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The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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can “Pandanus amaryllifolius”[used in cooking] become poisonous if grown near drainage

how do they absorb wastes and become not suitable for eating
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Soybeans' bitter taste

What specific substances cause the bitter taste of the cooked soybeans? Is there a way they can be removed, except cooking?
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23 views

Why is the macromolecular composition of a human cell seemingly hard to find?

I am trying to find a 3D rendering or list of molecules by volume in a cell (originally I was searching for human, but I'll take any at this point!). I understand the open-endedness of the question: ...
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23 views

Why is melanin brown or black?

Why is melanin only black or brown in the visual spectrum? Melanin absorbs UV A and B in the ultraviolet spectrum, but it reflects brown light in the visual spectrum. What exactly give it it's ...
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Young family members to learn genetics - Amino Labs?

I'm an engineer but want to learn about biology with a niece and nephew who are early teens. I saw Amino Labs (https://amino.bio/) and thought because I work a lot with my hands, doing hands on ...
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7 views

hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization vs hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization which is better?

hydrogen peroxide vapour sterilization vs hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilization which is better?can i use a ultrasonic mist maker to make hydrgen peroxide vapour?Can use the vapour in a glove box?
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8 views

Why is serum ferritin elevated in Chronic disease anemia?

I've been searching the reason of this but I've been not able to find it.
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1answer
34 views

When in Ampicillin degraded (gone) in liquid TB-media? Concerns about selectivity

Question: Specifically regarding Ampicillin; When growing cells in TB (terrific broth) for protein expression - when should I expect the ampicillin to be gone due to degradation by b-lactamases? (and ...
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1answer
19 views

How would a medication cause a one to maintain a different weight?

This isn’t really a medical question, I’m just really curious about this. I was maintaining weight A and then started taking a medication that brought me to weight B. While on the medication, I ...
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Does heat de-toxify yellow jacket (Vespula pensylvanica)) venom?

I know heat can de-toxify certain venoms, especially some marine stings. Is anyone familiar with whether this works on the venom of Vespula pensylvanica, the common Western Yellow Jacket.
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1answer
58 views

About The Selfish Gene Book - How Replicators Molecules forms duplicates?

I was reading The Selfish Gene. In the 2nd chapter - "Replicators" I read: Think of the replicator as a mold or template. Imagine it as a large molecule consisting of a complex chain of various ...
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13 views

What is the equation and mechanism of Hopkins-Cole Test reaction?

The Hopkins-Cole reaction or glyoxylic acid reaction, is a chemical test used for qualitative detecting of tryptophan in protein solutions. tryptophan + glyoxylic acid + sulfuric acid > violet ...
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10 views

Why the same complex compounds occur and play different roles in different organisms?

For instance, in humans estrogens function as sexual hormones, but they also occur in many plants, where obviously their role is totally different. Some compounds, such as psilocybin have psycho-...
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17 views

What is the actual charge of NAD at physiological pH (roughly 7)?

I am curating a metabolic model using CobraPY. Mass imbalances often occur in equations. Many different websites e.g. Kegg, ModelSEED, PUBCHEM, etc. have differing charges and formulas for compounds. ...
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1answer
29 views

Neuroscience - A neuron with two types of synapses (electrical and chemical) at the same time

I learn that the nerves from the Peripheral Nervous System can carry signals from and to other organs of the body. I'm wondering if A Single Nerve carries 1) Only chemical signals 2) Only physical ...
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17 views

How to calculate the Marker Index(MI) for a dominant marker such as RAPD and ISSR?

I am working in the genetic diversity analysis of a plant species and have used RAPD and ISSR markers. After scoring the data in a binary matrix, I am trying to find the marker index of the primers. I ...
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1answer
15 views

Michaelis-Menten equation; how to find the constants from enzyme activity experimental results?

I was wondering what the constants in the Michaelis-Menten equation actually mean in experimental data of enzymes. How do I process the data to find Km and Kcat? I did an experiment on catalase and ...
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23 views

What chemical effect does stress cause in the body that causes so many problems?

Mental discomfort, "stress", isn't a thing that in itself can cause physical problems in the body, yet again and again I see medical articles cite stress as a trigger for countless problems, usually ...
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1answer
28 views

Pyruvate oxidation - where did the hydrogen come from?

As shown in the diagram above, NAD+ is reduced and becomes NADH by gaining two electrons Now, where did the hydrogen come from? In the diagram, pyruvate has 3 hydrogen, but it still has 3 hydrogen ...
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1answer
53 views

What proportion of proteins require chaperone-assisted folding?

I am new to the field of biochemistry (I am a chemist, actually). I have long known the process of folding as the process that leads to the minimum energy conformation of a protein. Now, I am ...
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2answers
86 views

If I stop consuming protein, will I still excrete urea? [closed]

Will an animal that is not eating any aminoacids stop excreting urea (or whichever other form of excreting nitrogen)? If the body is not in a position to lose nitrogenated compounds, in which ...
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1answer
51 views

Mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion

Is there any known mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion? This video explains a mechanism, but its inherently wrong because ATP dependent K+ channels will allow movement of K+ from ...
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22 views

Finding whether a DNA strand contains duplicate sequences

I know that using Hybridization Probes one can check if a nucleotide sequence complementary to the probe is present in a DNA strand by marking it and then verifying whether it attached the strand or ...
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2answers
35 views

Is it ok to keep primers at 4 degrees?

I reconstitute my primers in nuclease free water ( no sterilised) this morning and I forgot them at 4 degrees, acording to the instructions, they should be storage at -20 after the reconstitution. I ...
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12 views

CETP inhibitors and LDL levels

While CETP inhibitors effectively reduce LDL, they also paradoxically increase the frequency of adverse cardiovascular events (angina, revascularization, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and ...
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2answers
50 views

What is protein secondary structure?

