Questions tagged [bacteriology]

A subdivision of microbiology dedicated to the study of bacteria.

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Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
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Why is E.coli used as a model?

Is there a reason for the choice of E.coli as a model for many bacterial systems? Other bacteria such as B.subtilis are also used, but why is E. coli preferred?
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Possibility and feasibility of producing designed antibodies with bacteria

As stated here it is possible to produce fragments of antibodies in bacteria and harvest them (from the medium, I guess, but I don't have access to the full article). As it is possible to design ...
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Is there a practical upper limit to amount of nucleotides or genes in a transformed plasmid?

I'm currently working on a synthetic biology project which involves working with lots of different parts. I would ultimately like to integrate these genes by transforming a single plasmid. I've heard (...
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Why do soil bacteria produce nitrous oxide as a result of anhydrous ammonia fertilizer application?

The NPR article and 4 minute audio news item Can Anyone, Even Walmart, Stem The Heat-Trapping Flood Of Nitrogen On Farms? discusses unexpected contributions of greenhouse gasses from the manufacture ...
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What are the most important factors influencing a person’s gut microbes?

You are your bacteria! The probiotics and the antibiotics... There has been on going discussions about how our gut bacteria is important for a healthy lifestyle. Figure 1: Schematic diagram ...
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Is 100% antibacterial resistance possible?

The quest to develop antibacterial and antibiotic substances has often been described as an arms-race, as bacterial life develops resistance, requiring us to develop novel agents which can effectively ...
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What effect do oligosaccharides, like those found in legumes, have on the composition of intestinal flora in humans and if so how so?

I know that intestinal flora metabolising oligosaccharides, like those found in legumes, is the cause for the well known fact that legumes cause flatulence, but does an oligosaccharide-rich intestine ...
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What is the length of anaerobic biodigestion stages?

I have built an experimental portable batch biodigester to process organic garbage. A 50L drum filled half with garbage, half with water and with some cow dung added for inoculation, is connected from ...
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Flow cytometry issues

I'm having problems with data analysis here. I have flow cytometry data being collected on a Fortessa, and when I import them into FlowJo 8.7, all of my fluorescence values are systematically 10X ...
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What does the “Psi” in “Psi broth” stand for?

When making competent cells I've been using a medium called "Psi broth", which per liter consists of 20 g tryptone, 5 g yeast extract and 5 g MgSO4. Today I got curious about why it's called "psi". Is ...
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What is the difference between a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and a plasmid?

Is it just that a BAC is generally larger and artificially constructed? Or are there any other differences?
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Sparking during electroporation of plasmid DNA into bacterial cells

During electroporation of bacterial cells (I work with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but I think this applies to E. coli as well), sometimes I get sparking. I've read this is due to salts present, ...
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Cheapest way to measure S. aureus and Rhinoviruses density at home

I would like to measure the surface density of Staphylococcus bacteria and Rhinoviruses (only those two, to be specific) within my home. What's the cheapest way? The textbook procedure is to: rub a ...
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What are gram negative and positive bacteria?

I've just finished a course of double antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori in my stomach. I looked up H. pylori and found that it was a gram-negative bacterium. I looked up gram-negative and didn't ...
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What determines the efficiency of electron production in photosynthetic bacteria?

Is there a specific gene involved, perhaps? Would one be able to genetically engineer a bacterium to oxidize water and generate electrons quicker? I am speaking about this biological problem in terms ...
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How long can C. Tetani survive in soil?

Clostridium tetani (C. tetani) is a bacterium commonly found in soil and is excreted in the faeces of many animals (both mammals and birds) and serves, by means of the exotoxin, tetanospasmin, causes ...
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How to grow bacteria?

We have this science experiment on how to grow a bacteria, our teacher told us to use gelatin, beef stock, and sugar as an alternative for agar. I am confused on why we need gelatin, beef stock, and ...
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Why do bacteria eat enamel?

What causes tooth decay bacteria or acids? I've been told that it is a combination of both but why would bacteria eat enamel? There are much easier supplies of protein for bacteria to munch through (...
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Does antibacterial soap work chemically?

Normal soap requires scrubbing, does anti-bacterial soap require scrubbing too? Since it (I assume) works chemically, can I produce the same cleansing effect without lathering with soap and using anti-...
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Can pathogens enter the bloodstream if the epidermis has been scraped off?

Assume that the epidermis has been scraped off by a fall (not just scratched). Also assume that the dermis is completely untouched. Does this allow pathogens to enter the body more easily, or does the ...
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Why is AMR not widespread?

we know that resistant strains (MDR, XDR, PDR) have arisen in single incidents around the globe but why are these bacteria not common and not spreading quickly as humans keep using antibiotics and ...
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371 views

What really causes the toxicity of wrongly-thawed meat?

(Note: I've seen multiple related questions over at Cooking.SE, but I'm looking for a scientific explanation, not cooking advice!) I've been researching this for a couple of hours but the more I read,...
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Why doesn't the rest of the body have something like the “blood-brain” barrier to protect itself from pathogens?

According to Wikipedia: "The blood–brain barrier acts very effectively to protect the brain from most pathogens". This is because the pathogens cannot pass through the tight junctions of the ...
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Medium for Pseudomonas?

