Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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What should be used in laundry to reduce chances of reinfection of toenail fungus? [closed]

I am being treated for chronic toenail fungus with an oral med, terbinafine HCL. I am also soaking my feet in warm water with epsom salts daily and applying tea tree oil to the infected toenails. I ...
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Can 2M2B in beer cause any significant effects on consciousness compared to ethanol?

I have read that about 0.07% of beer is 2M2B, and in another place it was claimed it is 25-50 times more potent than ethanol in its effect. This means, beer should be as potent as 17-34% vodka due to ...
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Question in gel chromatography experiment

Here I am trying to do gel chromatography to separate vitamin B12 and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in this experiment, I am using sephacryl s-100 HR gel column my question is can I use Phosphate ...
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Kinetics data on enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse [closed]

Where can I get the kinetics data for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse
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Biochemical Mechanism behind red hibiscus flower on a cream hibiscus plant

I have two 3-4 yrs old cream hibiscus shrubs in my garden. The shrubs seemed normal enough, giving cream colored petals with a red center. But soon I noticed that there are specific branches, which ...
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At what age are mice considered too old for their thymus to stop being functional and produce T cells?

I am studying the effects of radiation on the immune system of mice. After exposing them to radiation, we will be harvesting their spleen, lymph nodes and blood to investigate immune cells such as T ...
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Question on thick filaments

In this photo, I know that the arrows pointing towards the M-line of sarcomere on actin filaments are due to the power strokes of myosin heads. However, what I don't understand are the arrows on the ...
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Chlorin ring radical cation [closed]

I have read about light and dark reactions of photosynthesis. However, I couldn't find any source showing the direct mechanism by which chlorophyll radical cation is formed: which bond is broken when ...
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1answer
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How is silica transported to the leaves of genus Dendrocnide trees to form stinging needles for toxin delivery?

I just read the NYTimes' This Tree’s Leaves Look Soft and Inviting. Please Don’t Touch Them. which mentions the genus Dendrocnide and that Wikipedia section begins with: Contact with the leaves or ...
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What are the carbohydrates that are found in white rice?

From this Wikipedia page on rice, it is mentioned that 100g of rice contains 80 g of carbohydrates, of which 0.12 g is "sugar" and 1.3 g is "fibre". I believe the "fibre" ...
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Natural Toxins and Medicine

How are natural venoms and toxins (e.g. spider and snake venoms) used to make antidotes? In other words, what is in that venom that is part of a harmful substance but, when used correctly, can ...
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Transcription of two different factors from the same transcription factor - seeking a relation between concentrations

Let's assume that: Factor $X$ enters nucleus and results in the transcription of two different factors, $A$, and $B$. $X$ $\to$ $A$ $X$ $\to$ $B$ Can it be expressed as $[A]=\alpha [X]$ or $[A]=\...
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How do organophosphates affect kidney function?

Many organophosphates, besides inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, can also permanently inhibit the enzyme neuropathy target esterase, leading to nerve damage. NTE also happens to be found in the kidneys,...
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How is it thought that phosphine is synthesized by living organisms on Earth?

The recent (Sept. 2020) report of “Phosphine gas in the cloud decks of Venus” states that phosphine (PH3) is only known to occur on Earth due to anaerobic life. Quoting from a report in the New York ...
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Who discovered DNase?

I was recently studying genetics in which DNase had a crucial role in proving DNA to be the genetic material and I tried to find who discovered DNase (like the discoverer of DNA) but in vain. Who ...
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Is there an enzyme that functions without being associated with a complex?

I'm looking for an enzyme that does not function as part of a complex in its active state. Preferably it also is not part of a kinase or other kind of activating cascade as well though I would ...
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Is a virus a poison?

I've understood that a virus is not a living organism (like e.g. a bacterium). From Wikipedia I get that a poison is a substance that reacts physically or chemically with molecules in the human body. ...
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Killing enveloped viruses with soap

Unlike non-enveloped viruses, enveloped viruses can be killed with soap, alcohol, etc. Why? Why does just having an envelope make it susceptible to soap and alcohol?
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What specific markers does a Covid-19 PCR test look for?

I've done a search and can't find anything as to what specifically makes a Covid-19 positive that identifies it as unique. I would expect to see something like this: https://madridge.org/journals-...
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1answer
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Why are fatty acids synthesized in two carbon units?

Why does long-chain fatty acid synthesis involve the two-carbon precursor, malonyl CoA, rather than the one-carbon acetyl CoA (or even a three-carbon precursor). Is this because fatty acids with an ...
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Could DNA replication fail in the far future? [closed]

Assuming that all environmental conditions on Earth remain the same in distant future, the tendency of nature to increase entropy would cause the chemistry and the mechanism of DNA replication to ...
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How does mannitol decrease intracranial pressure?

What is the mechanism by which mannitol is able to reduce intracranial pressure? Also why aren't other substances used for this purpose such as say sorbitol (an epimer) or in fact any other ...
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1answer
24 views

How does the light-independent stage of photosynthesis get H+ ions?

From what I understand from my grade 11 biology: During the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis, water molecules split, producing hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The oxygen atoms are basically “waste ...
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Does the harvesting time of broccoli sprouts change their glucoraphanin content and sulforaphane formation capacity?

Does anybody know if the harvesting time affects glucoraphanin content and sulforaphane formation of broccoli sprouts? Do they also get affected by light exposure or lack of it?
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How would one track a mineral nutrient in a plant in order to prove that nutrient has been re mobilized?

Before abscission - senescence of a plant structural components that contain mineral nutrients (E.g. Magnesium, Potassium...) are re-mobilized from the senescent tissue and used in other plant tissue ...
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What determines whether a reaction using ATP produces ADP or AMP?