Could someone please clarify what is protein secondary structure: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_secondary_structure I believe I understand the primary structure, I am not sure what's the ...
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19 views

Cell signaling pathway inhibition

So cell signaling pathways are important, but how would one inhibit them? I can think of competitive inhibition, and inactivating protein kinases, but are there other methods that target other parts ...
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1answer
14 views

Technique to test antibiotic resistance in a bacteria in presence of another compound

so I have to 'quantitatively' assess a bacterial strain for its antibiotic resistance property (it is a specific antibiotic) in the presence and absence of another compound alongside antibiotic. What ...
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6 views

Experimental methods to demonstrate coupling of GPCRs [closed]

How would you experimentally demonstrate receptor coupling through each of the G proteins, Gs and/or Gi?
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1answer
20 views

Will the interaction of two proteins vary across different tissues? [on hold]

Suppose protein A and B is both abundant in tissue X an tissue Y. Will A and B interact in X but not interact in Y? I guess A and B could be biomarkers of a certain disease, and in the pathological ...
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1answer
70 views

How are Mono and Diglycerides metabolized without the Free Fatty Acids of Triglycerides?

Having difficulty figuring out what the body does with ingested mono and diglycerides if the usual process of TAG metabolism includes the FFA released from the TAG returning to the MAG to recreate a ...
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1answer
61 views

How can enzymes be immobilised on glass?

I’m studying a hypothetical model for urease activity, which involves fluorescence measurement, hence the need for an optical window to which the enzyme urease is immobilised. From my previous ...
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1answer
12 views

Who creates first nitrogen compounds in the food supply chain

As I understand the food supply chain, organic compounds have to be created from a unlimited source (air, water...). For instance, I figure that plants transform CO2 from air to organic carbon ...
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2answers
583 views

Is Tyrosine considered hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

I’ve seen Tyrosine classified as a hydrophobic amino acid due to its benzene ring in some textbooks and as hydrophilic due to its hydroxyl group in other textbooks. How does Tyrosine actually ...
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Can we take diffusion coefficient constant in modeling cellular signaling processes?

I am majorly interested in signaling through molecules inside living organism. I want to know that when we model any cellular signaling process, do we take diffusion to be constant of the protein/...
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1answer
29 views

Does body fat percentage effect storage of fat soluble compounds?

Would a person with a higher body fat percentage store more of a fat soluble compound, or store for a longer time, than a person with a lower body fat percentage if they both consumed the same amount ...
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2answers
54 views

What happens to Km when enzyme concentration is *very* high?

Let Km be an empirical measurement of a certain enzyme with concentration [E]. Theoretically, this value is constant and shouldn't vary when [E] goes up or down. Now let [E']=10*Km. Under this ...
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2answers
78 views

Protein - one polypeptide molecule or a collection of molecules?

I'm struggling a bit in Bio 111 with confusing terminology between the terms "chain" and "molecule". I understand the primary structure of a protein is a chain of amino acids connected by peptide (...
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10 views

stabilization mechanism

I am trying to simulate a soma with sealed end in both side and injected current in the middle of the soma. I used Na K and Ca voltage gated channels to get a concentration inside soma. I got a result ...
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1answer
46 views

What promoter is required for expression of a human protein Y in bacteria?

This is the actual question. It's from an entrance test for a research institute: A scientist wants to express human protein Y in bacteria. For effective expression of this protein he should use (A) ...
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41 views

How does the body differentiate between sources of good and bad cholesterol?

I keep hearing "good cholesterol, bad cholesterol" everywhere, and how certain food sources of cholesterol raise LDL and certain other raise HDL. I don't understand how any food can increase ...
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What is the role of histidine in hemoglobin?

The heme Fe+ can form 6 bonds. Four bounds to the four nitrogens of the porphyrin ring and another two additional bonds. One to the side chain of histidine and another to for oxygen. Histidine role ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there a notion of RMSD for two different molecules?

The (least) Root Mean Square Deviation is used for comparing different conformations of the same molecule. However one may be interested in comparing the conformations of two different molecules e.g. ...
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34 views

Why is plasma glucose concentration not double that of whole blood?

It is known that the concentration of plasma glucose is 12% higher than that of whole blood. But since 45-50% of whole blood is red blood cells, shouldn't the plasma glucose be almost double — since ...
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1answer
40 views

absorption time of zinc in the body

I would like to know how long it takes for the human body to absorb / digest a 10mg zinc capsule? Note: It is recommended to take zinc an empty stomach to gain the maximum effect. Regarding to that ...
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1answer
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How does chemical shift assignment from NMR spectroscopy is translated to three dimensional structure of protein?

I am currently involved in determination of protein structure using NMR spectroscopy. As part of structure determination I have finished the chemical shift assignment. The chemical shift information ...
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1answer
20 views

What is the dependent variable of a relative fluorescence graph?

So it was asked what was the dependent variable of this experiment. I know that as students, we're wired to think that the y-axis is the dependent variable while the x-axis is the independent variable ...
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1answer
46 views

How do Wikipedia users create the structure of proteins and peptides?

Recently I saw the structure of insulin on Wikipedia. And my question is that which software(s) or application(s) (I don't know the proper way to name it) do they use to create that picture of the ...
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3answers
87 views

How much energy we get from oxygen?

During a whole day breathing, how many kcal or watts do we get from the oxygen we breathe?
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1answer
66 views

From where does the oxygen in glucose come in photosynthesis?

Is it carbon dioxide or water? I'm talking about the oxygen present in glucose and not the oxygen that is released after photolysis of water.