Questions tagged [antibody]

A protein produced by the B-cells of the immune system which binds to a particular antigen, a foreign substance to the body.

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Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system?

Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system? Enzymes like pepsin have been found to be present in infant's digestive system(1). Though the pH in the ...
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Can I use fluorophore conjugated antibody as neutralizing antibody?

I need to order a neutralizing antibody to block a protein of interest. The pure grade functioning antibody (no conjugates) is substantially more expensive than the fluorophore conjugatated ones. Can ...
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Are all antibodies against a common antigen identical? [duplicate]

I understand that when some antigen (e.g., virus, bacteria, etc.) is recognized in the body, antibodies specific to this antigen are produced that, in turn, bind to the antigen and effectively ...
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Why are antibodies Y-shaped?

I generally know how antibodies work by binding to antigens, but what is the specific purpose to being Y-shaped, as opposed to any other shape? Does this aid their function? Thank you.
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How does the choice of blood draw site influence the possible specificity of a serological test?

The news has reported that a new serological test for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies has received an emergency use authorization from the FDA, and notably has a higher specificity than ...
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How does antigen excess prevent capture and detection antibodies from sandwiching antigens?

The illustrations on Wikipedia don't explain. If antigen excess and high analyte concentration saturate capture and detection antibodies, then wouldn't just fewer immune complexes be agglutinated? How ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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How come certain antibody lateral flow assays show positive results at different dilutions?

I acquired two antibody lateral flow assays that purported to have the same sensitivity. I acquired NP antibodies and tested against them to validate they were not fake. My testing protocol involved ...
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Why do antibody tests target different antibodies?

I've noticed in various COVID-19 lateral flow assays, they seem to target different antibodies (S1, S2, NP). What are the benefits or downsides of choosing different antibodies? I know that some have ...
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Are B-cell-Ab selected according to their true efficiency towards viruses & infected cells?

Assume that (during the first week of Covid) the lymphoid organ produced two dozens of high affinity B-cell-antibodies for the same number of epitopes on the viral proteins (after numerous rounds of ...
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To what exten do children produce antibodies against covid-19?

Here in Sweden all kindergartens and schools up to the month of June the year people turn 16 remain open. In almost all other European country schools are closed. I do not really know why our schools ...
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What determines if a small protein / large peptide is immunogenic?

I'm wondering if there is some threshold in size or a specific structural property that determines if a small protein or large peptide would cause an immune reaction. Context: there are a number of ...
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How many antibodies exist in the blood stream while the human body is fighting a virus?

Let a be an antibody of a specific virus v produced by the human body when infected. Call ...
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Can someone donate antibodies? [closed]

Consider the following scenario: Person A has been infected with some virus (for example, SARS-CoV-2) Person A has recovered From this scenario, I assume Person A has managed to develop antibodies ...
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How to filter out the antibody light chains into kappa and lambda types on the PDB website?

The antibody light chains can either be kappa or lambda types. I am searching homologous sequences on the RCSB PDB website. Is there a way to filter out these two types?
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How are antibodies specific for a disease detected in the blood if everybody produces a different antibody for the same antigen?

To break the title down into parts: There exist serology tests that detect the amount of an antibody (Ab) against a specific pathogen/antigen. Every human produces their own Ab for a specific ...
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How does the immune system find the DNA code for antibodies

There are millions of possible antigens. To respond to each antigen, the immune system must quickly produce an antibody by modifying the DNA of a B cell. I have no idea how this process works, but ...
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Does antibodies get produced in female body against sperms?

Our immune system produces antibodies against any foreign particles entering our body.In female body sperms are a foreign particle .Does females produce antibodies or some sort of chemical resistance ...
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If a person is born with antigen antibody receptor, why first infection takes longer to heal than second infection?

I've learned that in the first time a person got infected with a pathogen and an antigen enter the body it's engulfed and presented on the surface of the cell so lymphocytes (T and B) with suitable ...
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What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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1answer
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Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
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Protein A-antibody SDS-PAGE

I wanted to know whether the boiling of Protein A- antibody complex for SDS-PAGE analysis will disrupt the interaction? and result in dissociation of protein A and antibody? Thank you
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Difference between scFV vs scTCR

Both scFv and scTCR consist of 2 variable regions joined by a linker loop. The 2 variable regions both consist of 3 CDR regions encompassed by 4 framework regions. So what's the difference ...
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Chirality of anti-bodies

Do anti-bodies in the blood stream present chirality? I am interested in this question from a mathematical and physical point of view. A person allowed to travel through a fourth spatial dimension is ...
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Presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to drug exposure (Mabs)?

How do we explain the presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to exposure to a drug - specifically for monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)?
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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Can the body always find the right antibodies?

