Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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19 views

How much Oxygen can the Human body carry?

Basically - the title: How much Oxygen does a human body carry at a single point? What have I tried: A friend of mine has done some calculations and came up with the following numbers. Neither of us ...
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35 views

What is the water and fat composition of the human brain?

Everywhere I look online says the brain is about 60% fat. But when it comes to water, I see numbers like 70-75%. One webpage even makes both those claims back to back! That doesn't make any sense. So ...
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Ligand-binding assays: IC50, EC50 and Kd

I am reviewing several MHC-peptide binding affinity predictors trained on IEDB data. Quantitative records for MHC class I allotypes come from a lot of different assays and, by extension, have ...
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Theoretically, if one were to atomically piece together a microorganism or virus, without using any biological reproduction, would it still be alive? [on hold]

I'm aware that this is likely impossible in the current state of technology, and possibly always will be, but I can't help but be curious. Say we took an extremely small virus, such as Porcine ...
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1answer
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Which one is better to use for water stress experiment GWAS or RNASeq?

This is my first time in this area of research. I am working on 95 varieties of bambara groundnut. I have done the agromorphological characterization of these varieties as well as the genetic ...
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1answer
54 views

How does a ribosome gather tRNAs at a fast enough rate for Translation?

There are many animations of the ribosome in action, and all I have seen show the correct tRNA neatly entering the ribosome and its amino acid being added to the growing protein chain. My question is ...
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2answers
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Are tumor-associated antigens unique to cancerous cells?

Are tumor-associated antigens found only on the membrane of cancerous cells or just over-expressed on the membrane of carcinogenic cells? In other words, are these antigens also found on healthy ...
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Biochemistry - amino acids [closed]

which of the following amino acids has a sidechain whose tertiary interactions would be affected by the presence of SDS? presence of urea at ph of 3 but not 7?By the addition of HCL or NaOH? Is it ...
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29 views

Could ions inside lungs produce hydroxyl?

I am not proficient in either biology or chemistry. However, I have a question which I can't find answer to. It seems to belong somewhere between chemistry and biology. I apologize for any errors and ...
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1answer
20k views

What would cause a single white eyelash?

I couldn't find a paper who could give me the explanation. Unfortunately, according to my search, it seems there are not many reported case, particularly for the younger population (<30). Would ...
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What are the marker enzymes for Nucleus, Ribosomes and cell membrane?

Are there any marker enzymes present for ribosomes, nucleus and cell membrane. For mitochondria there are many, for lysosome it's cathepsin. I read about the marker enzymes of most of the other ...
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1answer
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Design rules for DNA linkers

I want to use double stranded DNA linkers to physically bind two "things" together, by grafting ssDNA on each one of them and using DNA hybridization as the locking mechanism. I do not expect the ...
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Why do specifically bananas go brown quicker in the fridge?

Perhaps the title should be: Why don't all fruits containing phenol residues go brown quickly when left in the fridge? Bananas go brown over time because of the oxidation of phenol residues. ...
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About the definition of ketogenic amino acid

I am studying biochemistry and have been looking at metabolic network diagrams showing the different intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle that amino acids can be converted to. I have ...
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249 views

Decreasing the alcohol proof and faster in hangover, why?

My russian friend says that the USSR agents used/use the trick that they offered the victim first vodka and then last wine. I have noted that this puts you faster to hangover: decreasing the alcohol ...
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1answer
17 views

Does Cholestyramine (CSM) raise Tyramine levels?

This is a layman's question. Will ingesting Cholestyramine (CSM, the resin, in powdered form to be specific) raise tyramine levels? I am asking because Cholestyramine clearly has "tyramine" in its ...
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34 views

What is the chemical structure of myosin? [closed]

What is the chemical structure of myosin? Specfically, what functional groups or monomers are they made of?
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1answer
51 views

Why doesn't chloride cause high blood pressure?

Assuming osmotic pressure is the (main?) culprit, why isn't the chlorine ion loose in your body after eating salt considered equally responsible for hypertension? I have searched Google and Wikipedia,...
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9k views

How does the body switch between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Lets take the case of a person doing heavy exercise. Aerobic respiration is taking place, but oxygen is about to be finished up. Glycolysis occurs, Krebs cycle finishes. Now NADH and FADH2 enter ...
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Why is sorbitol used in buffers?

Many protocols in my lab use sorbitol in buffers. For instance, in co-immunoprecipitation, we include it at a final concentration of 200 mM in our lysis buffer. I'm not entirely sure why though. I ...
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1answer
509 views

Does a generator potential pass along a nerve the same way an action potential does?

I have read that a generator potential is a localized depolarization of a membrane. Does that mean that it does not pass along a neuron the same way an action potential does ? If not, then how do ...
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338 views

Mechanics of Chromosomal Crossover

When chromosomal crossover occurs, two matched chromosomes swap matched sections of their chromosomes. My question is: how does the cell select where to to make the break on both chromosomes? Is it ...
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38 views

Evolution of the reproductive drive? [on hold]

At some point in the early earth the right mix of biochemicals combine to form to first organisms(or maybe they came on a meteor). Regardless, I would assume the original unicellular organism did not ...
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1answer
1k views

What animal has fat with the highest energy density?

