Questions tagged [anatomy]

The study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Do all vertebrates have a hypothalamus?

Since mammals and birds are warm-blooded animals, it's got me thinking whether our less-evolved vertebrate pals (reptiles in particular) have a sort of mechanism, alike to our hypothalami, that is ...
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Which animal has the smallest percentage of their body mass made up of water?

It's a "well known" and interesting "fact" that the human body is made up of "mostly water". With percentages from 65% to 90% often being repeated as if they were exact ...
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What is the thickness of the mucous, submucosal, muscular and serous membranes of the stomach wall of a piglet aged 60-75 days? (Large White pig)

There is publicly available data on the thickness of the layers of the stomach wall of piglets aged no more than 20 days. But at an early age, the thickness of the layers of the stomach wall increases ...
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Are ganglion cells in the foveal avascular zone served by choroidal blood supply or diffusion from retinal layer capillary beds?

I am trying to determine which blood supply (choroidal or retinal) serves the retinal ganglion cells that respond to foveal cone stimulation. I know that the fovea is supplied by the choroid, but it ...
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How do we determine what we call "flexion" and what we call "extension"?

Question: How did we determine which motion to call "flexion" and which to call "extension" with regard to the wrist and the neck? Background: Just to set the stage, I'm not asking ...
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Why porifera is classified to have an incomplete digestive system although it has no organs?

Why are we using the term "incomplete" for digestive system only? We could have also said that for circulatory system that it is either incomplete or present as a simple system. What I mean ...
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Is the fin of ray-finned fish live tissue or more similar to scales?

In ray-finned fishes, are what exactly are the fins made of? Is it modified skin, dead tissue like scale or nail on humans, or something completely different? Can the fin heal?
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Why is Heart Rate Recovery after exercise reasonably well described by a mono-exponential decay?

I have been measuring my heart rate recovery after exercise and I see that it can be fit reasonably well using a single exponential: $HeartRate(t) = HR_{max} \times e^{-t/\tau} + HR_{resting}$ This ...
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Vertebrae looking bone found on beach in New Zealand

I found this bone on a beach in New Zealand. Does anybody have any idea which part of the body or which animal it’s from? (click to enlarge)
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How fast does eyelid close when eyelash is triggered?

What is the reaction of blinking like when an unexpected piece of wood or something hits an eyelash and then an eyeball? A piece of stone flew into my eyeball when we knocked a wall down, and it hit ...
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Aren't tortoise bones fused with the shell? How did this tortoise (in the post) survive without it?

I've just read this story about a tortoise that lost a good portion of its shell in a forest fire here in Brazil and got a 3D-printed prostheses. Here's the picture of it: The way it looks like, it ...
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Why is it possible to render fat if it's in cells?

To the casual onlooker, fat seems like a mass of yellow-white material, composed of lipids. Biologically speaking however, rather than being a large mass, it's actually divided among countless cells, ...
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Is the central sulcus the boundary between basal and alar derivatives?

The dorsal part of the nervous system typically gives rise to sensory structures, and the ventral part gives rise to motor structures. Because the central sulcus marks such a functional boundary, I ...
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Are there regularly spaced connections between caudate nucleus and putamen?

There are a number of images on the Web, most beautifully Visible Body's artwork, which show the caudate nucleus and putamen linked by regularly spaced connections across the barrier of the internal ...
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How does the Megalodon create so much bite force?

The Megalodon is an apex predator and has a highest bite force of 40,000 psi. I found it difficult to understand how it can bite with so much force that it shatters rocks and metals. How is it's skull ...
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Is there a difference in flying technique or anatomy between birds and bats which means bats don't need a large sternum?

I know that birds have a large sternum in order to anchor the wing muscles. Bats also have wings, but don't have the same large sternum. Is there a difference in either flying technique or anatomy ...
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What is this insect wing, based on its vein pattern?

I've heard that it's possible to identify insect species uniquely based only on the vein patterns of their wings. Is this true? If so, what is this? The image is taken from an unsolved Internet ...
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Do "shooting" animals exist?

The well-known cartoon imagery of porcupines shooting their quills at opponents in a fight is just that: a silly cartoon concept that isn't real. But it makes me wonder, does that mechanism exist ...
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Is it true that oxygen levels in water limits fish size?

This answer says that breathing water is inefficient, and that may act as a limiter to the size of fish. I've heard this in a couple of other places as well, but cannot recall the sources. However, ...
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why dead mouse doesn't bleed when we cut their skin?

When we are pricked by a needle, we bleed nevertheless it's so small wound. But when we do mouse anatomy, it doesn't bleed even if we cut their whole abdominal skin. Other student asked about that, ...
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2 answers
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Do the nasal cilia move the particles trapped in the mucus out of the nose or down the throat? [closed]

Do the nasal cilia move the particles trapped in the mucus out of the nose or down the throat? What is the direction of the pulse of the cilia? Is this changeable?
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Infant tissues, organs, body parts or reflexes in an adult organism

What is the phenomenon, when a normal useful tissue, organ, body part or an inborn reflex or instinct existed in the infant organism and normally should disappear or at least completely lose its ...
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The position of the macula in comparison to the blind spot

Which is located in a higher postion? Macula or blind spot?
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Animal species anatomy [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal Do all animal species have two lungs and two kidneys similar to human beings?
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Can a hinge joint technically allow rotatory motion?

