Questions tagged [bacterial-toxins]

Toxins secreted by bacteria. Toxins are the agents which cause most of the toxicity of bacteria and are often highly toxic. Examples include the tetanus and the diptheria toxins.

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Why is synthesis of tetanospasmin advantageous to C. tetani?

The tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin synthesised by some strains of C. tetani. It is the factor causing tetanus, but what is its role for the bacteria itself? I do not believe the main objective of C. ...
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hypochlorous acid [closed]

It's weird question, but is hypochlorous acid safe to drink and can treat any kind of becterias or viruses ? I have found this Electrolyzer on Amazon that generate HOCL and you can control the HOCL ...
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Rice left in water for several months - what biological reactions or growths would occur?

In an attempt to make a hair care product, uncooked white basmati rice was left in an air-tight container half filled with tap water for several months. When opening the container, the smell was ...
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What are the survival conditions for Clostridium botulinum?

I notice that the incidence of poisoning from the activity of Clostridium botulinum is quite rare. For example, in 2015 there were only 7 incidents of foodborne botulism poisoning identified even ...
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Can consuming acidic drinks help kill bacteria in the stomach?

All around us we hear and read articles which suggest that soft drinks or carbonated beverages are acidic and damage our body but we still consume them (or atleast a significant proportion of us do). ...
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Why do bulls-eye rashes look like they do?

People infected with Lyme Disease often present with an erythema migrans ("migrating redness") rash. Most often, these rashes are in the shape of a bulls-eye. Rash image. Presumably, this is a ...
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What is a secretion target family protein?

I came across this link: https://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?btw:BF38_3398 What is this protein, is it a secreted effector protein or is it something else? What is the difference between type ...
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How did sneezing evolve?

Did we develop the sneezing mechanism to get rid of pathogens like bacteria and viruses in our nose? Or did pathogens develop a way to make us sneeze to propagate themselves? Or did we develop the ...
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McFarland or O.D of culture what to use and what is the difference?

I am working on gram positive bacteria for which OD was reported and some reported mcfarland value. I am new to microbiology. i want to confirm the only thing that matters is cfu. please reply for ...
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Why does botulinum toxin cause only NMJ symptoms?

Botulinum toxin acts by preventing release of ACh by cleaving SNARE proteins. But if it is acting on snare proteins shouldn't all vesicle releases be effected? Why is it limited only to the ...
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Do non-pathogenic organism not have PAMPs? Are there any research paper which proves that a certain microbe is non-pathogenic?

According to this PAMPs are delivered along with additional information that can be used by the host to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic microbes and thereby guide the ensuing innate ...
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What really causes the toxicity of wrongly-thawed meat?

(Note: I've seen multiple related questions over at Cooking.SE, but I'm looking for a scientific explanation, not cooking advice!) I've been researching this for a couple of hours but the more I read,...
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Vaccines against bacterial endotoxins

Today in class, there was a discussion going on about what part of pathogens(which can act as an antigen) can be used to make vaccines. There was this point where our teacher said that bacterial ...
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Which extinction event killed the highest proportion of organisms?

The P-T extinction (a.k.a. the Great Dying) tends to be considered the worst - for example, Wikipedia states: It is the Earth's most severe known extinction event, with up to 96% of all marine ...
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bacterium ability to metabolize a compound toxic to most other organisms, do not know how the bacterium takes up the compound from the environment [closed]

A new bacterium is discovered that has a unique ability to metabolize a compound toxic to most other organisms. The microbiologists researching this bacterium do not know how the bacterium takes up ...
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Any studies on the effects and/or benefits of oil pulling? [closed]

A friend recently recommended me a process called 'oil pulling' for my teeth as I am struggling with my dental health at the moment. The process involves using a tablespoon of some kind of vegetable ...
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Will meat rot in alcohol below freezing?

I understand that freezing slows decay but I'm wondering what will happen if meat is kept in below freezing temperatures while submerged in a liquid that has a lower freezing rate, like alchohol?
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Preserving/disinfecting meat with alcohol?

