Questions tagged [antibody]

A protein produced by the B-cells of the immune system which binds to a particular antigen, a foreign substance to the body.

0
votes
0answers
7 views

Why are we unable to fully utilize abzymes in biological studies and pharmaceutical industries?

Abzymes are specific antibody molecules that may function as potential catalysts for several biological reactions because of the similarity of antibody-substrate complex formed to that of enzyme-...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

Can the body always find the right antibodies?

If the body produces random antibodies in order to fight a virus, is there a small chance that the specific antibody needed to fight the virus just won't be randomly generated? Even though it is a ...
-1
votes
1answer
25 views

Can monoclonal antibodies work only if the target of it is located in the cell's surface?

Can monoclonal antibodies work only if the target of it is located in the cell's surface? or it can be used to targeting a protein located inside the cell?
1
vote
0answers
27 views

What is the advantage of producing IgY bird's antibody instead of IgG? [closed]

Usually IgG antibodies are produced in mice. What is the advantage of producing IgY bird's antibody instead of IgG?
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Re-stain slice using a different secondary antibody?

I stained a free-floating ~300uM brian slice using 4 different 1º antibodies (rabbit, chick, mouse, rat). For the mouse primary, I mistakenly used an Alexa-350 secondary, when I should have used 594. ...
1
vote
2answers
135 views

What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

PU.1 ChIP-grade antibody

We have been using a ChIP-grade antibody for PU.1 ChIP-seq (human/mouse) from Santa Cruz that has now been discontinued. Has anyone a current and hands-on-based (...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

How are primary monoclonal antibodies for screening mutant cells made, physically?

I'm working with a fairly common protein expressed in a large numbers of organisms, let's say a keratin-associated beta-protein. I'm trying to develop a process which requires primary-secondary ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Are there multiple IgY subclasses?

I know that there are several subclasses of IgG, but can't track down anything on whether or not IgY similarly has subclasses.
2
votes
1answer
381 views

Can multiple antibodies bind the same antigen?

Given the size difference between small molecule antigens and antibodies is it ever possible for multiple antibodies to bind to the same antigen if they recognize different domains on that antigen? ...
3
votes
0answers
48 views

Antibody staining

I am staining tissue sections and I did a mistake, I was supposed to have mixed 3 primary antibodies but I stained only with one of them. After the 1h incubation I washed 10 min with PBS and then I ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

How to know which residues belong to the variable or constant regions of a Fab (fragment antibody)?

I have a fragment of antibody (Fab) structure, and I know its amino acid sequences of its heavy chain and light chain. As each chain of Fab can be divided into variable and constant regions, how can I ...
15
votes
2answers
5k views

Is antivenom fatal?

Antivenom is used for curing snake bites. Is it fatal when used without being bitten by a snake?
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Why does Anti-A antibodies make type-A blood type clump?

A-type blood has B-antibodies; it also clumps anti-A antibodies are inserted. Why is that? The blood has no antibodies against the A-antibodies to make clump in this way.
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Number of different clones of B lymphocytes

My professor told us that there are about a million different B cells based on their surface receptor. I have read that we have about 30000 genes in all. Since receptors are proteins how do these ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Do antibodies to an arbovirus in a bloodmeal reduce vector competence?

When we conduct mosquito infection studies we typically mix blood and virus rather than using viraemic blood from naturally infected hosts. I'm looking for a paper I read some years ago which ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

How does antibody structure relate to function? [closed]

I know that antibodies have 2 binding sites (as Y shape) so they can bind to 2 pathogens for agglutination. They have a hinge, heavy and light chains, constant and variable sections on these chains. ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

IgA-s in an immune system vaccined intramuscularly against Hepatisis A

As IgA are immunoglobulins associated with secretion and mucosis membranes, I am interested whether after intramuscular vaccination with Hepatitis A vaccine IgA antibodies will be produced by the ...
6
votes
2answers
192 views

What do memory cells actually do?

So I know that memory cells "remember" the most efficient way to kill a pathogen should it show up again... but what is the mechanism by which memory cells become activated by the second contact with ...
1
vote
2answers
158 views

How do I name a binding antibody? “Binding antibody to”, “binding antibody against”, or “anti-[antigen] binding antibody”?

I'm translating a text that describes how an immunogenicity of a drug is measured by assaying the levels of binding antibodies to the drug. Or is it "against the drug"? I'm wondering how to name these ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Will a sandwich assay work with a GST 26 antibody/protein?

I have a GST 26 kda antibody, and want to use it in a sandwich lateral flow assay. Are there enough epitope regions for both antibodies to bind to the protein?
0
votes
2answers
42 views

Will a polyclonal antibody attach to proteins of different kDA?

If I have a GST 26kDa polyclonal antibody, will it bind to the GST 28kDa protein as well?
5
votes
2answers
333 views

How do scientists discover a new antigen and its epitope?

I've found some database on the internet that list all discovered antigens and their epitopes. So how do scientists discover a new antigen? Do they try to inject them into the body to see if it ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Detect which antigen binds to IgE

Assume that a patient has chronic hives (itchy) on the skin. I understand that he has an antigen, which binds to IgE and eventually triggers histamine release, causing an allergic reaction. So is ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

Rationale behind washing off unbound protein antigen in indirect ELISA

My question is with regards to the usability of the indirect ELISA in measuring protein concentration. Suppose we want to quantify the concentration of a protein. The indirect ELISA method would ...
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Difference between ‘tagging’ and ‘conjugating’ a fluorochrome to an antibody?

