Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

5
votes
1answer
147 views

Do chaperone proteins misfold?

If molecular chaperone proteins assist in the folding process of other proteins and misfolded proteins, can chaperone themselves misfold since they are also proteins? What would happen if chaperones ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

How can sodium and potassium from burned organic matter (ashes) reenter the ecosystem?

If you thoroughly burn something you end up with bunch of oxides and hydroxides, as far as I know. Sodium and potassium hydroxides are plentiful in ashes, which is why lye was created by soaking ...
2
votes
1answer
15 views

Can someone help me interpret these charts on fluorescent polarization?

I have to present an article about binding designed proteins to fentanyl for my biochem class; I understand everything except how to interpret these charts on fluorescence at the very top of Figure 2a:...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Calories burned for each activity - is numbers true? [on hold]

I always wonder if we burn 90 calories for running a 1 km distance and the same we’ll get by consuming 5 tea spoons of sugar, How is it possible energy from that little amount of matter able to push a ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

What is the importance of alkaline condition in biuret test?

Biuret test aims to quantify the amount of protein in a given unknown sample. Biuret agent contains copper sulphate, sodium potassium tartrate and Sodium hydroxide. Coppper ions form the complex of ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Chemical composition of human nucleoplasm?

I'm working on a computer visualisation of the inside of a human cell nucleus (embryonic stem cell for now if it makes a difference) and want a good approximation of the chemical composition of the ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

How can P450 distinguish between foreign and native compounds?

It is my understanding that P450 enzymes are capable of selectively degrading compounds that enter the cell from the outside (e.g. synthetic drugs) without damaging compounds that are metabolic ...
1
vote
0answers
15 views

Biological Nitrogen Fixation

I just studied Biological Nitrogen Fixation and saw it's reaction but i do not understand why there is 8 electrons and 8 protons are involved and Hydrogen molecule is formed side by side along with ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Naming of Secondary Structure Elements

I have 2 questions regarding the naming of secondary structure elements ($\alpha$-helix and $\beta$-sheets), like helix C or sheet 2, which are often used in publications. Example protein: CYP1A2 ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Where would vegetarians/vegans get a substitute of hemo/myoglobin from?

As far as I understand, there is a difference in the iron absorbed from meat than from other sources like grains and vegetables. If this is the case, is it possible that not ingesting the hemoglobin ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Why does carbon dioxide diffuse easier through the bilipid layer than oxygen?

When gas exchange occurs during respiration, the pressure of oxygen in alveoli is around 105 mmHg, whereas in the blood vessels in close contact with alveoli is 40 mmHg. For carbon dioxide the values ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Conversion of 2E trans-2-enoyl CoA to 3E trans-2-enoyl CoA

I am working on a project that aims to synthesize a particular molecule from a purely synthetic route, in doing so I am attempting to create a strain of e.coli which would be able to use its trans ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

If two substances use enzyme P450 to metabolize which one is metabolized first?

This is specific to Sertraline and Cannabidiol (CBD). Both substances use Cytochrome P450 enzymes to metabolize the substances but does one take over the other? Example. If someone took x mg of ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Is there a software simulator for monomeric formation, a la Miller-Urey?

At the moment, does any widely-available software exist for small-scale, programmable simulation of monomeric formation in specific conditions? Could one, for instance, recreate the Miller-Urey ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

What happens to Bacterial Cells stored at 4 degrees?

4C is when water is most dense and is not so low as to cause ice crystal formation. For short term storage bacterial cultures are often simply kept in a fridge at 4C. I guess that this significantly ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

plant uptake of large molecules

I have read several studies concluding that plants can indeed take up molecules with a molecular weight largar than 390 g/mol. Does this mean plants do also take up large molecules like hormones if ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Why does hydroxylation of fatty acids occur in the middle of the acyl chain and increase fluidity?

I wanted to check and see why a) hydroxylation of fatty acids is most likely to occur in the middle of the acyl chain and b) why that increases fluidity. If our goal is to increase fluidity, then by ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Lipids triacylglicerol

I wanted to ask about triacylglycerol fatty acid, as you know its got 3 fatty tails. A hydrogen-saturated tail creates more van der Waals connections with neighboring fatty acids and the melting ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

How are fingerprints formed?

I know what influences the fingerprints to be unique always. But what actually process is taken to make these as we grow?
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Muscular tetany and hypocalacemia

Decreased serum calcium level leads to increased excitability of neuron and at same time decreases the contractibilityof the muscle fibres.But still its causing tetany.Wouldn't these two counteract to ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

PBS or TBS, where cannot use each buffers?

As you know, Tris buffered saline and Phosphate buffered saline is multipurpose. For finding each buffer's use, there's so many use experiment for PBS and TBS. TBS uses for western blotting, and PBS ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Why might a cell have no respiratory reserve capacity?

I am trying to understand why a cell might have minimal respiratory reserve capacity in the presence of unlimited substrate supply. This essentially means that the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Why is there a layer of moist lining the inner walls of alveoli?

I'm taught that the walls of the alveoli are moist, so gaseous oxygen molecules can dissolve into this water. This then allows the dissolved oxygen (liquid state) to diffuse faster from the alveoli ...
4
votes
1answer
85 views

Difference in Basic Amino Structures

I'm having a hard time understanding why my slides in my biology course have two different representations of the "basic structure" of the amino acid: 1: 2: The top one seem like what I would ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

What is the composition of a standard diluent buffer in a leptin ELISA kit?

I am trying to find the composition of the diluent buffer used for the dilution of a human leptin stock to be used in an ELISA assay. The manufacturer of the kit (https://www.thermofisher.com/elisa/...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

How is Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on acetate and ammonium able to produce TCA intermediates?

