leg ...
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74 views

Which word is used to indicate that a vessel is “blood-filled” during a necropsy?

I'm translating a necropsy report, and one sentence says: Синусоиды полнокровные. Портальные тракты сохранены, сосуды умеренно полнокровные. The sinusoids are plethoric. The portal tracts are ...
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1answer
36 views

Why do some insects constantly move their abdomens?

Why do some insects, such as wasps, constantly move their abdomens?
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53 views

What are these white spots surrounding this deer corpse?

This deer died near my street and I wanted to get some pictures up close, besides the foul smell of decomposition I noticed these white spots. I’ve been curious and since I would like to research what ...
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Can you tell if a corpse was male or female by only examining its skull?

There are articles that says women have more rounded corner faces than men, than women noses are usually shorter, etc. But are those (and other features) tendencies or deterministic features that ...
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3answers
67 views

How do our sensory organs work automatically without our conscious effort? [closed]

I wonder how our different sensory organs (e.g., eyes, nose, ears, etc.) work automatically without our conscious efforts or without our command. We don't have to tell our eyes how to see, our ears ...
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1answer
993 views

Ipsilateral vs contralateral side of body

I know that the dorsal columns carry ipsilateral information. Is this fact relative to the dorsal column in question? If I want to talk about the right dorsal column, then the right side of the body ...
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1answer
497 views

What is the function of the Hyoepiglottic ligament?

The hyoepiglottic ligament (ligamentum hyoepiglotticum) is an elastic band that connects the epiglottis to the hyoid bone. Although I can find information about the clinical significance of this ...
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2answers
309 views

What are the (correct) terms for these flagella-arrangements?

I came across the following diagrams depicting two kinds of arrangement of flagella over cells. Now according to my (very unreliable) school textbook, the arrangements are termed as: A - ...
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4answers
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How come large herbivores have such thin legs?

Edit: This question is very similar to this and related to this one (though the latter focuses on homology instead of scaling laws). However, the answer to this question is far more comprehensive, in ...
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2answers
1k views

Terminology for parts of the leg

Going out on a limb here (pun intended)...I'm writing a paper in which I need to refer to various sections of the human leg from upper thigh to knee to calf and ankle. However, "calf" covers a fairly ...
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Do the individual claws of a bear have names?

The question seems pretty self-explanatory (if perhaps a little odd). Anatomical names or colloquial names are both appreciated, especially the latter if they exist.
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1answer
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I need a site for online courses

I need a site which has online courses for anatomy of limb and head and neck and also embryology, so far I have used www.coursera.org and it was really organized and helpful but unfortunately it does ...
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2answers
96 views

Is it possible for a man to survive around 20 bullets? [closed]

A man was shown being able to survive after around 20 bullets shot him in a movie. The bullet cover was fairly random, but anyway, is there any possible way for a person to survive 20 bullet shots? I'...
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2answers
201 views

How do you consider an organism to be a new species? [duplicate]

How do you consider an organism to be a new species? Can a new parthenogenetic organism be considered as a new species?
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Are there predefined implantation sites in mammalian uterus?

I do surgical embryo transfer of genetically modified (microinjected) mouse embryos (at 1 or 2 cell stage). As most of the constructs are new, we expect that it may affect birth rate. In case there ...
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1answer
149 views

How are neural pathways discovered?

I have seen the spinal cord and it's a white, soft, slippery cylinder that has a small diameter (about 25-30 milimeters). It absolutely doesn't have a macroscopocally reticular texture that would ...
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What is the biggest structure in nature for structural coloration?

I'm interested in the actual sizes behind structural coloration: I find it fascinating and I think it may have a couple very nice applications. The problem is I couldn't find anything but vague ...
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1answer
416 views

What purpose do the opening(s) serve in diapsid and synapsid skulls?

Did synapsid skulls evolve from diapsid skulls or vice versa? Aditionally, do birds have diapsid skulls? The research I have done has yielded some mixed results.
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763 views

Kidney transplant and adrenal glands

When a kidney is transplanted from a donor to a recepient does the surgery occur keeping the donor's adrenal gland intact over the kidney or is the kidney minus the adrenal gland over it transplanted ...
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1answer
23 views

How much smaller is the diffusivity of a molecule in the retina as opposed to the vitreous of the eye?

I'm interested in the diffusivity of macromolecules inside the mammalian retina, relative to the vitreous. For example is the diffusion coefficient for a macromolecule (protein, 50-150 kDa for ...
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2answers
4k views

Are tendons and ligaments classified under the muscular or bone system?

Are tendons and ligaments classified under muscular system or bone system? Basically they are not bones or muscles and that's why I have doubt.
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1answer
506 views

Animals with substantial five-fold symmetry besides starfish? Any land animals?

Animals with four, six and eight legs are widespread while the concept of seven legs (fictitious Heptapods) are the makings of amazing scifi short stories and blockbuster movies. Are starfish the ...
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What structures (i.e. organs) are suspended by tensile forces?

In several areas of biomechanical literature I have read, the concept of "tensegrity" has arisen. Definitions are as follows: “The integrity of a stable structure balanced by continuous structural ...
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2answers
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Why is the heart not in the middle of the body?

All mammals that I can think of have a high degree of bilateral symmetry (In fact, almost every animal I can think of is like this). So why is the human heart not exactly in the middle of the body? ...
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Three foramen lying in one vertical plane

In the human skull we can see that 3 foramina named as supraorbital notch(foramen) , infraorbital foramen and mental foramen share a common vertical plane. Is there any surgical significance of for ...
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1answer
1k views

What is the name for the opening in the mouth for the nasal passages?

Is there a proper anatomical name for the opening in the soft palette where the nasal passages enter the mouth?
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1answer
75 views

Part of a fish outside the intestinal sac on the back?

I saw an expert Japanese chef fillet a mackerel (Scomber scombrus). He cut off the head and the whole intestinal sac came out with it as a single unit. Then he took the knife and scraped something ...