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Questions tagged [antibody]

A protein produced by the B-cells of the immune system which binds to a particular antigen, a foreign substance to the body.

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Are the antibodies developed by differing vaccines still the same?

If one person gets an mRNA vaccine that teaches their body to deal with a specific virus, and another person gets a similar but different mRNA vaccine, and another person gets a more "classic&...
Francis Bartkowiak's user avatar
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2 answers
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Is antivenom fatal?

Antivenom is used for curing snake bites. Is it fatal when used without being bitten by a snake?
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Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system?

Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system? Enzymes like pepsin have been found to be present in infant's digestive system(1). Though the pH in the ...
trinitrotoluene's user avatar
11 votes
2 answers
692 views

How are antibodies designed?

Antibodies have the ability of recognising highly specific peptide sequences and bind it at their antigen-binding site. This ability is harnessed as a tool in research to purify target structures in ...
Konrad Rudolph's user avatar
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2 answers
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Is there a maximum amount of antibodies your body can keep?

I am wondering if you were theoretically able to get vaccinations or antibodies for any and every diseases and/or illness, would there be a limit to how many you can get and keep in your body at one ...
tubble's user avatar
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Recommended applications for commercial antibodies

Commercial suppliers of primary antibodies for given protein targets typically list recommended applications, for which the antibody has presumably been shown to work. I am usually looking to use them ...
walkytalky's user avatar
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Meaning of "stripped" in "stripped antibody-depleted sera"

From a research paper: FOLR1 autoantibody detection The assay for identification of the presence and relative quantification of FOLR1 autoantibodies in serum samples was performed as previously ...
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How plasma cells switches secreting different Ig classes?

In Type 1 hypersensitivity how do B lymphocytes switch Ig classes, from synthesizing IgG to IgE? What is the mechanism? I studied multiple pathology books, it says the same as for IgG secreting ...
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Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
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Synthesis of immunoglobulin Fab fragments: Where can I learn about Fab?

I wanted to know the chemical reaction involved in Fab synthesis. I looked everywhere for it. No luck. I know I will find it here. All I know for now is: Fab is a monovalent fragment that is ...
user10027's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
1k views

Why do T cells have MHC II receptors?

I have seen the answer to this question which says that T cells do not express MHC II proteins which would make sense. However, my textbook "The immune system" by Peter Parham disagrees. It ...
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How do scientists discover a new antigen and its epitope?

I've found some database on the internet that list all discovered antigens and their epitopes. So how do scientists discover a new antigen? Do they try to inject them into the body to see if it ...
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Why are there so few full-length antibody structures?

I’m a student in the Biochemical Engineering field and the professor at the department just told us in a lecture that if we want to use a full-antibody structure for simulation purposes there aren’t ...
Wintermute's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is immunopanning (vs. immunoprecipitation and FACS)?

I had never heard the term before today. From what I can tell, it's using antibodies to purify a cell population of interest. I would appreciate more details, especially in how it differs from "...
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Isotype control antibodies in Flow Cytometry

In a Flow Cytrometry, one can add an Isotype Control Antibody to allow another antibody to bind more specific to the cells. My question is, how can the Isotype Control Antibody add specificity to the ...
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Are there any disadvantages to HRP conjugated PRIMARY antibodies

I need to detect a FLAG tagged protein on a western blot and have to order an antibody. I'm not expecting to see a massive amount of my protein. To keep analysis time to a minimum I am considering a ...
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Western blotting with multiple antibodies

Normally I wash/detect with one primary/secondary-HRP antibody pair, strip, then wash/detect with the other primary/secondary-HRP pair which works well. However, I recently started working with a HRP-...
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Possibility and feasibility of producing designed antibodies with bacteria

As stated here it is possible to produce fragments of antibodies in bacteria and harvest them (from the medium, I guess, but I don't have access to the full article). As it is possible to design ...
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Are there baby drinks closer to breast-milk?

Many women cannot or will not feed their children with breast-milk. It is my understanding breast-milk has many advantages over formula. Some psychological like oxytocin and some physiological like ...
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282 views

What do memory cells actually do?

So I know that memory cells "remember" the most efficient way to kill a pathogen should it show up again... but what is the mechanism by which memory cells become activated by the second contact with ...
Ben Hughes's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
71 views

Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins "functional"?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
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Can any molecule become a hapten?

Hapten are small-molecules, that can only become immunogenic when conjugated with a carrier protein. I was wondering if all small-molecules can become haptens (eg. by synthetic conjugation). Given ...
Felix Z.'s user avatar
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Anti-antibodies for preventing transplant rejection

Transplanted organs from the donor are attacked by antibodies from the recepient. So can't we construct anti-antibodies and destroy specifically those antibodies which are causing the rejections ? (...
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Why are antibodies so expensive?

The amplification on vector transgenic microorganisms and the subsequent purification does not seem that complicated. Also, what are the processes that biotechnological industries follow, in detail, ...
Katz's user avatar
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Antibodies stored in freezer instead of fridge

Someone from my lab put the box of antibodies in the freezer instead the fridge. Can I hope that they will still work?
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What is the beneficial function of IgE antibody?

