Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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The effect of Atrazine on the LDR in Photosynthesis

The herbicide Atrazine causes inhibition within the Qb site in the D1 protein of photosystem 2. Given this information, would Atrazine’s inhibitory effect halt the production of oxygen or ATP first? ...
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17 views

What happens to lipoprotein lipase after a sugar only diet?

Insulin increases the activity of lipoprotein lipase thay allows cells to take in lipids from chylomicrons in the blood. If a person takes a sugar only meal like drinking coke, insulin is released. ...
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What is the chemical mechanism by which PcP(c) is converted to PcP(Sc) in Fatal Familial Insomnia

I know the gene PRNP and it's location. There’s a mutation at codon 178 (asparagine found instead of normal aspartic acid) on the prion protein gene (also found in fCJD) and more uniquely there is a ...
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20 views

What is a good biochemistry reference for reading papers about metabolic pathways associated with human disease?

I studied first and second year biology at university about 15 years ago, taking courses in cell biology, comparative physiology, microbiology, and human cell biology. I also took the supporting ...
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242 views

Question about Racemic Mixtures in Miller-Urey Experiment

I'm studying the Miller-Urey Experiment for my Biology class, and a significant point made by my professor was that Miller made a 50/50 racemic mixture of chiral monomers. However, life is homochiral....
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11 views

Methane and wetlands

Some papers I have read show carbon accumulation (peat) in wetlands is reduced because of low methane emissions. Why is this the case? Why does low methane emission reduce carbon accumulation in ...
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25 views

How to convert a test tube assay to microplate assay?

I am trying to measure Ascorbic acid levels in tissue using Omaye et al protocol (Methods in Enzymology, Volume 62, 1979, Pages 3-11). This method is based on reduction of ferric chloride and ...
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59 views

What medium is the bacteria used to synthesize B12 sourced from?

Would that be from water, soil, plants, funguses,...? I asked the question in Quora but that, at the time of posting in this forum, haven't been very helpful. I also have searched for the ...
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24 views

How are signalling pathways specific when secondary messengers are not?

I'm a biochemistry and physiology student and am aware that secondary messengers like cAMP and IP3 are used in specific signaling cascades. However, they and other molecules can innervate a variety of ...
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28 views

Dyes that won’t bind to dna

I am looking for a dye that won’t bind to DNA. I want to add dye to proteinase K to make is visible when adding to clear buffer liquid samples. I need it to not bind to the DNA so it will be removed ...
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134 views

Why cells have a membrane potential?

What is the function of the membrane potential? Cells invest huge amounts of ATP to drive ion pumps to sustain this potential. Therefore it must have a very important function. I read somewhere that ...
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271 views

Shell-less Chick development - Incorporation of Calcium carbonate instead of Calcium lactate pentahydrate powder?

I'm a college undergrad biology student and currently studying developmental biology as part of my curriculum. I've read a research journal titled, A Novel Shell-less culture system for chick embryo ...
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38 views

What are the chemical characteristics of cofactors that functionally differentiate them from the side chains of amino acids?

Cofactors are essential for the function of many enzymes, such as NAD+ in the glycolytic pathway - I was wondering how the chemical properties of these cofactors allow them to fulfil their function ...
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55 views

Where did H2 come from at pyruvate oxidation?

After pyruvate oxidation, H2 come out by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Does this mean H2 is from C3H4O3 (pyruvate)? But then it makes no sense that numbers of pyruvate (C3H4O3) 's H and acetic acid (C2H4O2)...
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88 views

How the glycogen accumulate intracellularly in the reversible cell injury?

As we know in reversible cell injury as the most common cause is ischemia decreases oxidative phosphorylation which decrease ATP & increase anaerobic glycolysis which depleting glycogen !!? But ...
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67 views

Why is iodine solution a very effective and with a broad spectrum, bactericide, fungicide and viricide?

What is the similar property in each that allows a solution of iodine to deactivate and destroy so many species even from different kingdoms?
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35 views

Indicators of Ras binding domain (RBD) activity in Ras effector proteins?

Ras family based small GTPase proteins usually have a Ras binding domain (RBD) in their effector downstream proteins like Raf. Roughly Ras proteins cycle between active(GTP-bound situation) and ...
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24 views

Can methionine peptidase liberate selenomethionine?

Can methionine peptidase liberate selenomethionine from proteins? I'd be happy to know if any can that are active in humans, but am also especially curious about METAP2.
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65 views

May have killed a cutting. Can dead plant cells be revived?

Ok. So, I went to New York City for the first time! My parents picked a hotel, and we had a good trip. And even cooler, that hotel wasn't very far from a cool cedrus Atlantic a tree. I got a cutting,...
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37 views

What chemicals will kill P1 Phage but not E. coli?

