Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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13 views

Why isn't aluminium involved in biological processes? [migrated]

There are so many biological processes which are dependent upon ions of lighter metals (upper part of periodic table) such as K+, Na+, Mg2+ and even early transition elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni) but I ...
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Why is the DNA helix anti-parallel? [duplicate]

Why is it that DNA strands are running in anti-parallel fashion? Given the chemical base-pairing, they could have been parallel just as well.
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Where is the H+ ion in this step of glycolysis coming from?

(from Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Voet, 5th ed.) In this step of glycolysis, I'm not seeing where the $\ce{H+}$ ion on the product side is coming from. It seems to me that the G3P's aldehydic H ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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79 views

How to generate protein graphics for illustrating articles?

The structure of insulin shown below appears in a Wikipedia entry. What software was (or can be) used to create pictures of this type?
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In the context of lab work, what's the difference between “urea nitrogen” and “blood urea nitrogen”?

Are these the same thing? Or is it possible that urea nitrogen can not be from blood?
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3answers
10k views

What is “enzymatic activity”? [closed]

I should be grateful if anyone would send me a link to an article or an encyclopedia/handbook contaning an explanation of the concept of enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, I did not manage to find ...
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Does cat urine really fluoresce? If so, why?

I temporarily got caught in the Sad and Useless website, and found Science is Fun. Most of the claims seem plausible, but I can't guess why cat urine would fluoresce. Comments have directed me to ...
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2answers
194 views

How do organophosphates actually work?

The common explanation as to what the primary mechanism of action for organophosphates (and carbamates) is is the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and resulting buildup of acetylcholine ...
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About DNA polymerization

What type of polymerization process performs DNA, are there ant other types than adittion and condensation polymerization?
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How are humanized antibodies made?

What kind of antigen is used to provoke/induce an immune response if you are trying to make therapeutic humanized antibodies for cancer and alzheimer's disease? For example, if you wanted to make an ...
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41 views

What enzyme or bacteria could dissolve plastic?

What enzyme or bacteria could dissolve plastic aside from acetone? Preferably, low-cost and environmentally friendly. Any suggestions would be helpful. I'm targeting for thin plastic (low-density ...
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1answer
59 views

Can an RNA anneal to its complementary (not reverse) sequence?

Say I have a target RNA strand: 5'--AAUGGCCCUUUAAA-->3' I know that this strand will readily anneal to the sequence 3'<--UUACCGGGAAAUUU--5' which is the reverse-complement. I'm wondering if ...
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What is the subcellular location of synthesis of non-essential amino-acids?

What is location of non-essential amino acids synthesis in a cell? Is it some specific organelle? And what is the gene driver behind this? I thought the whole point of DNA is coding for how to ...
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1answer
33 views

How can I get the yield of my purified immunoglobulins?

In order to get the yield of IgY through a set of purification steps, what method can I use? Thanks in advice!
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4answers
319 views

How can I change my buffer system for protein purification?

I have a protein that I purified in PBS buffer, pH 7. I will do dialysis to remove salt and will then further purify the protein with ion exchange chromatography. I will need to use another buffer (...
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Biochemistry of pleasure of/desire for physical exercise in mammalians and humans?

Are there some known biochemical mechanisms, that induces desire for/pleasure of physical exercise in mammalians and humans? I have heard, that horses can not live without physical exercise and they ...
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Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions

How do we differenciate between catabolic and anabolic reactions? According to my researches; Catabolic Reactions Catabolic reactions (also called “catabolism”) break down larger, more complex ...
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1answer
629 views

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool?

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool when speaking about neurotransmitters and synaptic cleft. I encountered this here: Amphetamine’s mechanism of action thus ...
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1answer
41 views

Rice left in water for several months - what biological reactions or growths would occur?

In an attempt to make a hair care product, uncooked white basmati rice was left in an air-tight container half filled with tap water for several months. When opening the container, the smell was ...
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3answers
185 views

Using nanodrop for analysing biological samples other than nucleotides

I am a 3rd timer postdoctoral fellow with some experience in molecular biology and biochemistry, but major skills in Zoology and Natural History. I am studying some natural extracts, and isolating ...
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18 views

How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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2answers
104 views

Edible and non-edible leaves [closed]

For humans, what's the difference between an edible leaf like lettuce, and a non-edible (in the sense of null nutritional value) leaf like grass?
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1answer
36 views

Cellular respiration in carnivorous animals

What is the equation for cellular respiration in carnivores as they don’t consume carbohydrates to break down into glucose in the following manner: Glucose + oxygen -> water + CO2 +energy. Do they (...
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What is the mechanism behind “acquired” alcohol tolerance?

I can understand natural variation in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a population leading to variation in rate of inebriation (after controlling for other variables -- e.g., mass, food consumption, ...
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485 views

Potato Power. Self sustaining medium using a living potato plant possible?

