Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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1answer
32 views

It there any experimental approach to determine the electronic structure of a given aminoacid inside a protein?

It there any experimental method to determine the electronic structure of a given amino acid inside a protein?
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Cellulase enzyme [closed]

I have read that B-glycosidase enzyme can break b-glycoside link using the carboxylic group in it. So can acetic acid or any carboxylic acid induce the same effect. I tested this by putting paper in ...
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1answer
41 views

Why does the structure for cellular retinol binding protein show interactions with cadmium ions?

A structure of cellular retinol binding protein (1CRB) contains two cadmium ions as ligands. Is Cd2+ a ligand of CRBP and, if so, is that interaction necessary for protein function or is the protein a ...
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1answer
26 views

How many water molecules will be produced starting from acetyl-CoA in citric acid cycle

I am puzzeled by the answer. Acetyl-CoA when enter citric acid cycle, it produces 3NADH, 1FADH2, total 4 reducing equivalents. If each one makes 1H2O, then 1acetyl-CoA should make 4H2O. Why some ...
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2answers
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What does the presence of 6 molecules of water in this equation indicates to?

so I was studying biology today and I went over this weird question that says: The presence of 6 molecules of water in this equation: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H20, Indicates that the: a) Complete ...
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28 views

Understanding HSV1 - What could be an appropriate/common path? [closed]

This question could be off-topic, but I will try to make it fit. I have no biology background at all but want to get a more detail understanding of Herpes Simple Virus 1 (HSV), how it works, how it ...
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24 views

Autodock4 -soft docking

AutoDock4 is a software tool for the analysis of protein-ligand interaction. How could I turn on/off the smooth potential in AutoDock4? I need to do two docking. The first one is soft docking with ...
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7 views

What's the difference between mannanase and mannosidase?

Specifically, in Aspergillus spp mannandegrading enzymes. I saw this table at the BRENDA's page for 3.2.1.25 and 3.2.1.78 enzymes and the synonims are reciprocal to me. So, why a mannanase is also (...
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12 views

Does food grade diatomaceous earth contain mercury

Not sure if this is the right site to ask this question, but since diatomes are or once were biological creatures it seemed to fit this one more than any of the others. I have been supplementing my ...
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21 views

Which terms am I looking for to understand the biochemistry of Pavlovian Conditioning?

There is a biochemical basis for every brain activity. Which terms am I looking for to understand the biochemistry of Pavlovian Conditioning?
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Would DMSO Be An Effective Solvent For Creating A Transdermal Absorption of NMN + Pterostilbene + TMG In Humans?

I've read conflicting information on this. If not DMSO, is there a better solvent to use?
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1answer
87 views

What advantage does lactose have as the main sugar in milk?

Most organisms have lactose as their main sugar in their milk. What advantage does lactose give have over sucrose (Which is a common sugar in the plants, so it makes sense for it to be present in ...
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2answers
147 views

What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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1answer
30 views

How can I liquefy egg shell membrane

I want to extract egg shell membrane from the eggs. And I want to put them together and turn them into fluid so that I can make whatever shape I want. Is there any method that can make them into fluid?...
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26 views

How can we digest lactose even though it has Beta glycosidic linkages?

I have Read that we cannot digest cellulose because we do not have enzymes to digest Beta glycosidic linkages in Cellulose Then how is it that we have an enzyme called Lactase to digest the Beta ...
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29 views

Does more ATP present mean that a microbe can ferment more and decrease the pH? [closed]

I noticed that EMP produces 2 ATP and EDP produces 1 ATP. Does that mean that if more ATP is present that would give more energy for fermentation and lowering the pH of a system?
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18 views

What are the chemicals in the gap at a synapse? [duplicate]

I am learning about (introductory level) biological psychology and the synapse structure came into mind. I do understand that neurotransmitters are transmitted between two neurons via the synapse ...
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1answer
31 views

Is chromosomal DNA more likely to interfere with restriction mapping or PCR analysis in E. coli?

