Questions tagged [anatomy]

The study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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2answers
62 views

Evolution of recurrent laryngeal nerve in a giraffe [closed]

Do natural selection and survival of the fittest explain the divergent length of the recurrent laryngeal nerve...centimeters in the human, 15 feet in the giraffe?
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2answers
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What fills the space between the alveoli in the lungs?

Do the lungs just consist of a large tree of alveoli, covered by the pleura, like this picture: Or are they found "inside" the sac that is the lungs? If it's the later, what fills the space in-...
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Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
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1answer
47 views

Why do insects move so differently than land animals?

Why do the fastest insects have 6 legs instead of 2 or 4? Why don't any trot or gallop like a cheetah, for instance? I know that if a... cheetah were scaled down to the size of a tiger beatle, it ...
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Why PCT stains darker than DCT?

Both PCT and DCT have Simple cuboidal epithelium in then, but PCT also has microvilli . But why do they stain differently. In histology slides PCT stains darker than DCT can anyone explain why ?
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1answer
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What are the differences between the margins of the lateral and medial condyles of the tibia?

During an osteology lecture about the bones of the leg, the professor mentioned that the posterior (i think it was the posterior at least, I didn't write my notes down very well) margins of the ...
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20 views

Does any tendon in humans receive a high amount of blood supply? Or is the property of not receiving a large blood supply a constant across tendons?

I read on https://www.physiocomestoyou.co.uk/blog/all-you-need-to-know-about-tendons/ (mirror): [Tendons] do not have a large blood supply. Does any tendon in the human body receive a high amount ...
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is there any kind of paw/pads lines or paw muscle anatomy in animal hands?

just like in the title my question is, is there any kind of paw/pads lines or paw muscle anatomy in animal hands? or its pretty much random? example like mammary lines as bilateral structure that ...
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How much does Scolopendra gigantea weigh?

For somewhat understandable reasons, most references I've found related to "size" of Scolopendra gigantea, and centipedes in general, seem to focus on length. There are numerous sites, blogs, etc., ...
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Medical terminology for asymmetrically-shaped paired body parts?

Some people have different sized feet [source], a limb that is slightly longer than the contralateral (on other side of the body) limb [source], or other instances of paired body parts being different ...
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Is medullary cavity totally absent in clavicle?

In one of my books it said that medullary cavity is totally absent in clavicle but is it completely true ? One of my teachers said only the medial 2/3 of clavicle has a medullary cavity.
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1answer
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Can anyone help me identify the size of a mantis shrimp club?

The mantis shrimp punches with it's club to destroy its prey's shell. I found on the internet that its body size is around 4 inches. What's the size of it's club?
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1answer
109 views

Do male skunks have teats?

Simple question. Do male skunks (striped skunk, eastern US/Canada if it matters) have teats? Occasionally want to identify road-kill, but don't know if teats are diagnostic for females. I believe ...
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(How) do horizontal pupils dialate?

I was looking at mongoose eyes in particular, but my understanding is: Circular (human-like) pupils simply get larger/smaller depending on light levels, no change in "shape" Vertical slit (cat-like) ...
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1answer
96 views

Can birds touch their wing tips together either in front or behind (not above and below)? [closed]

Can the tips of a birds wings touch so that it would form a ring if view from above or below? I suspect it might be a bird of prey and at the moment it is picking something up from the ground but I ...
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103 views

Movement of the Thoracic Cage During Movements of the Thoracic Spine

Just for a bit of context: I am trying to create a 3D digital model of the human skeleton as the first step towards computer generated muscle simulation, and as such I want the skeleton to be as ...
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28 views

For each movement performed by both the gluteus minimus and medius, what percentage of the movement do the gluteus minimus and medius account for?

From what I read on Wikipedia, all functions of the gluteus minimus are mirrored by the gluteus medius. Additionally, the gluteus medius is larger than the gluteus minimus (see comparative images here)...
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1answer
41 views

Does a full tear of the gluteus minimus tendon result in a long-lasting inflammatory response?

Does a full tear of the gluteus minimus tendon result in a long-lasting inflammatory response? This answer mentions: An isolated gluteus minimus tear still causes functional problems because of ...
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1answer
42 views

Does a full tear of the gluteus minimus tendon has any functional implications?

From what I read on Wikipedia, all functions of the gluteus minimus are mirrored by the gluteus medius. Additionally, the gluteus medius is larger than the gluteus minimus (see comparative images here)...
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1answer
41 views

How many different states can the femur and lower limb be in?

Often the knee can be thought of as a hinge joint. However, when it flexes, the knee permits the lower leg to rotate. So it is not a pure hinge joint in absolute sense because it permits more range of ...
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Where can I find the list of all tendons in the human body?

https://www.healthcentral.com/article/aging-can-take-major-toll-on-womens-tendons (mirror) claims that: There are about 4,000 tendons throughout the body. This claim is echoed by a fair amount of ...
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Can anyone identify this bone?

Can anyone identify this bone. It's 12 inches long and 3 inches wide. Thanks for the help.
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1answer
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What's the subpatellar tendon?

I read in Thomas Myers book Anatomy Trains: Although the muscles themselves have attachments within the anterior compartment to the tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane, the next station ...
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Is occipital ridge a synonym for the inferior nuchal line?

I'm reading different sources about anatomy and it seems to me like occipital ridge is a synonym for the inferior nuchal line but I'm not sure. Is it, or does the term occipital ridge refer to a ...
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Why different people have different Sympathetic reaction

We all know that sympathetic mechanism is similiar in humans . Why people react differently for example one may ran after seeing a lion while other may keep standing or may shout without escaping ?
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Ink blue molds/fungi/dermatophytes

Which of the above has naturally ink blue hyphae? Are there any that make both Ochratoxin A and fumononis toxin and have hyphae that color?
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What soft tissue separates bones of toes?