I'm considering safer ways to handle raw meat and it occurred to me that alcohol might be useful. I'm considering, say, sealing pieces of meat in a container with 40% alcohol or higher in fridge or ...
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Why is bacterial meningitis worse than viral meningitis?

My field is not biology related, but it is commonly said that bacterial meningitis is far more dangerous to the individual than the viral kind. It seems to be true even with antibiotic treatment. What ...
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Why does V. cholerae produce a human specific choleragen?

V. cholerae secrete choleragen to grow and escape human intestines, however choleragen does not work on other mammals, why so? Why didn't it evolve a general mammal affecting choleragen? This question ...
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How does Vibrio cholerae benefit from infecting its host?

As far as I know, V. cholerae secretes a toxin called choleragen into the intestinal lumen which affects the intestinal epithelial cells causing release of Na+ and Cl- ions into the lumen and reducing ...
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toxin determination and treatment of wild water

I am writing an article on the treatment of wild water from a wilderness survival angle. I have come across the term "toxin" and am finding it hard to produce a determination and treatment strategy. ...
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Eating possibly spoiled food in the fasted state - is it considered protective against the potential harm?

It is a known fact that the acidic environment in the stomach serves several purposes, such as providing suitable conditions for primary chemical digestion of food molecules and protection from ...
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What gives diarrhoea caused by Cholera its milky colour?

The diarrhoea caused by the Cholera bacteria is a milky colour, also known as 'rice-water' like. Why is this? I have a fairly good understanding of how Cholera acts on the body.
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Is honey in hot green tea unsafe?

I used Google to try to figure out what kind of mixture honey has with hot water, and I found several Ayurvedic sources claiming that honey in hot water is toxic. For example: Honey – NEVER Put It ...
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Are erythrocytes lysed during alpha hemolysis?

Wikipedia says: When alpha hemolysis (α-hemolysis) is present, the agar under the colony is dark and greenish. Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or ...
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Secretion in Gram negative bacteria

Among the 6 secretion systems in bacteria, can these 6 ways be sorted out in the order of how harmful it is to the human host? Like say type 3 is highly virulent so that comes first, but I don't know ...
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Why does bacillus thuringiensis produce bt toxin?

Background : B.thuringiensis produces an inactive crystalline toxin during sporulation which when ingested by an insect, gets activated and causes pore formation in gut , subsequently leading to death ...
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Regulation of V. cholerae virulence factors

So I know that several different environmental signals, such as pH, bile, and temperature, regulate virulence gene expression in V. cholerae. Specifically, they control expression of the genes ...
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Persistency of botulinum toxin in environment

There is information about decontamination times here on pages 6 and 7. My specific question is how persistent botulinum toxin is in a natural environment, or alternatively, what is the half life of ...
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Why does botulinum toxin seem to be more dangerous to humans than to other mammals?

Various mammals seem to get away with eating parts of carcasses that we would prefer to not even touch, and that we assume will make us sick. Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more ...
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Can botulinum toxin be grown or kept from denaturing in an UNWRAPPED 50 pound hay bale?

Botulinum toxin is the neurotoxin protein created when botulism spores grow. The requirements for growth and/or for keeping the toxin from denaturing would seem to be very difficult to create in bale ...
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Can Listeria monocytogenes endotoxin act as an A-B toxin?

I think no, but I am not sure since Listeria is Gram-positive and probably has lipopolysaccharide (exception among Gram positive bacteria). Can Listeria monocytogenes' endotoxin act like exotoxin A-B?...
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What is one Botulinum toxin medical unit?

How many Botulinum toxin molecules or grams are contained in one medical unit of Botox?
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How long can C. Tetani survive in soil?

Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) is a bacterium commonly found in soil and is excreted in the faeces of many animals (both mammals and birds) and serves, by means of the exotoxin, tetanospasmin, causes ...