Questions tagged [bio-mechanics]

The study biological systems in regards to their ability to apply and respond to mechanical forces.

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Proof of shape of epithelia cells

In this article, the mentioned in the introduction that the the optimal shape of epithelia cells in drosophila tissue is hexagonal (packing is approximately 6). Is there an article that proves ...
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Are the muscles of all animals mechanically similar?

For instance, is the skeletal muscle of an elephant made of the same balance of fibers and cells as the skeletal muscle of a hippopotamus? I recognize that slow- and fast-twitch muscles are a thing, ...
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Calculate radius of curvature of DNA

I am using this article to calculate the radius of curvature of DNA. I know that 150bp segment of DNA length wraps itself 1.7 times around a histone core. There are 0.34nm/bp DNA's persistence length ...
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What are the mechanical properties of human skeletal muscle?

TL;DR: I need more information on the mechanical properties of human skeletal muscle; if you have such information, please give it to me. I'm writing something on how much more effective (or otherwise)...
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Biological reason for "deadlift face"?

Always when I deadlift at the maximum load, my face looks more or less like this: or this: The same applies for when I do other heavy-weight exercises. But what biological mechanism causes that? ...
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In human anatomy what is the purpose of measuring shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction separately if they cover the same range of motion?

In human anatomy what is the purpose of measuring shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction separately if they cover the same range of motion? For example, this video Goniometry Shoulder Abduction &...
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Actin-myosin cortex stiffness VS elasticity

I have two questions on the mechanics of actin-myosin network: 1- Actomyosin cortex as an elastic material is defined by its elastic modulus $E$. But I know that elasticity would be described by the ...
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1 answer
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Biomechanics of cells (stress, strain, tension..)

I am confused about the difference between stress, strain, tension, pre-strain and prestress in cells (especially in in-vitro experiments, like cell spreading on a substrate, cell doublets, cell ...
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Examples for oscillatory behaviour in the human body

I'm looking for examples in the human body which show periodicity, more precisely, I'm looking for examples of oscillating reactions that occur in the human body which can be modelled using the ...
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In human anatomy / biomechanics, what is the motion called when the arm swings sideways so the elbow moves in an arc of 90 degrees?

In human anatomy / biomechanics, what is the motion called when the arm swings sideways so the elbow moves in an arc of 90 degrees? So e.g. if a person was to elbow somebody behind them , or if ...
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The exact points of muscle attachment and the "equal and opposite force" that skeletal muscles apply

I've been trying to make a simple simulation of the human body executing some motions in Mathematica (the details are irrelevant), but I need to know some more information about muscles and how they ...
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why does water go from high to low osmotic pressure to decrease the size of the nucleus?

I am reading this paper "Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus" (linked below) https://jcs.biologists.org/content/joces/128/18/3375.full.pdf I am confused by this ...
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What are kinesiological factors? [duplicate]

I am in search of a term that describes movement, or practice of motor skills, as a factor of laterality. Would "kinesiological" be appropriate? I'll leave my two previous questions down ...
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Question about the basilar membrane mechanics (cochlea)

I am reading about the mechanics of the basilar membrane in the inner ear. In various publications, it is said that, at a specific position on the basilar membrane, the outer hair cells are activated ...
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Is there any small animal that can jump over a meter high/long?

By small, let's say less than 5 cm body length. I always thought that grasshoppers were the highest absolute jumpers in this class but the highest jump according to this article is 0.7 m...
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Why does the gravity of Earth appear in this formula estimating speed?

I'm currently reading the wonderful book The Dinosaurs Rediscovered by Michael J. Benton. It contains the formula $$v = 0.25 * g^{0.5} * SL^{1.67} * h^{-1.17}$$ where $v$ denotes velocity, $SL$ is ...
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How lungs can inhale and exhale? [closed]

I know that lungs are extended and compacted by muscles to create partial vacuum to breath in, or to create elevated pressure to breath out. But one thing seems not right to me... As far as I know, ...
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Origins of the body mechanics theory

In physical therapy and occasionally in sports coaching, there's often a precise description of the mechanics of what happens during the movement (which muscles are engaged, which joint moves where ...
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Human femur maximum strength

In this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=os98s9kBlOI it is demonstrated that a moose leg bone can support until nearly 10 tonne before break. Is there any similar demonstration on human femurs? ...
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Movement of the Thoracic Cage During Movements of the Thoracic Spine

Just for a bit of context: I am trying to create a 3D digital model of the human skeleton as the first step towards computer generated muscle simulation, and as such I want the skeleton to be as ...
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Do tarantulas and humans have the same mechanism for growing hair?

There's hair on my arms. Tarantulas also have hair on their arms. Is this the same type of hair?
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How does anaerobic burst-flight performance scale with mass?

Quails employ anaerobic burst flight to escape predators and the Quetzalcoatlus northropi have most likely used it during launch and climb out, then transition to soaring. Now, I have read these ...
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Etymology of eccentric/concentric contractions

I was wondering if anyone knew why the terms eccentric and concentric were chosen to refer to lengthening and shortening muscle contractions? The basic etymology of the words are to do with ...
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Highest bite force of a wolf?

Some sites say wolves can bite around 400 psi. But this site claims that when facing a peril they can deliver upto 1200 ?https://plexidors.com/myths-around-dog-bite-force/(skip to the 'How does that ...
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Why does resting potential not become continually more negative?

