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Questions tagged [anatomy]

The study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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1answer
3k views

Ipsilateral vs contralateral side of body

I know that the dorsal columns carry ipsilateral information. Is this fact relative to the dorsal column in question? If I want to talk about the right dorsal column, then the right side of the body ...
4
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1answer
1k views

What is the function of the Hyoepiglottic ligament?

The hyoepiglottic ligament (ligamentum hyoepiglotticum) is an elastic band that connects the epiglottis to the hyoid bone. Although I can find information about the clinical significance of this ...
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2answers
937 views

What are the (correct) terms for these flagella-arrangements?

I came across the following diagrams depicting two kinds of arrangement of flagella over cells. Now according to my (very unreliable) school textbook, the arrangements are termed as: A - ...
57
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4answers
13k views

How come large herbivores have such thin legs?

Edit: This question is very similar to this and related to this one (though the latter focuses on homology instead of scaling laws). However, the answer to this question is far more comprehensive, in ...
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2answers
3k views

Terminology for parts of the leg

Going out on a limb here (pun intended)...I'm writing a paper in which I need to refer to various sections of the human leg from upper thigh to knee to calf and ankle. However, "calf" covers a fairly ...
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1answer
29 views

Do the individual claws of a bear have names?

The question seems pretty self-explanatory (if perhaps a little odd). Anatomical names or colloquial names are both appreciated, especially the latter if they exist.
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1answer
27 views

I need a site for online courses

I need a site which has online courses for anatomy of limb and head and neck and also embryology, so far I have used www.coursera.org and it was really organized and helpful but unfortunately it does ...
-3
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2answers
104 views

Is it possible for a man to survive around 20 bullets? [closed]

A man was shown being able to survive after around 20 bullets shot him in a movie. The bullet cover was fairly random, but anyway, is there any possible way for a person to survive 20 bullet shots? I'...
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2answers
718 views

How do you consider an organism to be a new species? [duplicate]

How do you consider an organism to be a new species? Can a new parthenogenetic organism be considered as a new species?
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0answers
223 views

Are there predefined implantation sites in mammalian uterus?

I do surgical embryo transfer of genetically modified (microinjected) mouse embryos (at 1 or 2 cell stage). As most of the constructs are new, we expect that it may affect birth rate. In case there ...
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1answer
218 views

How are neural pathways discovered?

I have seen the spinal cord and it's a white, soft, slippery cylinder that has a small diameter (about 25-30 milimeters). It absolutely doesn't have a macroscopocally reticular texture that would ...
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0answers
49 views

What is the biggest structure in nature for structural coloration?

I'm interested in the actual sizes behind structural coloration: I find it fascinating and I think it may have a couple very nice applications. The problem is I couldn't find anything but vague ...
2
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1answer
731 views

What purpose do the opening(s) serve in diapsid and synapsid skulls?

Did synapsid skulls evolve from diapsid skulls or vice versa? Aditionally, do birds have diapsid skulls? The research I have done has yielded some mixed results.
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0answers
1k views

Kidney transplant and adrenal glands

When a kidney is transplanted from a donor to a recepient does the surgery occur keeping the donor's adrenal gland intact over the kidney or is the kidney minus the adrenal gland over it transplanted ...
1
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1answer
26 views

How much smaller is the diffusivity of a molecule in the retina as opposed to the vitreous of the eye?

I'm interested in the diffusivity of macromolecules inside the mammalian retina, relative to the vitreous. For example is the diffusion coefficient for a macromolecule (protein, 50-150 kDa for ...
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2answers
7k views

Are tendons and ligaments classified under the muscular or bone system?

Are tendons and ligaments classified under the muscular system or the bone system? Basically they are not bones or muscles and that's why I have doubt.
3
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1answer
745 views

Animals with substantial five-fold symmetry besides starfish? Any land animals?

Animals with four, six and eight legs are widespread while the concept of seven legs (fictitious Heptapods) are the makings of amazing scifi short stories and blockbuster movies. Are starfish the ...
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0answers
62 views

What structures (i.e. organs) are suspended by tensile forces?

In several areas of biomechanical literature I have read, the concept of "tensegrity" has arisen. Definitions are as follows: “The integrity of a stable structure balanced by continuous structural ...
78
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2answers
23k views

Why is the heart not in the middle of the body?

All mammals that I can think of have a high degree of bilateral symmetry (In fact, almost every animal I can think of is like this). So why is the human heart not exactly in the middle of the body? ...
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0answers
875 views

Three foramen lying in one vertical plane

In the human skull we can see that 3 foramina named as supraorbital notch(foramen) , infraorbital foramen and mental foramen share a common vertical plane. Is there any surgical significance of for ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the name for the opening in the mouth for the nasal passages?

Is there a proper anatomical name for the opening in the soft palette where the nasal passages enter the mouth?
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1answer
97 views

Part of a fish outside the intestinal sac on the back?

I saw an expert Japanese chef fillet a mackerel (Scomber scombrus). He cut off the head and the whole intestinal sac came out with it as a single unit. Then he took the knife and scraped something ...
2
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1answer
367 views

Why do herring have fine bones

Most fish have largish bones which support the core muscles. Around the abdomen, they act as a sort of framework protecting the organs. With herring, the bones are really fine: almost thread like ...
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1answer
916 views

Can frogs see clearly under and above water?

If humans attempt to see underwater, the image is blurred due to refractive differences in air and water that disrupt the normal refractive effect of the lens in the eye. A diving mask overcomes this ...
6
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1answer
103 views

When is an anatomic entity named “laterale” vs. “lateralis”?