The Wikipedia entry on fluorescence repeatedly states that “a fluorochrome must be tagged or conjugated to the antibody”. How is tagged or conjugated different? Is this a mistake or are these indeed ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

How can antibodies in rapid antibody tests be kept at room temperature without denaturing?

The normal temperature for long term antibody storage is around -20 degrees Celsius. However, when developed into rapid antibody tests, they can be kept at room temperature for prolonged periods. How ...
5
votes
1answer
95 views

Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
2
votes
0answers
45 views

Does the saliva of a person just recovered from an infectious disease help to cure another persons having the same disease?

I have always had this 'weird' thought (But could never quite test it...). Would the saliva of a just recovered person contains antibodies, or other immuno-boosting substances that can help fight off ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

About sandwich ELISA

In sandwich ELISA the Fc region of primary antibody bind to the polystyrene coated well. But what are the specific interactions (like 'hydrophobic interaction' or 'van der waals force') happen between ...
1
vote
1answer
816 views

How does our body produce new antibodies?

My professor said that in human body nearly 10$^9$-10$^1$$^2$ antibodies are produced by VDJ recombination and all the antigens that a person encounters in his lifetime are dealt by antibodies ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

How are antibodies extracted from donor blood?

When blood is donated, the antibodies within it are extracted, but how exactly do they do it? How do they take out the antibodies within the blood, what process do they go through?
3
votes
1answer
39 views

After getting fully vaccinated for HBV why does the antiHBs titer last for so long?

When a newborn child is fully vaccinated with HBV and let's assume he's responsive, his antiHBs titers will be high. But since the antigenic stimulus is withdrawn, shouldn't the titre fall to nill in ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

What is the use of an antibody that is non-neutralizing?

When we generally speak of the immune response to viral infections, we talk of neutralising antibodies. These are antibodies that can neutralise the effect of the virus and reduce its load. My ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Meaning of “Antibody is 50% w/w pure of interfering proteins”

From Google Patents, "Preparing antibodies from cho cell cultures for conjugation": An isolated antibody or ADC is typically at least 50% w/w pure of interfering proteins and other contaminants ...
0
votes
2answers
645 views

Does denaturing proteins lead to loss of epitopes?

I am doing an experiment where I have to do both Immunohistochemistry and SDS-PAGE. I am assuming that the native conformation of the protein is maintained in the IHC. But during the blot, we heat the ...
1
vote
1answer
676 views

What is the rationale behind IgM being the default antibody?

I know that the$\ C _\mu $ gene appears first in line for class switching and hence the IgM is the default antibody. But what is the rationale for it being so? There must be some advantage (...
1
vote
0answers
84 views

Using only one antibody to detect COX-2 enzyme

If I wanted to detect COX-2 from a western blot test, would only a primary antibody work? I'm on a budget so does anyone know of relatively cheap COX-2 antibodies?
4
votes
3answers
2k views

B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
3
votes
1answer
680 views

What is A in IgA? [duplicate]

What is the significance of letter A in immunoglobulinA? What are the significance of other letters D, M , G, E in diffeternt types of antibodies?
0
votes
1answer
372 views

Blood antigens and immune response

In my textbook, the definition of an antigen is written as follows: Antigen: A substance that the body recognises as foreign and that can evoke an immune response The following image also confused ...
3
votes
2answers
101 views

Can ELISA be used to detect a plant enzyme? Creating assay for a new enzyme

If the goal is to generate a rapid assay for an enzyme of plant source what are the typical options? i.e. Could one do something like: Generate an antibody to the enzyme and then use it to create an ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Why does the blood not clump and result in death?

In this question's accepted answer, it is said that the blood type will slowly change to that of the donor's. When the blood in the person is about 50% his own and 50% that of the donor's. i.e, 50% A ...
2
votes
1answer
755 views

ADCs: by what mechanism are antibodies internalised [closed]

I read that ADCs (Antibody-Drug Conjugates) act by a -mab for a particular target being bonded to a cytotoxic compound. From my high-school-with-crayons knowledge of antibodies, however, one part of ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
1
vote
1answer
1k views

Is a variable domain in immunoglobulin's heavy chain different from the one in light chain?

I guess yes, there is difference in amino acid sequences of $V_L$ and $V_H$. And so we have 6 different complementarity determining regions (CDRs) per monomeric immunoglobulin as two heavy chains are ...
7
votes
1answer
579 views

How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
2
votes
1answer
429 views

What is the attacking mechanism of RF on IgG?

Rheumatoid Factor (RF) attacks Fc portion of Immunoglobulin G (IgG), I want to know the underlying mechanism at molecular level. Also, what type of bond or attachment is made by RF and Fc portion of ...
3
votes
1answer
298 views

Purpose of antibody wash

It is common practice after surface staining cells for flow cytometry analysis to wash the antibody out of solution before analyzing a sample. I have tried analysis with and without washing the ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

Why a repeat wasp sting cause an anaphylaxis shock?

I understand that an anaphylaxis shock caused by a huge dose of histamine. But why the first sting does not cause an anaphylaxis shock like the second sting? As i think there may be a relevant between ...