We are characterizing YADH-1 in my biochemistry lab course. Over the course of the first weeks, we harvested E. coli cells, and isolated plasmid DNA via alkaline cell lysis. A previous exam for the ...
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4answers
183 views

What do the the different arrowheads mean in a cell signalling diagram?

What do the different arrowheads mean in the figure below? Are there arrows upstream or downstream signalling?
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1answer
49 views

In a sugar such as a disaccharide are both ends of the sugar known as reducing ends?

For example, in maltose (a disaccharide of glucose monomers) are both of the ends either side able to be opened to form an aldehyde group?
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1answer
35 views

Is there an adhesive that could used for larval fish?

I am currently working on an experimental design that requires a larval fish (~ 4mm long) to be affixed on a metal wire tip on its dorsal side. Now, I was thinking of a glue or adhesive to do the job, ...
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1answer
35 views

Does ingestion of alcohol with methylphenidate make it act more like dexmethylphenidate?

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It is the racemic mixture of d-MPH and l-MPH. According to the binding profile info on Wikipedia, based on studies, it is at ...
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1answer
62 views

Enzymes extracted from diferent tissue, may have diferent $K_m$ values under the same conditions?

My laboratory team has been used succinate dehydrogenase (1.3.5.1) from Gallus gallus domesticus breast (the most meated part of the chicken, where you will obtain nuggets) to determine $K_{m}$ and $...
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1answer
73 views

Why do we need to amplify DNA sequences?

I am learning about biotechnology. I have no education in biology or chemistry and am simply interested in the subject of biotechnology. I am wondering why we need to have multiple copies of a piece ...
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1answer
37 views

Is glutamate always involved in the deamination and amination of the other amino acids?

For example, are there pathways for the deamination of phenylalanine that simply produce ammonia or pathways for it to be synthesized from phenylpyruvate with ammonia being utilized to form the amine ...
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2answers
68 views

Can undigested food proteins enter the bloodstream?

I know that food proteins in our digestive system are denaturated and broken down into amino acids or very small peptides that are then absorbed in the small intestine. If some proteins stay ...
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Why aren't diatoms' shells used as a temperature proxy, but foraminifera shells are?

Changes in oceanic oxygen isotope ratios (O-18 to O-16) are reflected in the shells of ancient foraminifera. But I never hear of diatom shells being used, even though they were/are at least as ...
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20 views

Coagulation of protiens of different products

Protein of egg coagulates on 60 degree but proteins of milk do not coagulate at high temperatures..why? What is the main reason behind all this?
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Theoretical basis for amphetamine salt combo(Adderall) vs Dextroamphetamine

After re-reading the help questions I think this belongs here as I am more interested in the biochemical motivations rather than any medical query or advice(but may also fit Chemistry SE). So from ...
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4answers
163 views

Cheap enzyme assay for a high school lab

At the moment, I'm designing an experiment for a high school lab with no financial resources. I need to assess the impact of a variety of factors on a specific enzyme's reaction with its respective ...
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1answer
46 views

Do there exist enzymes that can take up multiple cofactors to do different reactions?

I was thinking about enzyme catalysis, and it seems like enzymes can only catalyse one kind of forward/reverse reaction (please correct me if I am wrong). Does there exist an enzyme that can catalyse ...
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35 views

How much Oxygen can the Human body carry?

Basically - the title: How much Oxygen does a human body carry at a single point? What have I tried: A friend of mine has done some calculations and came up with the following numbers. Neither of us ...
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2answers
49 views

What is the water and fat composition of the human brain?

Everywhere I look online says the brain is about 60% fat. But when it comes to water, I see numbers like 70-75%. One webpage even makes both those claims back to back! That doesn't make any sense. So ...
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36 views

Ligand-binding assays: IC50, EC50 and Kd

I am reviewing several MHC-peptide binding affinity predictors trained on IEDB data. Quantitative records for MHC class I allotypes come from a lot of different assays and, by extension, have ...
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1answer
26 views

Which one is better to use for water stress experiment GWAS or RNASeq?

