Questions tagged [bacteriology]

A subdivision of microbiology dedicated to the study of bacteria.

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Bacterial endosymbiosis of bacteria

Endosymbiosis was crucial to the development of complex life and it continues to happen to this day. The origin of mitochondria see bacterial guests in archaea hosts, some of which later took in ...
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Alternative dyes for Gram staining

In the Gram stain, is there any replacement for primary stain, secondary stain, decolourizer and mordant? What results will the replacements produce? I found that crystal violet can be replaced with ...
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Calcium ions and bacterial transformation

What is the mechanism by which calcium ions and heat treatment allow the bacterial membrane to become permeable, allowing the uptake of plasmids?
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Are there phage-eating bacteria?

If phages (bacterium-eating viruses) prowl on bacteria, are there bacteria (or other micro-organisms) that hunt phages for food? They are rich in proteins anyway... Are there studies on this subject? ...
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What fraction of bacterial proteins are membrane bound?

Almen et al. showed that around 27% of the human coding proteins are membrane bound. How does this compare with bacteria such as E.coli or B.subtilis (or any other bacteria)? Is there a paper out ...
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Skeletisation in space

A space pod containing an astronaut drifts out to space and cannot be rescued. The space pod contains no insects, and the only bacteria present are those originally brought in by the astronaut. There ...
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Will wiping a phone down with isopropyl alcohol daily breed bacteria resistant to disinfectants?

The title says it all. If you disinfect something more regularly, aren't you just selecting for bacteria which are most robust to that method of disinfection? I've heard it said about some medications ...
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Does probiotics bacteria from yogurt live in the mouth too? Does it populate the mouth/throat or just the gut?

Yes I was basically just wondered this as I've taken probiotics in a pill form but those only go to the gut. I guessed the mouth needs probiotics too and I wondered if yogurt can accomplish that. I ...
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How does lactate produced in the intestines get transported to the rest of the body?

Some gut bacteria known as lactic acid bacteria(LAB) are known to produce lactate in the intestines and they confer beneficial effects such as enhancement of the immune system, but I assume not all of ...
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Nucleotide Sequence

So i am from an IT and my sis who is doing medicine asked for my help on this question i have no clue where to start actually. Please Help. So the question is: What is the nucleotide sequence for ...
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Why do some vaccines lose their efficacy with time?

Why do some vaccines lose with time their efficacy? The two obvious examples that I have in mind are influenza and tetanus. The former case is clear, as influenza virus undergoes frequent gene ...
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Questions regarding transformation in bacterial cells

First off, in transformation the donor DNA aligns itself with the complementary bases in the recipient DNA. Now a "perfect" alignment of the donor DNA ( Sorry if my terminologies are ...
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How to attract Cyanobacteria?

I would like to attract cyanobacteria in one spot on an object (e.g. cloth,) instead of having it swim in the media. my current method is to pour it on the object in a beaker and wait for some of them ...
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Why does touch the face make more likely to be infected?

Why is it risky to touch the face although there is no direct contact with into the nose, eyes and mouth? Is there any possibility that pathogens infect us from our facial skin? Suppose we have ...
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What is the rate of bacterial cell death due to viruses on land?

"The rate of viral infection in the oceans stands at 1 × 10^23 infections per second, and these infections remove 20–40% of all bacterial cells each day." - https://www.nature.com/articles/...
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What compounds are consumed/produced by Staph. aureus grown on Mueller Hinton agar over time?

I wonder what are the essential components on Mueller Hinton agar that S. aureus consumes and produces. I imagine there are preferred energy sources and as soon as those compounds run out the organism ...
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How to get Bacteria to attach to an Object?

I have cultured Cyanobacteria (in a media) in a beaker. I want that bacteria to attach to a cloth (e.g. Carbon). My current method is using a syringe to slowly push the bacteria to one side of a ...
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Can bacteria be killed by purely physical trauma?

In a question over on Skeptics Stack Exchange, I half-jokingly listed "blunt force trauma" as a means by which a bacterium could be killed. That makes me wonder if it really is only a joke ...
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How can life survive in the water under the Antarctic ice? [closed]

If there is life in the lakes under the ice of Antarctica then how can those bacteria survive? Where do they get energy from? https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.livescience.com/amp/64501-buried-lake-...
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Can a bacterium infect another bacterium?

I researched about it by searching on Google and reading some bacteriological articles, but I did not get any answer. I also asked some of my teachers, and they were also a bit confused. Some said ...
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“Bacteria don't have membrane-bound organelles.” Are sulfur bacteria or Cyanobacteria exceptions?

Can bacteria have membrane-bound organelles? I read this many textbooks: Bacteria cells are simple cells that do not contain a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. However, they do contain ...
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Low-cost simple water testing for faecal contamination

I live in Indonesia and there are lots of sewage pipes discharging directly from homes/restaurants/etc directly into the river. It's also common to wash clothes and so on, so there is likely detergent ...
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Do most bacteria have plasmids?

Do most bacteria have plasmids? I googled that and I found this Yes, Plasmids naturally exist in all bacterial cells. Here But I know some of them don't! Is this sentence scientifically correct? ...
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Why does vacuum sealing of foods prevent spoilage from anaerobic bacteria?

I have noted that many purchased food items in containers only require refrigeration after they have been opened, thus eliminating the vacuum seal. Air contains bacteria and fungus spores that enter ...
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Can bacteria (dis)assortatively mate?

After revising some evolutionary concepts, I stumbled on the "big five" of evolution (e.g., mutation, selection, mating, genetic drift, gene flow). I wanted to understand if mating as in &...
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Are diplobacillus physically connected?