I'm trying to learn the latin names of anatomical entities and I have a hard time remembering whether it's "Os cuneiforme laterale" or "Os cuneiforme lateralis". In that case it's "laterale". But in ...
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1answer
5k views

Coracoid vs. Coronoid - Etymology/Naming Choice?

The word coracoid (e.g., coracoid process of scapula) literally means "resembling a crow/raven" or "of the form of a crow/raven." In this case, I assume, resembling the hooked characteristic of a ...
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2answers
3k views

Is C. elegans always observed with precisely 302 neurons? Are there ever individual viable exceptions?

This answer mentions that the C. elegans hermaphrodite has exactly 302 distinct neurons. This has made it a very effective model for a variety of types of biological research, including neurology and ...
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1answer
23k views

What is the difference between transverse section and longitudinal section? [closed]

Can anyone explain the difference between transverse and longitudinal section? Or are they the same?
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0answers
59 views

Prehistoric fossils [closed]

I have found very old seashell fossils (clamps) on a hill. They may be as old as a million years. Who can tell me how old they may be looking the pictures shown.
3
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1answer
4k views

Explanation for hyenas asymmetric legs length

Hyenas seem to have disproportionately short hind legs. It may be the opposite, maybe the front ones lengthened to raise their heads even higher than their already long necks do. In any case, this ...
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0answers
369 views

How is the Force of Contraction Applied to the Tendons by the Muscle's Individual Fibers?

Image and question have been updated for clarity! The image above is a side view of a semi-transparent skeletal muscle. The dark red lines represent individual fibers, the blue lines represent ...
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0answers
46 views

Correctly depicting spider anatomy

First off, my specific query: When depicting a spider - be it in a picture or in textual/verbal description - should the chelicerae be always be placed so that they project outwards from the ventral ...
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2answers
12k views

Why do we have more sweat glands in our palms?

Why is it that we have more sweat glands in areas such as the palms of our hands and the soles of our feet? I just learned that there are more there but I am curious as to why that is.
7
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1answer
3k views

For fish, does a bony skeleton have any advantages over a cartilage skeleton?

I have learned that two important lineages of fish are the bony fishes (Osteichthyes) and the cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes). Many websites mention an advantage of the cartilaginous skeletons ...
1
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1answer
96 views

Phronima sedentaria anatomy

I would like to know how many appendages the arthropod Phronima sedentaria has, and how they are arranged. It's not hard to find picture references, but Phronima's transparency makes it difficult to ...
4
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1answer
51 views

What happens if the Nematode epidermis becomes damaged?

This animal has a hydrostatic skeleton which lets it move. If we damage the epidermis and fluids come out, can the nematode still move ?
2
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1answer
14k views

What is the cell matrix?

What is the matrix in the cell, and how does it connect cells together? I read about this in my textbook. I know that a matrix is the material (or tissue) that connects other cells together. My ...
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2answers
72 views

Isolating the vasculature of an organ?

Is there a chemical or process that would dissolve or remove all other tissues in an organ and leave all the vasculature intact? I am planning to make a shelf display of the blood vessels in the heart ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Does human skeletal muscle fascia grow new additional collagen in response to increases in skeletal muscle size?

For example, if a human skeletal muscle is growing repeatedly due to periodic weightlifting, does the fascia eventually respond to the increasing volume by growing more quantities of collagen or other ...
2
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0answers
729 views

Does the humeroradial joint move medially/laterally?

The humeroradial joint is a ball-and-socket joint that, if unrestricted, would allow for movement around all possible axes. However (as succinctly stated from Wikipedia): the annular ligament, by ...
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2answers
5k views

Using anatomical terms for human organs and parts of plants

I know how to apply anatomical directional terms (e.g., dorsal/ventral, anterior/posterior, etc.) for animals as a whole (bipeds and quadrupeds). Recently, I've been studying plant physiology, and I ...
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1answer
106 views

Do mucous membranes surround visceral organs?

Wikipedia claims that: A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and surrounds internal organs. The first part of that sentence is clearly accurate, but I ...
8
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1answer
71k views

Dorsal vs Posterior and Ventral vs Anterior

From prior reading, I thought that Dorsal is the same as Posterior and Ventral is the same as Anterior. However, when I checked in google images for these anatomical terms for a horse (just to ...
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2answers
218 views

Cells in tissues

Tissue (biology): In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells from the same origin that together ...
3
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1answer
85 views

How does horse extract the energy to needs from a relatively small digestive system?

Recently I saw Inside nature's gaints episode on horse, and was fascinated about its internal organisation. And my question is that they have a very large lungs to accommodate, but a relatively ...
0
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1answer
890 views

Are tergo-sternal muscles of cockroach involved in blood circulation?

Tergosternal muscles help in the blood circulation in a cockroach as well as in movement of the wings for flying. I came across a question that claims that these muscles are used in blood circulation ...
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0answers
42 views

Is the enteric nervous system found only in vertebrates?

The enteric nervous system is distinguished by being autonomous from the central nervous system and capable of independent action, such as the peristaltic reflex. For this reason the the intestines ...
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0answers
677 views

What makes the hepatic portal vein unique?

What makes the hepatic portal vein unique?, is it because it begins and ends with capillaries or because it carries digested food.
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1answer
4k views

What is the rest state for eyelids - Open or Closed?

If one were to not apply any efforts on the eyelid muscles, will they remain open or closed? In movies when we see a person die, either case could happen - their eyelids could be open or closed when ...
2
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0answers
142 views

Has any animal ever had a rotating part?

Outside of microscopic structures (I'm thinking of a flagellum, which I think is a true motor) has any animal evolved a part that continually rotates compared to the rest of its body?