This is my first time in this area of research. I am working on 95 varieties of bambara groundnut. I have done the agromorphological characterization of these varieties as well as the genetic ...
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1answer
62 views

How does a ribosome gather tRNAs at a fast enough rate for Translation?

There are many animations of the ribosome in action, and all I have seen show the correct tRNA neatly entering the ribosome and its amino acid being added to the growing protein chain. My question is ...
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30 views

Could ions inside lungs produce hydroxyl?

I am not proficient in either biology or chemistry. However, I have a question which I can't find answer to. It seems to belong somewhere between chemistry and biology. I apologize for any errors and ...
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0answers
321 views

What are the marker enzymes for Nucleus, Ribosomes and cell membrane?

Are there any marker enzymes present for ribosomes, nucleus and cell membrane. For mitochondria there are many, for lysosome it's cathepsin. I read about the marker enzymes of most of the other ...
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2answers
67 views

Are tumor-associated antigens unique to cancerous cells?

Are tumor-associated antigens found only on the membrane of cancerous cells or just over-expressed on the membrane of carcinogenic cells? In other words, are these antigens also found on healthy ...
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1answer
18 views

Does Cholestyramine (CSM) raise Tyramine levels?

This is a layman's question. Will ingesting Cholestyramine (CSM, the resin, in powdered form to be specific) raise tyramine levels? I am asking because Cholestyramine clearly has "tyramine" in its ...
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0answers
53 views

Why is sorbitol used in buffers?

Many protocols in my lab use sorbitol in buffers. For instance, in co-immunoprecipitation, we include it at a final concentration of 200 mM in our lysis buffer. I'm not entirely sure why though. I ...
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2answers
105 views

About the definition of ketogenic amino acid

I am studying biochemistry and have been looking at metabolic network diagrams showing the different intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle that amino acids can be converted to. I have ...
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1answer
54 views

Why doesn't chloride cause high blood pressure?

Assuming osmotic pressure is the (main?) culprit, why isn't the chlorine ion loose in your body after eating salt considered equally responsible for hypertension? I have searched Google and Wikipedia,...
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38 views

What is the chemical structure of myosin? [closed]

What is the chemical structure of myosin? Specfically, what functional groups or monomers are they made of?
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1answer
1k views

What animal has fat with the highest energy density?

Fat is more energy-dense than protein and carbohydrates, it is not only an energy deposit but also an organ with many functions such as cushioning and metabolism regulations. I want to know are animal ...
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1answer
65 views

Why do we need to grow plants to make food?

Why can't we synthesize the nutrients that we need directly from chemical reactions, from energy and simple inorganic molecules found around us? If it's hard, why not try to copy how plants do it? I ...
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1answer
27 views

What is ApoCas9 in the CRISPR-Cas9 system?

I am currently reading an article about a particular assay of Cas9 nucleases. In one of the experiments, they have used ApoCas9 (Apo variants of other CRISPR nucleases) as some sort of control. But ...
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1answer
37 views

Which chemokines are being produced by melanocytes?

I am looking into Vitiligo it's an autoimmune disease that results in apoptosis of melanocytes due to misfolded protein accumulation. It also dramatically increases breast cancer rates (600 times) ...
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1answer
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Why have plants evolved to photosynthesize glucose instead of another molecular compound?

I think this question can be broken down into two sub-questions: Why do plants produce $C_6H_{12}O_6$ as opposed to another molecule following the formula of $C_nH_{2n}O_n$? Why not $C_8H_{16}O_8$, $...
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Why isn't the human zygote considered a human life how is a living anatomically modern human defined biologically? [closed]

It has 46 chromosomes by default when healthy(Differences almost always are pathological) and has almost every biological functions, processes a Newborn or and Adult person has. It even invades ...