Questions tagged [antibody]

A protein produced by the B-cells of the immune system which binds to a particular antigen, a foreign substance to the body.

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Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins “functional”?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
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Detecting multiple compounds on a lateral flow immunoassay – is this a case of monoclonal vs polyclonal antibodies?

I am working on developing lateral flow immunoassays for drugs of abuse and needed some advice on detecting multiple drug compounds in one immunoassay. As an example, an existing LFIA on the market ...
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How long after taking a vaccine shot (Oxford–AstraZeneca) could an individual test negative for antibody (IgM)?

What I know so far about the way this vaccine works is that by encoding virus' biological signature into the vaccine and injecting it into a subject, the subject's immune system would learn to ...
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How to identify plasma cells that only produce monoclonal antibodies?

I am studying the procedures of forming hybridoma cells for generating a large number of monoclonal antibodies. Before the procedure of fusion (with multiple myeloma cells) happens, I would like to ...
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Why is the antibody light chain essential for function?

Humans and most other mammals produce antibodies consisting of two heavy chains, each linked to a light chain. Both heavy and light chain contribute to the variable region, and thus the antigen ...
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Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
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Why do T cells have MHC II receptors?

I have seen the answer to this question which says that T cells do not express MHC II proteins which would make sense. However, my textbook "The immune system" by Peter Parham disagrees. It ...
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Why is there not an immune response to injected immunoglobulins?

When you inject immunoglobulins as a treatment for certain diseases, the immunoglobulins are a foreign substance. I can appreciate that maybe the constant region would be similar to the hosts as it is ...
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Are the antibodies developed by differing vaccines still the same?

If one person gets an mRNA vaccine that teaches their body to deal with a specific virus, and another person gets a similar but different mRNA vaccine, and another person gets a more "classic&...
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Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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What differentiates bound antibodies from unbound ones?

When an antibody is bound to an antigen, it can then stimulate a FcR receptor on a phagocyte etc. to respond to the threat. What stops 'free' antibodies from spuriously activating an immune response? ...
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Are antibodies removed before blood transfusion

I am an O blood group person meaning, I can donate my blood to all as I don't have any Antigen A and B. But my body does contain antibodies A and B right? If they were along with the donor blood, ...
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Meaning of “stripped” in “stripped antibody-depleted sera”

From a research paper: FOLR1 autoantibody detection The assay for identification of the presence and relative quantification of FOLR1 autoantibodies in serum samples was performed as previously ...
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How can mutation of viruses lead to loss of fit to antibodies without loss of fit to antigen of cells they infect?

Viruses are known to mutate, thereby escaping immune cells and evading vaccination. Given that there is one and the same specificity of the key to both the receptor on the infected cell causing the ...
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Sequence structure of antibodies

It is said that "When a virus or a pathogen enters the body, the immune-response produces Y-shaped proteins called antibodies to bind to the pathogen or virus". "Also it is possible to ...
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Blood serum transfusions - could vaccines against the anti-A/anti-B etc. antibodies be derived, at least in theory?

People with the AB-positive blood type have all three of the A, B and RhD antigens present on their red blood cells, and no antibodies to these in their blood serum (aka blood plasma.) This means that ...
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Does germinal centre interaction with environment contributes by any means to the heterogeneity of the SHM-resulted antibody repertoire?

B-cells undergo a process of rapid mutagenesis and division which is followed by selection. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) produces many different antibody (Ab) genes that can potentially be useful ...
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What is a function-triggering antibody?

I am reading a journal paper on the effect of a neural cell adhesion molecule on neuronal development and in the abstract of this paper I have come across the following: The autophosphorylation and ...
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Can any molecule become a hapten?

Hapten are small-molecules, that can only become immunogenic when conjugated with a carrier protein. I was wondering if all small-molecules can become haptens (eg. by synthetic conjugation). Given ...
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Problem with epoxy silane (Random results in glass silanization). What are crucial points to look at?

I`m trying to immobilize an antibody onto the glass surface by means of GPTOMS (glycidoxypropyl trimetoxy silane). Using the same protocol (silanization in toluene or acidified ethanol (see below)) I ...
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What does the decline of serum antibodies after infection mean for B cell immunity, exactly?

About a month ago there was a small media blip about a report in the New England Journal of Medicine that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 decline significantly within a matter of months. ...
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
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TMB vs ECL for ELISA: which detection method is more sensitive?

I failed to find a comparison, does anyone know which ELISA detection method is more sensitive of these two: ECL, TMB? Many thanks!
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Can we develop a virus which is amicable for us but deadly for SARS-CoV-2 and HIV?