The second picture are potatoes wired in parallel. I understand that the potato is the medium for a chemical reaction between the copper and zinc. That aside, would wire and in soil potato plant ...
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1answer
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What is the standard method for measuring soil and substrate acidity

Soils and other plant substrates differ a lot in their moisture content. In dry matter a pH is not measurable without adding water, but this has the problem of the resulting value not being ...
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What impact does substrate bonding have on GMO’s if one at all

Do GMOs increase the effect of substrate bonding? Does it minimize activation energy? Does it change concentrations or bonding potentials?
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Why are there no organisms with metal body parts, like weapons, bones, and armour? (Or are there?)

Reading this question, Why are there no wheeled animals?, I wondered why no organisms seem to make use of the tensile and other strengths of metal, as we do in metal tools and constructions. I am ...
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Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
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Living potato clock? [duplicate]

Could a potato stay alive and power a clock while growing in the ground? I know how a potato clock works as a electrochemical cell and involves chemistry, but I am only interested in a growing ...
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1answer
8k views

How does a Plasmodium move?

Plasmodium sp. does not have any locomotory organs. So, how does it move? What biochemical process allows it to move?
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Why does the ring finger not move independently?

Why is it that we need to move little finger in order to move ring finger with it? For example, put your palm on a table and fold your middle finger inside. You won't be able to move your ring finger ...
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Would Cu1 or Cu2 oral supplementation be most likely to aid lysyl oxidase (LOX) production?

Forgive the basic question, I'm not a biochemist but am interested in understanding the below: LOX of course is key for interlinking collagen & elastin. At the same time, it is claimed that Cu1 ...
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3k views

Is there any advantage of having mitochondria for aerobic respiration?

If we consider the pathway of breakdown of glucose which includes glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain, all these processes takes place in some prokaryotes and ...
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Do histones constitute the largest proportion of the protein in chromosomes at mitosis?

Do histones contribute more (by mass) than non-histone proteins in the chromosomes formed during mitosis?
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1answer
30 views

Difference between cerebroside and globoside

I have a general idea about their difference that cerebrosides have a single sugar while globosides have more than one sugars. This is the structure of a ceramide (syphingosine and a fatty acid ...
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Why is double stranded DNA considered to be one molecule? [duplicate]

Wikipedia, for example, refers to DNA as "a" molecule, not two separate molecules forming a double-helix structure. Isn't this technically incorrect? There are two separate polynucleotide strands (...
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1answer
83 views

Blood acidity and bones

By consuming acidic foods, could one cause their blood to become acidic and therefore cause an acid+base reaction between their blood and bone? I ask this because i recently discovered bone is a ...
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Cooperative Enzyme Question

I'm currently studying for the MCATs. After doing some biochemistry practice questions, I came upon a question that I believe may be incorrectly posed. I was wondering if I'm correct in saying this or ...
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726 views

Is there a known glucosepane cross-link breaker?

I read the following on wikipedia: There is, however, no agent known that can break down the most common AGE, glucosepane, which appears 10 to 1,000 times more common in human tissue than any ...
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1answer
559 views

Meaning of arrows in 3D representation of proteins

Below is a three-dimensional representation of the protein, CD4. I would like to know what the arrows and the thin wires between them mean.
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11k views

Why is glycine considered a nonpolar amino acid but a polar molecule?

Glycine has a dipole moment, so why is it considered a nonpolar amino acid when discussing its occurrence in proteins? Also, is the backbone of a protein nonpolar?
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98 views

Does eating nonsalty food with MSG make you thirsty?

Assume that you're thirsty after eating food that didn't taste salty while you were eating it. Quora posts and https://msgdish.com/msg-problems-and-answers/ still impute the thirst to salt: The ...
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1answer
36 views

Why is beta- D fructofuranose two different structures when in free form and as part of sucrose?

This is the structure of fructose in free form: The right moiety is the fructose as part of sucrose. The left one being glucose: Both of the fructose are beta-D fructofuranose. But as it can be ...
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Can a lentivirus expressed protein that is undetectable by western blot be detected by BioID?

Cloned a single herpesviral gene into pCDH-EF!-GFP and see phenotypic effect on cells of interest and viral gene transcripts BUT unable to detect ANY protein using HRP boosted western blot. Even with ...
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Cracking sounds made by glowing plankton

Recently I had opportunity to swim in place with glowing plankton, it was amazing experience and it as well gave birth to few questions in my head. I manged to google that they can glow thanks to ...
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1answer
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How would a medication cause a one to maintain a different weight?

This isn’t really a medical question, I’m just really curious about this. I was maintaining weight A and then started taking a medication that brought me to weight B. While on the medication, I ...
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SDS-PAGE compared to western blotting

SDS-PAGE and western blotting are both used to separate and isolate proteins. My question is, which technique should be used when? Does one of them has advantages over the other one?
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3answers
539 views

Getting PCR amplification at annealing higher than Tm!

I am amplifying a gene where in a gradient pcr i am getting amplification at an annealing temperature about 5 degrees (67) higher than Tm (62.5)? What is wrong here? Also, I am getting a very strong ...