Fat is more energy-dense than protein and carbohydrates, it is not only an energy deposit but also an organ with many functions such as cushioning and metabolism regulations. I want to know are animal ...
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1answer
67 views

Is α-keratin a fully functional protein?

Is α-keratin before it coils with another polypeptide, makes chains, and build intermediate filaments a fully functional protein? I mean, is the single monomer of α-keratin a protein or does it have ...
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1answer
1k views

White residue from ginger juice

I’ve been juicing some ginger by grating it and pressing it (by hand). A white residue collects at the bottom of the liquid. What is this?
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1answer
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Why do we need to grow plants to make food?

Why can't we synthesize the nutrients that we need directly from chemical reactions, from energy and simple inorganic molecules found around us? If it's hard, why not try to copy how plants do it? I ...
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What inactivates pepsin in infants?

In infants, rennin helps in digestion of milk. Pepsin is also present in their stomach. Why do infants need rennin for milk digestion, at the first place? Why does pepsin not act on the milk ...
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1answer
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Which chemokines are being produced by melanocytes?

I am looking into Vitiligo it's an autoimmune disease that results in apoptosis of melanocytes due to misfolded protein accumulation. It also dramatically increases breast cancer rates (600 times) ...
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12k views

Why does the ring finger not move independently?

Why is it that we need to move little finger in order to move ring finger with it? For example, put your palm on a table and fold your middle finger inside. You won't be able to move your ring finger ...
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1answer
13k views

Why does cucumber skin kill ants?

I recently read that cucumber skin is an effective repellent for some ants: Set out cucumber peels or slices in the kitchen or at the ants' point of entry. Many ants have a natural aversion to ...
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2answers
16k views

Which are mobile and immobile elements in plants?

I am confused with this element or nutrient classification in the plants, since some authors set elements like $\ce{S}$ and $\ce{Ni}$ as mobile and other as immobile elements (Citation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). ...
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1answer
20 views

What is ApoCas9 in the CRISPR-Cas9 system?

I am currently reading an article about a particular assay of Cas9 nucleases. In one of the experiments, they have used ApoCas9 (Apo variants of other CRISPR nucleases) as some sort of control. But ...
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1answer
32 views

Difference between fertilin and fertilizin

I am confused between fertilin and fertilizin.Are these two same or different? Here are a few sources i referred Julian Lombardi (auth.) - Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction-Springer US (1998) Page ...
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plant uptake of large molecules

I have read several studies concluding that plants can indeed take up molecules with a molecular weight larger than 390 g/mol. Does this mean plants do also take up large molecules like hormones if ...
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82 views

Why have plants evolved to photosynthesize glucose instead of another molecular compound?

I think this question can be broken down into two sub-questions: Why do plants produce $C_6H_{12}O_6$ as opposed to another molecule following the formula of $C_nH_{2n}O_n$? Why not $C_8H_{16}O_8$, $...
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Why isn't the human zygote considered a human life how is a living anatomically modern human defined biologically? [closed]

It has 46 chromosomes by default when healthy(Differences almost always are pathological) and has almost every biological functions, processes a Newborn or and Adult person has. It even invades ...
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1answer
38 views

Cerebral/Cerebellar Cortex versus Deep Nuclei

I have troubles using the terms Cortex & Deep Nuclei, and 'Nuclei' in general. From what I understand, a brain has '3 matter types in accordance to anatomical locations' Superficial Grey matter - ...
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1answer
6k views

Green Film Build up in Glass Water Bottle

So I have this Large Water Jug that I fill only water with. And this is the 2nd time there has been a layer of green film that builds up at the bottom of the bottle. I don't have any way of getting ...
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24 views

How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
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Why is the DNA helix anti-parallel? [duplicate]

Why is it that DNA strands are running in anti-parallel fashion? Given the chemical base-pairing, they could have been parallel just as well.
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1k views

Where is the H+ ion in this step of glycolysis coming from?

(from Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Voet, 5th ed.) In this step of glycolysis, I'm not seeing where the $\ce{H+}$ ion on the product side is coming from. It seems to me that the G3P's aldehydic H ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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1answer
83 views

How to generate protein graphics for illustrating articles?

The structure of insulin shown below appears in a Wikipedia entry. What software was (or can be) used to create pictures of this type?
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3answers
10k views

What is “enzymatic activity”? [closed]

I should be grateful if anyone would send me a link to an article or an encyclopedia/handbook contaning an explanation of the concept of enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, I did not manage to find ...
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Does cat urine really fluoresce? If so, why?

I temporarily got caught in the Sad and Useless website, and found Science is Fun. Most of the claims seem plausible, but I can't guess why cat urine would fluoresce. Comments have directed me to ...
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2answers
219 views

How do organophosphates actually work?

The common explanation as to what the primary mechanism of action for organophosphates (and carbamates) is is the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and resulting buildup of acetylcholine ...
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How are humanized antibodies made?

What kind of antigen is used to provoke/induce an immune response if you are trying to make therapeutic humanized antibodies for cancer and alzheimer's disease? For example, if you wanted to make an ...
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50 views

What enzyme or bacteria could dissolve plastic?

What enzyme or bacteria could dissolve plastic aside from acetone? Preferably, low-cost and environmentally friendly. Any suggestions would be helpful. I'm targeting for thin plastic (low-density ...