Let's use a hinge joint and pivot joint as examples. When talking about the difference between them in terms of movements permitted, I see that on any websites and textbooks, the term 'rotation' is ...
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Is there any ethnicity difference in average pupil size?

I have seen some articles claim African Americans have smaller average pupils than whites while Asians have larger pupils. Is it true? link: Y. Li, D. Huang; Pupil Size and Iris Thickness Difference ...
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Why exactly are the reflections of sunlight in this dragonfly's eye hexagonal?

I photographed a rather cooperative, large dragonfly today and after getting back to my desk and looking closer at the images I realized that the reflection of the Sun in its eyes produced large ...
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View and plane/section of neural tube

I have a question regarding the following image: In my book, it states that this is a dorsal view which shows the formation of the neural tube. However, isn't this a caudal view of a transverse ...
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Why do dragonflies have these special little spots on their wings?

The wings of several kinds of dragonflies I've seen here in Taiwan all have an apparently special little pigmented spot near the ends of each wing. Does this spot have a name and a function? below x2: ...
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What exactly is "lateral septum"?

I came across the phrase lateral septum and I can't seem to find the precise definition online. Is it "the areas roughly to the right and the left of the septum pellucidum"? Or is it the ...
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What's the difference between the terms "muscle" and "muscle organ"?

Foundational Model of Anatomy distinguishes between Muscle organ and Muscle. What's the difference between the two?
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Can the shoulder bones grow after the growth plates have fused?

Body builders have broad shoulders. If one start lifting weights after one's growth plates have fused, can one still increase the width of one's shoulders? If yes, does that mean shoulder bones can ...
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In what ways does the number of legs affect an animal's functioning?

After much research, I've only been able to find specific examples of leg-number's impact on locomotion and dexterity (and/or object manipulation). I feel as though there must be other ways it has a ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the function of epiglottis?

The last time I came across this question was when I was in high school. And the explanation I was given is that epiglottis works like a valve, it prevents foods from getting into the windpipe. Still, ...
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8 votes
1 answer
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Is the 6th rib attached to 7th rib, and 7th rib to 8th?

I'm just confused between a lot of pics that draw the thoracic cage in their way. what are these white things that I've shown? or why the 7th rib is attached to the 8th?
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Why do vertebrates have an oesophagus?

As far as I know, the oesophagus in vertebrates has no digestive or absorptive function. It is simply a conduit from the mouth to more distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Why have it at all, ...
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How can a joint extend or flex?

The idea of a joint flexing or extending doesn't make sense to me, I can see how a leg or an arm might extend or flex but how does a joint extend or flex ? "The hip joint is most stable when it is ...
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Do endocrine cells always lie adjacent to capillaries?

The circulatory system transports plasma contents to the body via the interstitial circulatory system, reabsorbed with the lymphatic system. Cell metabolism "waste products" are transported into the ...
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Why is the thyroid gland in the neck?

The neck seems like an odd place for it. All other neck anatomy must interface between the head and abdomen (trachea, esophagus, circulation, spine etc). Surprisingly I have not been able to find ...
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Origins of the body mechanics theory

In physical therapy and occasionally in sports coaching, there's often a precise description of the mechanics of what happens during the movement (which muscles are engaged, which joint moves where ...
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Can a Chihuahua and a Great Dane breed the "old fashioned way?"

I saw this vid: https://youtu.be/eu2qe-FNtjg And this question crossed my mind. The dog in the video seems to be boxer sized... And I wonder if that strategy would work with something a little ...
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Is there a conformal transformation that maps the skull of Panthera tigris to the one of Panthera leo?

While visiting the Museum of Natural History in Rouen a few months ago, I was stunned by the similarity between the skulls of Panthera tigris and Panthera Leo: the overall shapes were very similar and ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What are the upper and lower sets of teeth are called?

I'd like to know the correct term for the a group of teeth in the skull and jax (mandible) Not the specific types of teeth i.e molars, incisors, carnassials, canines etc but what a set of teeth get ...
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4 votes
1 answer
189 views

True anatomical/physiological explanation for "metaphysis" etymology

The anatomy textbook1 I use for my students states that the prefix meta- means "between:" The metaphyses (me-TAF-i-sez; meta = between; singular is metaphysis) are the regions between the diaphysis ...
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2 answers
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Evolution of recurrent laryngeal nerve in a giraffe [closed]

Do natural selection and survival of the fittest explain the divergent length of the recurrent laryngeal nerve...centimeters in the human, 15 feet in the giraffe?
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2 answers
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What fills the space between the alveoli in the lungs?

Do the lungs just consist of a large tree of alveoli, covered by the pleura, like this picture: Or are they found "inside" the sac that is the lungs? If it's the later, what fills the space ...
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Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
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2 votes
1 answer
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What are the differences between the margins of the lateral and medial condyles of the tibia?

During an osteology lecture about the bones of the leg, the professor mentioned that the posterior (i think it was the posterior at least, I didn't write my notes down very well) margins of the ...
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What causes the shape of the dense structure in this "giant squid egg" sac?

The YouTube video Swimming Next To Giant Squid Egg shows a giant egg of a squid and/or an egg of a giant squid. Text in the video's description includes the text quoted below, which indicates that the ...
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is there any kind of paw/pads lines or paw muscle anatomy in animal hands?

just like in the title my question is, is there any kind of paw/pads lines or paw muscle anatomy in animal hands? or its pretty much random? example like mammary lines as bilateral structure that ...
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