What is a good minimal medium for Pseudomonas bacteria? Do I need different media for different Pseudomonas species?
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Blood consumption

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? There was a news-article about unnatural chemicals found in the blood of mothers. This reminded me about a question I have pondered upon ...
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How long can you effectively store a glycerol stock at -20 degrees Celsius?

I know that glycerol stocks are typically kept in a -80 °C freezer, however there are some people who do not have access to such equipment. How long would you be able to keep a glycerol stock at ...
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Neisseria meningitidis transformation into a pathogen

I read the wikipedia article about Neisseria meningitidis, and it says that N. meningitidis is a part of the normal nonpathogenic flora in the nasopharynx of up to 5–15% of adults In some cases ...
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How do parasites “reprogram” brains?

Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a parasite that uses ants as a second intermediate host (which means that ants aren't its primary host/target, but are rather a temporary host to help reach their main/...
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Can boiling water without high temperatures kill bacteria?

If you use a vacuum chamber to reduce the pressure of water such that it can boil at around room temperature will it still have the same effect on reducing harmful bacteria as boiling at the usual ...
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How does the immune system recognize pathogens?

There are useful and pathogenic bacteria in our body. How does the immune system differentiate between them?
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Bacteria resistance to natural antibiotics? [duplicate]

It is a known fact that bacteria develop immunity to antibiotics. Why then did not all bacteria develop immunity to natural antibiotics like penicillin in the fungi? It is for sure that fungi did not ...
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Why do some protocols require prewarming a liquid medium before inoculating?

For example, in this protocol for E. coli competent cell preparation, it says: Plate 10 uL E. coli BL21(DE3) cells on a LB-agar plate; incubate overnight (12 hours). Prepare 500 mL SOB medium ...
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What is the fastest growing bacterium?

E. coli has a generation time of about 20 min, and a single CFU will generate a colony a few millimeters in diameter after 16 hours of incubation. Is this the upper limit? How much faster can ...
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Correlating beta-lactamase expression to absorbance

When penicillin-resistant bacteria are grown in liquid culture media, β-lactamase is secreted into the medium. The supernatant of such a medium can be assayed for β-lactamase activity. ...
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Does making yogurt from non-pasteurized milk work against possible disease bacteria?

In the past, when there was no pasteurization, could making yogurt from milk lower the chance of getting infected by bovine tuberculosis (or other diseases from infected milk)? For example, would ...
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Why is there an increase of diagnoses of Lyme disease?

On the Center for Disease Control page for Lyme disease, you can see the progression of reported cases of Lyme disease from 2001 until 2016 and see that over time, there are more reported cases of ...
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Cyanobacteria: Gram negative or Gram positive?

My (school) textbook states that cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae") are Gram positive (no references provided). They mention this at several points over the chapter we're doing so it doesn't look like ...
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Using catalase-test to determine if Staphylo- or Streptococcus

If the microscope clearly shows bacteria of cocci morphology but it is difficult to determine if they are Staphylo- or Streptococcus, are catalase tests a good way to differentiate between the two ...
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Bacteria in our colons [duplicate]

During my education in Iran, until now, which I must say that I'm graduating high school this year and will go to college next year, our biology book has said that there's some bacteria in our colons ...
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939 views

How is phenol antiseptic?

What makes phenol an antiseptic, is it because of its acidity which may increase the proton concentration at cell membrane? I am unable to figure out the exact mechanism.
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Are there bacteria that respire anaerobically in aerobic conditions?

There are facultative anaerobic bacteria that switch to anaerobic respiration in an anaerobic state, but are there any organisms that would still perform anaerobic respiration even when shifted to ...
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Are aquatic filter feeders effective at cleaning water to a safe level?

I've been raising Daphnia magna cultures over the last few months as feedstock for freshwater aquarium fish. From my reading, Daphnia feeds on bacteria and single-celled algae, as well as other small ...
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Is there any way the food industry can benefit from biofilms?

I realize all of the disadvantages, but I am wondering if the food industry can actually benefit from the formation of biofilms.
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Functioning of BCG vaccine

I read (from Nature Volume507, S4–S7 (06 March 2014) : For reasons that are poorly understood, BCG protects only infants; it is ineffective in older children and adults. Its efficacy also ...
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Why do plasmids replicate on their own?

I know how plasmids can replicate independently of the main genome and know that they confer various properties to the bacteria and are useful in conjugation. My question is - what is the advantage ...
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How likely will 2 normal bacteria “attack” each other if they infect the same parts of your body?

I read this interesting article online about how deadly bacteria are known to attack other deadly strains of bacteria. https://www.google.com.sg/amp/s/phys.org/news/2013-02-deadly-bacteria-remarkable-...
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What prevent us from synthesizing a cell from “scratch”?

In this recent article "Design and synthesis of a minimal bacterial genome", they created a minimal cell with only 473 genes. However, they didn't synthesize all of the necessary components of the ...
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How can I make sure my UV-purificator kills bacteria?

I'm going to show a UV-purificator for water on science fair. How can I easily check if purificator kills most of the bacteria? I need a quick and possibly easy method.
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Why are plasmid genes not already incorporated into bacterial chromosomes if necessary for stressful situations?

If plasmids are important for bacteria to express specific genes under stressful conditions, why are these genes not already incorporated into their chromosome to begin with? What is the evolutionary ...