Questions tagged [antibody]

A protein produced by the B-cells of the immune system which binds to a particular antigen, a foreign substance to the body.

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Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins "functional"?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
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Can any molecule become a hapten?

Hapten are small-molecules, that can only become immunogenic when conjugated with a carrier protein. I was wondering if all small-molecules can become haptens (eg. by synthetic conjugation). Given ...
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Boost of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine increasing Immune Response to Vector

I have been looking for published, or even pre-print, data that evaluates the serological response to a boost of the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine against the adenoviral vector Ad26 rather than the ...
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How can cells produce antibodies despite error-checking mechanisms in their genomes?

How can immune cells produce so many different kinds of antibodies with different variable regions if there are so many mechanisms inside the cells that try to keep the DNA sequence as constant as ...
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Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
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What determines if a small protein / large peptide is immunogenic?

I'm wondering if there is some threshold in size or a specific structural property that determines if a small protein or large peptide would cause an immune reaction. Context: there are a number of ...
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What causes Erythroblastosis fetalis?

So this is what I understood about the disease by researching about it When a Rh-ve mother has a Rh+ve baby in her womb, The placenta prevents mixing of fetal and maternal blood preventing antigen ...
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What is the speed of human immune reactions?

It's easy to find general lists of immune systems: innate/adaptive, complement, phagocytes, B/T cells, and so on. Annoyingly, they are very skimpy on quantitative information regarding the speed of ...
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Blood serum transfusions - could vaccines against the anti-A/anti-B etc. antibodies be derived, at least in theory?

People with the AB-positive blood type have all three of the A, B and RhD antigens present on their red blood cells, and no antibodies to these in their blood serum (aka blood plasma.) This means that ...
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
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Does antibodies get produced in female body against sperms?

Our immune system produces antibodies against any foreign particles entering our body.In female body sperms are a foreign particle .Does females produce antibodies or some sort of chemical resistance ...
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Does the saliva of a person just recovered from an infectious disease help to cure another persons having the same disease?

I have always had this 'weird' thought (But could never quite test it...). Would the saliva of a just recovered person contains antibodies, or other immuno-boosting substances that can help fight off ...
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Does antibody staining / immunolabeling block or inhibit protein function?

In dissociated live cells, does staining them with an antibody block the protein's function? I am sorting cells based on their expression of a few marker genes, and culturing them post-sort for ...
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How do the anti-D antibodies help prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn? And why do they not act like the maternal antibodies?

I understand that this question has been asked a few times in the past, but the answers there didn't really explain to me why the Anti-D antibodies we introduce are able to prevent the hemolysis of ...
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Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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What differentiates bound antibodies from unbound ones?

When an antibody is bound to an antigen, it can then stimulate a FcR receptor on a phagocyte etc. to respond to the threat. What stops 'free' antibodies from spuriously activating an immune response? ...
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Why do antibody tests target different antibodies?

I've noticed in various COVID-19 lateral flow assays, they seem to target different antibodies (S1, S2, NP). What are the benefits or downsides of choosing different antibodies? I know that some have ...
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To what exten do children produce antibodies against covid-19?

Here in Sweden all kindergartens and schools up to the month of June the year people turn 16 remain open. In almost all other European country schools are closed. I do not really know why our schools ...
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How to know which residues belong to the variable or constant regions of a Fab (fragment antibody)?

I have a fragment of antibody (Fab) structure, and I know its amino acid sequences of its heavy chain and light chain. As each chain of Fab can be divided into variable and constant regions, how can I ...
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Do antibodies to an arbovirus in a bloodmeal reduce vector competence?

When we conduct mosquito infection studies we typically mix blood and virus rather than using viraemic blood from naturally infected hosts. I'm looking for a paper I read some years ago which ...
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Using only one antibody to detect COX-2 enzyme

If I wanted to detect COX-2 from a western blot test, would only a primary antibody work? I'm on a budget so does anyone know of relatively cheap COX-2 antibodies?
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PEGylation safety and hybridomas

PEGylation is the covalent attachment of PEG (PolyEthylene Glycol) to molecules (e.g. proteins). It states in wikipedia ("PEGylation"): The covalent attachment of PEG to a drug or ...
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Length of frameworks in human antibody variable regions

Are antibody variable region's frameworks enumerated by Kabat numbering system always fixed length? Like, is FWH1 always 30 residues long?
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Antigen transfer from baby to mother

When considering immunity in babies, the main mechanism that supports their undeveloped immune system is the transfer of antibodies from mother to baby via breastfeeding. Case #1: both baby and mother ...
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Monoclonal antibody mass production

There is a long conversation taking place these days about monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19. From a few biology courses I had a long time ago, I remember that the process of creating mAbs was a ...
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Problem with epoxy silane (Random results in glass silanization). What are crucial points to look at?

I`m trying to immobilize an antibody onto the glass surface by means of GPTOMS (glycidoxypropyl trimetoxy silane). Using the same protocol (silanization in toluene or acidified ethanol (see below)) I ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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How does the immune system find the DNA code for antibodies

There are millions of possible antigens. To respond to each antigen, the immune system must quickly produce an antibody by modifying the DNA of a B cell. I have no idea how this process works, but ...
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Re-stain slice using a different secondary antibody?

I stained a free-floating ~300uM brian slice using 4 different 1º antibodies (rabbit, chick, mouse, rat). For the mouse primary, I mistakenly used an Alexa-350 secondary, when I should have used 594. ...
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How can site-directed mutagenesis be used to suppress the production of anti-antibodies?

In a previous post of mine, I asked how to supress the creation of anti-antibodies in vivo. In the answer, it was mentioned that site-directed mutagenesis could be used. Currently, I can't find mcuh ...
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