If the body produces random antibodies in order to fight a virus, is there a small chance that the specific antibody needed to fight the virus just won't be randomly generated? Even though it is a ...
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Can monoclonal antibodies work only if the target of it is located in the cell's surface?

Can monoclonal antibodies work only if the target of it is located in the cell's surface? or it can be used to targeting a protein located inside the cell?
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What is the advantage of producing IgY bird's antibody instead of IgG? [closed]

Usually IgG antibodies are produced in mice. What is the advantage of producing IgY bird's antibody instead of IgG?
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Re-stain slice using a different secondary antibody?

I stained a free-floating ~300uM brian slice using 4 different 1º antibodies (rabbit, chick, mouse, rat). For the mouse primary, I mistakenly used an Alexa-350 secondary, when I should have used 594. ...
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What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
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How are primary monoclonal antibodies for screening mutant cells made, physically?

I'm working with a fairly common protein expressed in a large numbers of organisms, let's say a keratin-associated beta-protein. I'm trying to develop a process which requires primary-secondary ...
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Can multiple antibodies bind the same antigen?

Given the size difference between small molecule antigens and antibodies is it ever possible for multiple antibodies to bind to the same antigen if they recognize different domains on that antigen? ...
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Antibody staining

I am staining tissue sections and I did a mistake, I was supposed to have mixed 3 primary antibodies but I stained only with one of them. After the 1h incubation I washed 10 min with PBS and then I ...
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How to know which residues belong to the variable or constant regions of a Fab (fragment antibody)?

I have a fragment of antibody (Fab) structure, and I know its amino acid sequences of its heavy chain and light chain. As each chain of Fab can be divided into variable and constant regions, how can I ...
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Is antivenom fatal?

Antivenom is used for curing snake bites. Is it fatal when used without being bitten by a snake?
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Why does Anti-A antibodies make type-A blood type clump?

A-type blood has B-antibodies; it also clumps anti-A antibodies are inserted. Why is that? The blood has no antibodies against the A-antibodies to make clump in this way.
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Number of different clones of B lymphocytes

My professor told us that there are about a million different B cells based on their surface receptor. I have read that we have about 30000 genes in all. Since receptors are proteins how do these ...
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Do antibodies to an arbovirus in a bloodmeal reduce vector competence?

When we conduct mosquito infection studies we typically mix blood and virus rather than using viraemic blood from naturally infected hosts. I'm looking for a paper I read some years ago which ...
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How does antibody structure relate to function? [closed]

I know that antibodies have 2 binding sites (as Y shape) so they can bind to 2 pathogens for agglutination. They have a hinge, heavy and light chains, constant and variable sections on these chains. ...
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1answer
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IgA-s in an immune system vaccined intramuscularly against Hepatisis A

As IgA are immunoglobulins associated with secretion and mucosis membranes, I am interested whether after intramuscular vaccination with Hepatitis A vaccine IgA antibodies will be produced by the ...
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What do memory cells actually do?

So I know that memory cells "remember" the most efficient way to kill a pathogen should it show up again... but what is the mechanism by which memory cells become activated by the second contact with ...
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How do I name a binding antibody? “Binding antibody to”, “binding antibody against”, or “anti-[antigen] binding antibody”?

I'm translating a text that describes how an immunogenicity of a drug is measured by assaying the levels of binding antibodies to the drug. Or is it "against the drug"? I'm wondering how to name these ...
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Will a sandwich assay work with a GST 26 antibody/protein?

I have a GST 26 kda antibody, and want to use it in a sandwich lateral flow assay. Are there enough epitope regions for both antibodies to bind to the protein?
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Will a polyclonal antibody attach to proteins of different kDA?

If I have a GST 26kDa polyclonal antibody, will it bind to the GST 28kDa protein as well?
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How do scientists discover a new antigen and its epitope?

I've found some database on the internet that list all discovered antigens and their epitopes. So how do scientists discover a new antigen? Do they try to inject them into the body to see if it ...
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Detect which antigen binds to IgE

Assume that a patient has chronic hives (itchy) on the skin. I understand that he has an antigen, which binds to IgE and eventually triggers histamine release, causing an allergic reaction. So is ...
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Rationale behind washing off unbound protein antigen in indirect ELISA

My question is with regards to the usability of the indirect ELISA in measuring protein concentration. Suppose we want to quantify the concentration of a protein. The indirect ELISA method would ...
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1answer
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Difference between ‘tagging’ and ‘conjugating’ a fluorochrome to an antibody?

The Wikipedia entry on fluorescence repeatedly states that “a fluorochrome must be tagged or conjugated to the antibody”. How is tagged or conjugated different? Is this a mistake or are these indeed ...
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How can antibodies in rapid antibody tests be kept at room temperature without denaturing?

The normal temperature for long term antibody storage is around -20 degrees Celsius. However, when developed into rapid antibody tests, they can be kept at room temperature for prolonged periods. How ...