I am not biologist and do not have special education in it etc. It is know that in the wild, some species have their deadly enemies. What I am suggesting is can we humans find/create virus that is ...
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Easy and cheap antigen/antibody couple

For an application I need to find a cheap antigen and cheap correspondent antibody. The antigen can be literally any molecule that is cheap and potentially easy to produce and with a correspondent ...
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Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system?

Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system? Enzymes like pepsin have been found to be present in infant's digestive system(1). Though the pH in the ...
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Can I use fluorophore conjugated antibody as neutralizing antibody?

I need to order a neutralizing antibody to block a protein of interest. The pure grade functioning antibody (no conjugates) is substantially more expensive than the fluorophore conjugatated ones. Can ...
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Are all antibodies against a common antigen identical? [duplicate]

I understand that when some antigen (e.g., virus, bacteria, etc.) is recognized in the body, antibodies specific to this antigen are produced that, in turn, bind to the antigen and effectively ...
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Why are antibodies Y-shaped?

I generally know how antibodies work by binding to antigens, but what is the specific purpose to being Y-shaped, as opposed to any other shape? Does this aid their function? Thank you.
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How does the choice of blood draw site influence the possible specificity of a serological test?

The news has reported that a new serological test for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies has received an emergency use authorization from the FDA, and notably has a higher specificity than ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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Why do antibody tests target different antibodies?

I've noticed in various COVID-19 lateral flow assays, they seem to target different antibodies (S1, S2, NP). What are the benefits or downsides of choosing different antibodies? I know that some have ...
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To what exten do children produce antibodies against covid-19?

Here in Sweden all kindergartens and schools up to the month of June the year people turn 16 remain open. In almost all other European country schools are closed. I do not really know why our schools ...
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What determines if a small protein / large peptide is immunogenic?

I'm wondering if there is some threshold in size or a specific structural property that determines if a small protein or large peptide would cause an immune reaction. Context: there are a number of ...
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Can someone donate antibodies? [closed]

Consider the following scenario: Person A has been infected with some virus (for example, SARS-CoV-2) Person A has recovered From this scenario, I assume Person A has managed to develop antibodies ...
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How to filter out the antibody light chains into kappa and lambda types on the PDB website?

The antibody light chains can either be kappa or lambda types. I am searching homologous sequences on the RCSB PDB website. Is there a way to filter out these two types?
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How are antibodies specific for a disease detected in the blood if everybody produces a different antibody for the same antigen?

To break the title down into parts: There exist serology tests that detect the amount of an antibody (Ab) against a specific pathogen/antigen. Every human produces their own Ab for a specific ...
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How does the immune system find the DNA code for antibodies

There are millions of possible antigens. To respond to each antigen, the immune system must quickly produce an antibody by modifying the DNA of a B cell. I have no idea how this process works, but ...
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Does antibodies get produced in female body against sperms?

Our immune system produces antibodies against any foreign particles entering our body.In female body sperms are a foreign particle .Does females produce antibodies or some sort of chemical resistance ...
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What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
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Protein A-antibody SDS-PAGE

I wanted to know whether the boiling of Protein A- antibody complex for SDS-PAGE analysis will disrupt the interaction? and result in dissociation of protein A and antibody? Thank you
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Chirality of anti-bodies

Do anti-bodies in the blood stream present chirality? I am interested in this question from a mathematical and physical point of view. A person allowed to travel through a fourth spatial dimension is ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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Can the body always find the right antibodies?

If the body produces random antibodies in order to fight a virus, is there a small chance that the specific antibody needed to fight the virus just won't be randomly generated? Even though it is a ...
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Can monoclonal antibodies work only if the target of it is located in the cell's surface?

Can monoclonal antibodies work only if the target of it is located in the cell's surface? or it can be used to targeting a protein located inside the cell?
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Re-stain slice using a different secondary antibody?

I stained a free-floating ~300uM brian slice using 4 different 1º antibodies (rabbit, chick, mouse, rat). For the mouse primary, I mistakenly used an Alexa-350 secondary, when I should have used 594. ...
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What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
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How are primary monoclonal antibodies for screening mutant cells made, physically?

I'm working with a fairly common protein expressed in a large numbers of organisms, let's say a keratin-associated beta-protein. I'm trying to develop a process which requires primary-secondary ...
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Can multiple antibodies bind the same antigen?

Given the size difference between small molecule antigens and antibodies is it ever possible for multiple antibodies to bind to the same antigen if they recognize different domains on that antigen? ...