Questions tagged [bacterial-toxins]

Toxins secreted by bacteria. Toxins are the agents which cause most of the toxicity of bacteria and are often highly toxic. Examples include the tetanus and the diptheria toxins.

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Do non-pathogenic organism not have PAMPs? Are there any research paper which proves that a certain microbe is non-pathogenic?

According to this PAMPs are delivered along with additional information that can be used by the host to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic microbes and thereby guide the ensuing innate ...
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Eating possibly spoiled food in the fasted state - is it considered protective against the potential harm?

It is a known fact that the acidic environment in the stomach serves several purposes, such as providing suitable conditions for primary chemical digestion of food molecules and protection from ...
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Why does bacillus thuringiensis produce bt toxin?

Background : B.thuringiensis produces an inactive crystalline toxin during sporulation which when ingested by an insect, gets activated and causes pore formation in gut , subsequently leading to death ...
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A question about dicumarol

I know that dicumarol was discovered in moldy sweet clover as it caused hemorrhage in cattles, but if someone had thromboembolic disorders causing uncontrolled thrombosis,would it be fine to eat moldy ...
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Why does botulinum toxin cause only NMJ symptoms?

Botulinum toxin acts by preventing release of ACh by cleaving SNARE proteins. But if it is acting on snare proteins shouldn't all vesicle releases be effected? Why is it limited only to the ...
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315 views

Preserving/disinfecting meat with alcohol?

I'm considering safer ways to handle raw meat and it occurred to me that alcohol might be useful. I'm considering, say, sealing pieces of meat in a container with 40% alcohol or higher in fridge or ...
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Why is synthesis of tetanospasmin advantageous to C. tetani?

The tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin synthesised by some strains of C. tetani. It is the factor causing tetanus, but what is its role for the bacteria itself? I do not believe the main objective of C. ...
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60 views

McFarland or O.D of culture what to use and what is the difference?

I am working on gram positive bacteria for which OD was reported and some reported mcfarland value. I am new to microbiology. i want to confirm the only thing that matters is cfu. please reply for ...
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toxin determination and treatment of wild water

I am writing an article on the treatment of wild water from a wilderness survival angle. I have come across the term "toxin" and am finding it hard to produce a determination and treatment strategy. ...
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Persistency of botulinum toxin in environment

There is information about decontamination times here on pages 6 and 7. My specific question is how persistent botulinum toxin is in a natural environment, or alternatively, what is the half life of ...
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Scientifically testing when milk goes bad

How could I test if milk has gone bad scientifically? Performing a taste test on the milk yields a subjective interpretation as to whether the milk is good or not. Is there any objective metric that I ...
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What are the survival conditions for Clostridium botulinum?

I notice that the incidence of poisoning from the activity of Clostridium botulinum is quite rare. For example, in 2015 there were only 7 incidents of foodborne botulism poisoning identified even ...
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What is a secretion target family protein?

I came across this link: https://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bget?btw:BF38_3398 What is this protein, is it a secreted effector protein or is it something else? What is the difference between type ...
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185 views

How did sneezing evolve?

Did we develop the sneezing mechanism to get rid of pathogens like bacteria and viruses in our nose? Or did pathogens develop a way to make us sneeze to propagate themselves? Or did we develop the ...