Most reactions using ATP seem to involve: ATP → ADP + Pi but in some the reaction is ATP → AMP + PPi followed by hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate: PPi → 2Pi Is there any principle that determines which ...
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Is there a chemical reaction that blocks two cysteines by reacting with a third molecule?

The idea is to block the two cysteines so they can't react in the future. We need the reaction to remove the -SH groups of the two cysteines, or modify them. Also important, the reaction should not ...
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Absorption of glucose in small intestine

During the absorption of glucose in the small intestine, glucose enters the epithelium by Na+/glucose co-transporter by the concentration gradient of Na+. The gradient is generated by pumping 3Na+ out ...
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Apparent paradox in Glucagon action

Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, thus increasing the plasma glucose concentration — so that tissues get enough glucose in the fasting state. However glucagon also inhibits ...
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Coronavirus: Why does soap inactivate the virus on skin, but not on surfaces?

In a comment on "Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions", published today in The Lancet Microbe, it is stated that household soap is highly effective on the skin. Not ...
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Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
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Why severely increased Ligand (eg Hormones) concentration downregulates the Receptor?

As an example continuous high blood level of GnRH in humans causes a suppression of LH and FSH. This is due to the fact that increased GnRH downregulates GnRH-Receptors . My question is how this is ...
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Why does the sandalwood tree produce a fragrant oil?

Why do sandal trees produce fragrant oil? Is there any purpose for it? Is it to make it unpalatable for other herbivorous animals? If so, why do humans find the fragrance pleasing?
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kcat in uncompetitive enzyme inhibition

Why doesn't $k_\text{cat}$ change in uncompetitive inhibition, given the fact that uncompetitive inhibition lowers the enzyme–substrate complex efficiency (which is the reason for lowering of $V_\text{...
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1answer
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Partial pressures of different gas in human blood and how they are calculated?

In Respiratory Physiology, we use the $P_x{O_2}$ and $P_x{CO_2}$ in blood at different regions of the peripheral circulation. From my Chemistry knowledge I know that $P_x$ of a gas in a solution is ...
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What is the difference among these compounds?

I'll preface this question by making clear that I'm not not well versed in biology. Anyway, within the context of biocides/antimicrobial products using them as active substances, what is the ...
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Book recommendation: protocols and recipes handbook for molecular biology / biochemistry

I'm a 5th-year PhD student in chemical biology. I've mostly been doing computational work, so my bench skills are rusty. To help me, I'd like a handbook of common techniques -- transformations, ELISA, ...
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Activated carrier molecules and their relationship to enzymes

I am reading Molecular Biology of the Cell, and one thing I don't quite get is the difference between an enzyme and an activated carrier molecule. I understand that enzymes lower the activation energy ...
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Why do insects' “most sensitive photoreceptors” consume so much energy that it exerts evolutionary pressure to minimize their number?

The video Wireless Steerable Vision for Live Insects and Insect-scale Robots from the University of Washington's Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science begins with the following: Vision is an ...
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Why doesn't enzyme reaction rate rise linearly with substrate concentration?

This is the graph of the Michaelis-Menten equation which describes the relationship between reaction rate and substrate concentration: I don't understand why it is hyperbolic. Intuitively, I would ...
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Why is it (allegedly) dangerous to feed ducks with breadcrumbs and pieces of bread?

I used to go down to the local lake all the time with leftover bread and throw little pieces of it to the hungry duckies, who very eagerly fetched it and ate it while happily quacking away. I thought ...
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What are the differences between how latewood and earlywood forms and how does this effect it's properties?

In trees the earlywood forms a somewhat abrupt transitions to the darker latewoods that happen during the summer months. What are the chemical differences that arise in this wood at the cellular and ...
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How do anticholinesterase pesticides kill nematodes?

Compounds that inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase are commonly used as pesticides. In animals with centralized respiratory systems controlled by the nervous system, poisoning with an ...
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State of extracted DNA

A well-known and commonly-done experiment is to extract DNA from strawberries or other fruit by first mashing the fruit of choice, adding the mush to a mixture of water, salt, and detergent, and then ...
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educational sources for learning biochemistry

I just finished high school and am going into a biology undergraduate degree, I'm getting into biochemistry too and would like to learn more about it through online platforms or even non-fiction books ...
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Is there an antidote for caffeine, e.g. as a supplicant for caffeine-intolerant persons?

First, let me state I'm not talking about a medical emergency. No one is in a serious condition. My girlfriend is, we think, caffeine-intolerant. She loves the smell of coffee and the habit of coffee ...
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Biochemistry of production of a yogurt counterpart from coconut milk

About yogurt: The biochemistry of changing animal milk to yogurt is well known. Recapitulating: After some preperatory steps the milk is inoculated with bacteria that consume lactose, producing lactic ...
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Quantification of various amino acids from bacteria?

I would like to characterise how much of various (uncommon) cytosolic amino acids are produced in bacteria, and was wondering if there are good suggestions of how to go about doing this. I know that ...
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1answer
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Will ammonia continue to accumulate in an aquarium tank if a strong antibacterial or chlorine is added to the water?

I've always wondered what would happen if dead plants and fecal matter lay in chlorinated waters and/or waters treated with strong antibacterials or antibiotics. I've heard that aquarium tanks ...
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If Melatonin is anti-gonadal, why is it associated with early sexual maturity in congenitally blind girls?

If melatonin is anti-gonadal, that is, it delays sexual maturity, then shouldn’t it delay sexual maturity in congenitally blind girls rather than helping them attain sexual maturity at an early age?

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