(Firstly, I know this is similar to other questions, but I have read those answers and they do not really cover this topic). My understanding of resting potential: action potential is not being ...
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Tensile strength of collagen?

Really specific question, but what is the average tensile strength of human collagen, type I? I've tried looking for it online, and either my google-fu skills are weak, or I'm just unlucky. Also, is ...
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about the muscle's tension's variables

I'm reading the paper "THE PROBLEM OF THE INTERRELATION OF CO-ORDINATION AND LOCALIZATION", which is written by N. Bernstein. The paper said "The degree of tension of a muscle is a function, in the ...
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Bite Force of Triceratops

Estimations (or measurements) of bite force is usually conducted for toothy predators like sharks, theropod dinosaurs and crocodiles. For example: Tyrannosaurus had a bite force of about 57 kN (about ...
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How are ants able to dig with such pointy limbs?

Digging is usually efficient with somewhat broader structures shovels, no one tries to shovel with an ice-pick. Given that ants have very pointy mandibles and thin wispy legs, how are they able to dig ...
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Reference for the bite force for Nile Crocodile

The (maximal) bite force of the Nile Crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is estimated around 22,000 Newton (refer to YouTube interview with Ofer Kobi, a crocodile conservation ranger and croc farm owner, ...
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How are the helices of MscL gating "attached"?

I'm attempting to model the mechanosensitive channels of large conductance (MscL) in E. coli for finite element analysis purposes. I have a number of papers where this has been done, and one shows the ...
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What is the purpose of the viscous gel in the Pacinian corpuscle?

I have read that 'when the stimulus (in this case pressure) is constantly applied, the gel repositions itself to prevent the formation of an action potential'. I don't really understand what this ...
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How does fungi network transfer substances between plants?

How does fungi network transfer substances between plants? I recently read a short article about fungi network. And I am wondering about how fungi network works (Mechanism). Plants have fungi ...
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Are there biological ratchet cycles that are small in number?

I recently came across the strange factoid that all animals that can jump do so to roughly the same height (within an order of magnitude). The argument was that the work done by muscles in a single ...
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Strongest bone in body

AS internet tells is it is thigh bone which is strongest, but why, it carry only upper part of body, does not heel or any foot bones should be strongest in body as they carry full body weight ?
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Muscle involved in carrying load on head

I have seen people carrying heavy load on their head especially in 3rd world countries, does carrying on head any benefit or harm, which muscle get strengthen in doing it?
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Are trees still carrying their leaves more likely to be felled by an autumn storm?

Is there evidence that trees still carrying their leaves are more likely to be felled by an autumn storm than trees already having lost their leaves? At first sight this seems plausible (and might be ...
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What’s the term used to define a terrestrial being that moves by using six limbs?

I know that Bipedal locomotion would describe how beings like humans and ostriches get around. Quadrupedal locomotion describes how beings like dogs and cats move around. What about insects, ...
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How did the largest/longest dinosaurs hold their head and necks up?

After seeing the images in the articles shown below, I am having a tough time understanding the mechanics of how these incredibly long and heavy necks can be supported outstretched like this. A rigid ...
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Any simulations of four-winged dinosaur flight? (microraptors)

This week's podcast of the BBC's Science in Action includes a section by Rory Galloway (12:20 to 18:30) covering the Dinosaurs ...
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Curved membrane effect

Curved Membrane effect: Movements of the tympanic membrane are more at the periphery than at the centre where malleus is attached which provides some leverage. This is called as curved membrane ...
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Three foramen lying in one vertical plane

In the human skull we can see that 3 foramina named as supraorbital notch(foramen) , infraorbital foramen and mental foramen share a common vertical plane. Is there any surgical significance of for ...
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How is the Force of Contraction Applied to the Tendons by the Muscle's Individual Fibers?

Image and question have been updated for clarity! The image above is a side view of a semi-transparent skeletal muscle. The dark red lines represent individual fibers, the blue lines represent ...
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How pulmonary vasculature removes embolism?

This book says: Pulmonary vasculature removes emboli before they reach into systemic circulation. I can speculate that if the emboli are made of fat or clot then our body could degrade it but how ...
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Why metacarpus is considered hand proper?

This textbook states The hand (or manus) consists of the following parts: (a) wrist or carpus, (b) hand proper (or metacarpus), and (c) digits (thumb and fingers). How could I justify why are ...
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How can skeletal muscles in the human body be modeled as levers? [closed]

From what I understand, human arms can be thought of as third class levers, so that the distance from your elbow to the place where the muscle attaches is effectively the distance to the fulcrum, so ...
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Why do we have the tibia and fibula (a 2nd bone) in the lower leg?

Does fibula participate in rotational movement of ankle or not (just like the radius in forearm)? If not, what is the purpose of that bone?
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How does the brain alter/inhibit muscle reflexes?

I can find lots of information on how stretch-reflexes/reciprocal-inhibition/autogenic-inhibition work but from them all it's unclear how exactly the brain interfaces/controls/disables such automatic ...
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Mechanics of Peregrine Falcon Dive Pull Up

There are loads of information on how fast the Peregrine Falcon dives, but aside from having specialized lungs, eyes, etc... to survive the dive. What mechanics does it use to pull out of such a dive,...
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What is the acceleration profile of the greyhound?

I'm interested in the acceleration curve over time that's typical of an adult greyhound prior to attaining this peak velocity. My curiosity is motivated by a desire to understand the biomechanical ...