I am working with a metabolic model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and I am studying its growth on acetate and ammonia. I am performing Flux Balance Analysis to compute the growth rate and then I am ...
3
votes
0answers
25 views

Can an epileptic seizure start in the spinal cord?

My understanding of an epileptic seizure is caused by "invalid electrical signaling" in the brain. Can these start from the spinal cord (outside the brain) and move into the brain and cause an ...
3
votes
1answer
22 views

Where does the additional 1 proton cost of oxidative phosphorylation come from?

I've been quite confused by the source of the additional 1H+ cost right now. I know it costs the F1Fo-ATP synthase 3H+ to produce an ATP, and it is also stated that: ADP3−cytoplasm + ATP4−matrix → ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Sweating at all temperatures

Is sweating possible if surrounding temperature is below the body temperature? How the sweating occur due to the combustion of food?
5
votes
1answer
73 views

What are the sources of molecular hydrogen in human breath?

In the BBC News article CES 2019: Tech preview of the expo's hottest new gadgets there is a new product that one can use to measure the hydrogen in ones breath, and this is supposed to have some ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Production of ATP Synthase [duplicate]

I have been reading about the ubiquitous use of ATP as an energy source in biology. ATP Synthase is a very complicated protein enzyme. My question is, how could this protein have arisen. To form ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Why are higher doses of atropine required to produce central effects?

Reason given in my book is restricted entry into the brain..is it something to do with the chemisty?
1
vote
0answers
19 views

How to grow a Spirulina biofilm on a carbon/graphite cylindrical cathode

I am trying to grow a spirulina biofilm on my cathode for a fuel cell but it doesn't seem to be sticking to the cathode. I have a culture of spirulina and I've submerged a few cathodes in it to try ...
-1
votes
2answers
79 views

Why biologic systems tends to become more complex?

From elements, chemical compounds, cells, multicellular organisms, society evolves and with each step possibilities increase and things get complex. We are builing structures like ribosome builds ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Osmotic Pressure Clarification

My textbook states that the higher concentration of solutes, the greater the osmotic pressure will be and the greater the pull of water in will be. However, osmotic pressure is defined "as the ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

can magnesium bicarbonate be absorbed in the mouth?

Can Magnesium Bicarbonate be absorbed in the mouth?" Magnesium Bicarbonate occurs naturally in some mineral waters.
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Inhibition of beta-oxidation by acetyl- or malonyl-CoA

Which molecule, in excess, inhibits beta-oxidation? a. Acetyl-CoA b. Malonyl-CoA The answer to this question seems debatable to me, as I think both are correct. However, according to my ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

Technical reason that specialized embryonic cells form

During the embryonic stage of human development, rapid cell division occurs and specialized cells form to build the various parts of the developing fetus. I'm curious: Why technically do specialized ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Is studying chemical and physical properties of chemical substances that make up organisms really a task of molecular biology?

I have read in a high school textbook that (translated into English by myself): "Branch of science that concerns itself with studying chemical and physical properties of substances that make up ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Why don't primates have galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), but other mammals do?

I read in wikipedia that: Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, commonly known as alpha gal, is a carbohydrate found in most mammalian cell membranes. It is not found in primates, including humans. My ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Are the chemical constituents of human bodily fluids similar to sea water?

I have heard a comparison of human bodily fluids to sea water from various sources in the past. The most notable was a teacher who claimed, if I remember correctly, embryonic fluid is comparable in ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Resting membrane potential in cells

My textbook says “Among K+, Na+ and Cl-, K+ contributes to the resting membrane potential the most, because it has the greatest permeability across the membrane.” I agree with this, but I’m just ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

What is the difference between a signal peptide and a transit peptide?

From what I know, the two names are used interchangeably and I haven't found any resource which says otherwise either. Is there at all any difference, is there a transit peptide that is not a signal ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Can we spike with a different enzyme to a SYBR Green Master Mix?

I followed the standard SYBR Green Protocol for doing a qPCR. For which I used 10 uL of 1X SYBR Green Master Mix Forward Primer and Reverse Primer (each at a final conc. = 8.5 uM) Template (unknown ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

Design rules for DNA linkers

I want to use double stranded DNA linkers to physically bind two "things" together, by grafting ssDNA on each one of them and using DNA hybridization as the locking mechanism. I do not expect the ...
2
votes
2answers
303 views

How does zoo and laboratory animal feeding work?

What steps are taken to ensure those animals are fed adequately? When dealing with larger populations of animals, how is it ensured that all of those animals received food during a certain time period,...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

How do the chemicals in our skin react with stainless steel?

What acid/chemical in human skin can react with stainless steel to leave a black mark on the skin? Why is it secreted/produced in larger quantities by some people and not by others?
9
votes
1answer
119 views

Why don't the heads of phospholipid bilayers repel hydrophobic molecules?

What I Think I Know: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic things repel each other. Since the cell membrane contains hydrophobic tails, it is difficult for hydrophilic molecules to pass through the cell ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

What characteristic(s) of inverse agonists allow for inhibitory effects?

I know that inverse agonists have similar structure to its complement agonist; and, as a result, they have the ability to bind to the same receptor, causing an inhibition of the pathway considered. ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Why does pyruvate from lactate and pyruvate from other sources follow different pathways in gluconeogenesis?

My teacher taught me in a lecture that PEP forms from Pyruvate by two ways, based on their sources, that is - 1. If the Pyruvate was from lactate (by lactate dehydrogenase action), it gets shuttled ...