I know that a diplobacillus is a bacillus bacteria that has a buddy 'attached' to it. What I haven't been able to determine is exactly how is it 'attached'? Are their cell membranes fused - are they ...
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Horizontal gene transfer in a bacteria

I encountered an old examination question: Which of the following is not required in Bacteria for horizontal gene transfers? Infection 2. Translation 3. Transformation 4. Conjugation 5. Transduction ...
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Staphylococcus (antibacterial soaps and Traditional Lathering soaps)

I have been working on a biology research assignment regarding the claim: Antibacterial soaps are superior to traditional lathering soaps in minimizing the transmission of disease I have made a ...
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How do microbes spread from a small place to a very large place?

Bacteria are very small, so they cannot move very far on their own. Viruses cannot move themselves at all. So how does a specific type of bacteria or virus spread from a small place to a very large ...
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How do animals contain and dispose of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides)?

Gram negative bacteria naturally release endotoxins which are lipopolysaccharide molecules. These molecules are toxic to many eukaryote cells, including macrophages. My question is how animal ...
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Interpretation of Pangenome: high number of accessory genes

I performed a pangenomic analysis on a collection of 52 strains belonging to the same genus (some 5-6 different species). All the strains were isolated from the same environment: interior compartment ...
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Which is the most extreme thermophilic bacteria known?

Extreme thermophilic bacteria thrive at any temperature above 40/50°C. Thermotoga Maritima seems to be the bacteria that can survive at the highest temperature up to 90°C (reference 1, table 2). I ...
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Will ammonia continue to accumulate in an aquarium tank if a strong antibacterial or chlorine is added to the water?

I've always wondered what would happen if dead plants and fecal matter lay in chlorinated waters and/or waters treated with strong antibacterials or antibiotics. I've heard that aquarium tanks ...
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Do viruses or bacteria have a flavour?

My 9 year old niece asked me this when I was explaining some stuff to her about the coronavirus. She asked "What does this virus taste like? Can I tell whether my sandwich is contaminated for ...
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How can I obtain a uniform bacterial sample?

I'm currently doing a research project wherein I will be testing the antibiotic resistance of a bacterial sample. Due to a risk of contamination during transport, I'm not allowed to request a uniform ...
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Does the process of making a sourdough starter involve Darwinian selection?

In essence - to make a sourdough starter: Put flour and water in a jar, and leave it in a warm place overnight Divide the remaining mixture in half, throw out half, add half as much flour and water ...
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How effective is rinsing in removing microbes from surfaces

Microbes including viruses stay alive on surfaces depending upon the type of the surface like steel, wood, plastic, glass, marble etc. How effective is rinsing these surfaces with tap water in ...
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How quicky does dental pH change after eating?

I would like to know how quickly after eating I can expect the pH do change in my mouth, and how quickly this will cause dental damage. Obviously any answer to this will have plenty of caveats (diet, ...
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How is minimum infectious dose defined?

I'm a bit confused by the concept of a minimum infectious dose (MID). It seems from what my research so far has turned up, that while any dose greater than 0 could potentially cause an infection, for ...
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Can I find out what resistance bacteria has based on strain? where do I look for that info?

I have a list of strains across various organisms for example: Escherichia coli - ATCC 25922, CGSC 6152, W3110RL. Pseudomonas aeruginosa - ATCC 27853, PAO1, APAE1111. I'm failing to find any ...
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Optimal bacterial vegetative cell inactivation method(s) after subtilis spores germinated under pressure

I am writing a PhD research proposal and being a newbie in the field I am lost a little bit in the bacterial vegetative cell inactivation methods in foods. I should propose two main methods to my ...
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Is there a bacterium that became a virus?

Is it possible for a virus to be a descendant of a bacterium that was not through horizontal gene transfer? How I think this could happen: Suppose a species of bacteria lives in an environment where ...
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What are the methods to quantify the bacterial adhesion rate for the biofilms grown on coupons in CDC or annular bioreactor, non-invasively?

I'm interested to know that if I grow the biofilm on coupons in the CDC bioreactor at a particular shear stress, and after say 48 hours, I take out the coupon from the bioreactor to quantify the ...
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What is the protein composition of complete Freund's adjuvant?

The complete form of this adjuvant uses heat inactivated and dried mycobacteria. However, to rule out cross-reactivity with an antibody, I would like to know which proteins are left in the adjuvant. ...
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What is the principle behind Microagglutination test (MAT)?

Could some one please help me understand the principle behind the MAT. Also, is it only used to detect leptospira or can it be used to detect other pathogens as well? Kindly share links to papers if ...
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Is there a vaccine against the plague (Yersinia pestis)?

There seems to be recurrent events of infections of the plage (Yersinia pestis), from the well known Justinian plague to the Black Death and to recent years. In fact, two cases were reported in China ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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Is there a critical size for a bacteria colony forming?

I am a maths student doing a project based on modelling bacteria and phages. In one of my models the bacteria population reaches a population size of ~450 cells. Would a colony of bacteria this size ...
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Growing Mouth Bacteria in a bowl of sugar water

I want to teach my nephew why brushing in necessary and how sugar in mouth reduced by bacteria to acid. I plan to put sugar mixed water in bowl and take swab from his mouth and dip in bowl, and test ...
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Why doesn't infection with Clostridium Tetani immunize you?

What Immunity to COVID-19 Really Means - Scientific American It is less clear what those antibody tests mean for real life, however, because immunity functions on a continuum. With some pathogens, ...

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