I need to know a little about the "knuckles" of toes; specifically the 4 areas that separate the 5 proximal/metatarsal joins. I'd like to know the terms for areas that might be damaged if the width ...
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2answers
172 views

How is breathing involuntary if the muscles that control it are skeletal?

How is breathing involuntary if the muscles that control it are skeletal? Breathing is involuntary. However, the muscles that control it are skeletal: intercostal muscles and the diaphragm. Are there ...
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3answers
199 views

Why do our bodies maintain blood pressure but not the flow rate?

This might be a silly question but i'm not not clear I'm always told that blood pressure is homeostatic parameter and can't not be changed but isn't what important is the flow rate to the organs? ...
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1answer
96 views

Is there an adjective I can use to describe body parts like hands, feet, eyes, and ears that exist on both sides of the body's sagittal plane?

Body parts like human hands, feet, ears, eyes, etc. exist on either side of the human body's sagittal plane and can therefore be specified with the adjectives left and right. Is there a special ...
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1answer
133 views

How are fingerprints formed?

I know what influences the fingerprints to be unique always. But what actually process is taken to make these as we grow?
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1answer
468 views

Why does sympathetic activity constrict pulmonary vessels?

I don't know understand why sympathetic stimulation constricts pulmonary vessels? I thought that the sympathetic nervous system activated the body for physical activity. Physical activity would need ...
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1answer
72 views

Is the mesenterium a synonym for the mesocolon?

On biodigital anatomy browser I found a structure called the mesocolon. I didn't find the term in Uberon and I'm unclear whether it's simply a synonym for mesenterium or whether it's a separate ...
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1answer
332 views

What does 'proper' mean in the anatomical context?

I've seen the word 'proper' in websites, lectures, etc., in the context of human anatomy. But I'm unsure as to what its definition is. For example, the 'oral cavity proper'.
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699 views

Average width of the male body

I've been looking for the average width (at widest point) of the average American male body but couldn't find it anywhere so far. When I say "widest point", I mean that if you draw a rectangle (that ...
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How “unique” human vagina is?

Regading penis Dixson showed that it is not really unique and complex. This argument (and there were some others) was used against the idea of human polygynandry. But what about vaginal shape? I know ...
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1answer
39 views

Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?
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Do birds have quadriceps and thighs fused into their hips?

I'm looking at 3D modeling a large bird like an emu or ostrich, but I don't know how the muscles surrounding the femur connect to the hips/back. It seems weird that the entire thigh and quadriceps ...
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50 views

What does “molecular” mean in the context of anatomy, for example the molecular layer of cerebral cortex

The first apical layer of the cerebral cortex is also called as the molecular layer, I could not find the exact reason of the naming. What I found: Molecular alongside its primary meaning in ...
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1answer
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Are there any anatomy books focusing on etymology?

I noticed that I can remember names for a very long time if I now their etymological background, the reason is easy I love etymology, especially when it is connected to mythology. However when I learn ...
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1answer
2k views

Ventricular Filling : Systole or Diastole?

As the Blood goes down from the Atrium to the Ventricles: The Tricuspid Valve ( Right Atrioventricular Valve) Bicuspid Valve (Mitral Valve ) The atrial pressure is INCREASES WHEN ATRIA ( THE ATRIA ...
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Is this claim about equine anatomy true?

While bumping through obscure corners of the Internet, I encountered the following image posted somewhere. The horse anus is a marvel of evolutionary biology. Like most mammals, rhythmic ...
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What does it mean for sodium and water reabsorption to be “coupled” in the nephron?

If sodium is transported across the tubule membrane down the concentration gradient established via the $Na^+$/$K^+$ exchanger via symport with glucose and antiport with hydrogen, and water is ...
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1answer
1k views

What are the max angles of human eyeball rotation?

How much can our eyeballs rotate towards the nose, away from it, towards the top and bottom?
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1answer
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Why do eyes change colour after death?

Why exactly do eyes turn black when we die? (Or even change colour at all). The source of inspiration to this question is due to this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6mNs_TcUyHc&t=627s (it's ...
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1answer
148 views

Are the transverse septum in sharks and the diaphragm in mammals homologous structures?

Are the transverse septum in sharks and the diaphragm in mammals homologous structures? I have searched on Google Scholar and Web of Science, but haven't found substantial evidence to prove or ...
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1answer
130 views

What are the small lumps in the mouth of the fish, and what is its function?

Today I was performing a fish head dissection to investigate the gas exchange process in biology. Then when I opened the mouth I noticed these small hard structures at the base, I assume they may be a ...
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1answer
288 views

How can paleontologists identify morphologically different fossils as members of the same species?

I recently saw a documentary about Tyrannosaurus rex, which detailed the growth stages of the dinosaur. Apparently, it underwent a huge growth spurt at around 14 years of age, growing into the massive ...
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1answer
66 views

Who were “Dawson and Wilson” (mentioned as authors of an embryonic postmortem examination method)?

A sentence from a Russian text I'm translating: Following the drug administration period, the pregnant animals were euthanized in order to examine the embryos using the method developed by Dawson ...
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1answer
73 views

Why did some animals evolve inward-slanted legs?

Something I noticed looking at reference images is some animals have legs that are slanted inward relative to the length of their body, like in the two images below. Why have animals evolved this ...