Dont tell me the "function" of IgE is to cause allergy ! In whatever texts I have seen it is written that IgE is important to cause allergies but what is the beneficial function of IgE ? Why was it ...
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4 votes
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Antigen Antibody reactions during blood donation

A person wih blood group O is called a Universal Donor. Well, his plasma contains antibodies A and B. During blood donation, if blood group O is given to a person with blood group A (since blood group ...
user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
3k views

IgA complement activation

Recently, I have been reading Janeway's immunobiology and had a question on immunoglobin A. I read that IgA activates the complement pathway using the Fab fragment of the IgA. How does IgA do that? I ...
TanMath's user avatar
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4 votes
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What is a protective epitope?

What is a protective epitope? An epitope is basically a part of antigen. So does it mean that when the epitope combines with an antibody, it helps in the functioning of the antibody instead of going ...
girl101's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Transfer of antibodies in breast milk of humans

Why isn't the IgA secreted in breast milk digested due to proteases of the digestive system in the baby? Wikipedia says: The secretory component of sIgA protects the immunoglobulin from being ...
biogirl's user avatar
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4 votes
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How does the immune system distinguish own and foreign antibodies?

Therapeutic antibodies, for example Rituximab which recognises CD20 on B lymphoma cells, can cause adverse effects (e.g. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19399690) One reason behind these adverse ...
Armatus's user avatar
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variation in antigen binding site of antibodies

Antibodies or immunoglobulins are proteins made ​​by the immune system in response to alien(!) molecules. Each antibody binds to its specific antigen. This great diversity and specificity is cause of ...
MySky's user avatar
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How does one derive a KD from an equilibrium titration experiment?

If I have an antibody A and a target B, and experimentally titrate the antibody against a single concentration of B, and then measure the % of B that is bound after the solutions reach equilibrium, I ...
Justin's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
405 views

How to evaluate the efficacy of an antibody for fluorescence microscopy?

I'm trying to evaluate data taken from fluorescence microscopy with antibody staining, and am wondering whether there is any standard way to evaluate the specificity of the antibody for such ...
silvado's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
112 views

Antibody staining

I am staining tissue sections and I did a mistake, I was supposed to have mixed 3 primary antibodies but I stained only with one of them. After the 1h incubation I washed 10 min with PBS and then I ...
Bio's user avatar
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4 votes
3 answers
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B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
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4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Why is the administration of exogenous Anti-D not harmful to the foetus?

Haemolytic disease of the newborn can result from Rhesus incompatibility in utero. In this disease an Rh- mother becomes exposed to the antigens of an Rh+ foetus by fetomaternal haemorrhage causing ...
Rory M's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Why can we use mouse-produced antibodies on mice tissues?

I have seen biologists use mouse grown primary antibodies in mouse tissue, and they've told me that if the blood is perfused well then there is no problem with this method. How does the secondary ...
Sayo's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Dimerization of Immunoglobulin G

I would like to know the specific determinants for formation of IgG dimers. My understanding is the stem of the antibody is a homodimer of two heavy chains, covalently bonded through two disulfide ...
user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
97 views

Boost of Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine increasing Immune Response to Vector

I have been looking for published, or even pre-print, data that evaluates the serological response to a boost of the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine against the adenoviral vector Ad26 rather than the ...
Atl LED's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
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Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
Jon Wilcox's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
65 views

How can cells produce antibodies despite error-checking mechanisms in their genomes?

How can immune cells produce so many different kinds of antibodies with different variable regions if there are so many mechanisms inside the cells that try to keep the DNA sequence as constant as ...
ask937's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies?

I'm just curious as there was a bit controversy around this topic. It is possible for person with AIDS be negative for HIV antibodies? As of 1989, the CDC reported that 5% of all U.S. AIDS patients ...
kenorb's user avatar
  • 661
3 votes
2 answers
732 views

What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
Louis Waweru's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
50 views

After getting fully vaccinated for HBV why does the antiHBs titer last for so long?

When a newborn child is fully vaccinated with HBV and let's assume he's responsive, his antiHBs titers will be high. But since the antigenic stimulus is withdrawn, shouldn't the titre fall to nill in ...
Polisetty's user avatar
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3 votes
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What is A in IgA? [duplicate]

What is the significance of letter A in immunoglobulinA? What are the significance of other letters D, M , G, E in diffeternt types of antibodies?
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3 votes
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Can ELISA be used to detect a plant enzyme? Creating assay for a new enzyme

If the goal is to generate a rapid assay for an enzyme of plant source what are the typical options? i.e. Could one do something like: Generate an antibody to the enzyme and then use it to create an ...
curious_cat's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
140 views

How long after taking a vaccine shot (Oxford–AstraZeneca) could an individual test negative for antibody (IgM)?

What I know so far about the way this vaccine works is that by encoding virus' biological signature into the vaccine and injecting it into a subject, the subject's immune system would learn to ...
user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
82 views

Why is there not an immune response to injected immunoglobulins?

When you inject immunoglobulins as a treatment for certain diseases, the immunoglobulins are a foreign substance. I can appreciate that maybe the constant region would be similar to the hosts as it is ...
John Hon's user avatar
  • 861
3 votes
1 answer
276 views

About sandwich ELISA

In sandwich ELISA the Fc region of primary antibody bind to the polystyrene coated well. But what are the specific interactions (like 'hydrophobic interaction' or 'van der waals force') happen between ...
A. Pandit's user avatar