I'm working with E. coli and P1 Phage. I'm wondering if there is some chemical agent that will kill or disable P1 but leave E. coli untouched? It is not enough to just prevent infection. It must ...
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30 views

What is the best solvent for Mutagen X?

Many solvents can be used for mutagen X (3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-one), however, long-term stability is not specified. Which would be the best solvent for long-term storage? ...
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38 views

Will charged water ions sprayed onto plants keep insects off?

I had stumbled on an article about a Dutch firm that devised an irrigation system that used mist of ionized water droplets that they claim keeps insects away from the plants. This break through would ...
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157 views

Why does the brain produce cannabinoids?

I've been reading lately about the brain producing cannabinoids. I was introduced to this idea by the Wim Hof Method which has been shown to increase the amount of cannabinoids (that is, compounds ...
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50 views

Bioenergetics and equilibrium

"The living state is a non-equilibrium steady state to be able to perform work." I know that a "steady state" is the one in which the rate of energy gain is equal to rate of energy loss. Then how can ...
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90 views

Function of Co-enzymes

Is the function of a co-enzyme to make a reaction run quicker? If catalysts speed up reactions, and enzymes are catalysts, and co-enzymes make enzymes work better, does that mean the co-enzymes just ...
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115 views

Why male gametes doesn't go through antipodal cells in chalazogamy

Male gametes in double fertilisation enter the embryo sac through synergid cells even in chalazogamy i.e. when polen tube enters the ovule through chalazal end. Regarding the fact that compatibility ...
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41 views

What will CD spectroscopy show when L- and D- forms of proteins are mixed?

What will happen if equimolar concentration of L- and D- forms of proteins are mixed and we take the circular dichroism reading? Will the positive and negative ellipticity cancel each other out or ...
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65 views

What is the oxidation state of iron at the photosynthetic reaction center?

Is the iron at the reaction centre in the $3^+$ or $2^+$ oxidation state? For instance, 1AIG is $2^+$ or, perhaps it will depend upon charge separation state? I checked the PDB: some are $3^+$ ...
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42 views

Can hair follicle miniaturisation affect hair color?

We all know that follicle miniaturisation affects hair texture, making it look thinner(the hair shaft/root itself will be thinner), but does it affect hair color as well? So if an individual has thick ...
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22 views

How does DNA damage increase the activity of p53?

I understand the steps leading up to the halting of the S-cdK checkpoint from there, but I can't find the mechanism by which DNA damage actually increases the activity of p53.
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107 views

Artificial Hormones of human body

Can hormones of human body created artificially even i mean the hormones just consisting of bio chemicals and nothing else?
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255 views

Calcium carbonate minerals in marine organisms shells

Calcium carbonate minerals exist in seawater in two main phases: calcite and aragonite. While calcite is the most stable phase, it is aragonite that precipitates first in seawater because of the high ...
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58 views

Where do I find the CO2 clearance rate for various plants?

I'm trying to get enough plants to bring my office from ~1k ppm of CO2 to ~300ppm of CO2. (If I can't get below the ambient 450ppm, that's fine too.) It'd be nice to know before I start buying plants ...
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635 views

Fatty acid oxidation in adrenal medulla?

Why adrenal medulla can not utilise fatty acids for generation of energy? What could be the benefit for not having ability to use fatty acids? Refrence 1 Refrence 2
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115 views

Why Milky serum in diet rich with Triglycerides?

When we eat the meal rich with triglyceride our muscle or blood after seperation of the serum the color of the serum will be milky. What is causing to happen in our serum ? Milky serum (lipemic serum)
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139 views

What is/are the effect(s) of altering the Tris concentration on polyacrylamide gels?

Why do we use two different concentrations of Tris (i.e. 1.5M Tris in resolving gel and 1.0M Tris in stacking gel)? For the gel to run properly there needs to be a different pH, but that can be done ...
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86 views

Transcription by RNA polymerase in absence of inducer and activator

Does the presence of activator(CAP-cAMP complex) and inducer(lactose) only increase the likelihood that a particular gene(here operon) gets transcribed, i.e increases the rate of transcription of that ...
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17 views

Rate of growth of an RNA or DNA sequence

Given, e.g., a mixture of the necessary components in optimal conditions, what would be the average rate of attachment of nuceotides to ribose molecules? This is related to the study of how long it ...
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46 views

Calculation of NADPH molecules number needed to reduce a substrate in enzymatic reaction

I am inquiring if it is just simply possible - as it seems to be - to calculate the number of NADPH molecules needed by an enzyme (let say for example Dihydrofolate Reductase DHFR) to reduce the ...
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35 views

Has anyone tried using luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes to detect cellulose in a microbial biomass? If so is it accurate?

I recently found this paper http://www.nature.com/articles/srep35578 which describes a "new" method for detecting cellulose. As I'm not an expert in the field I was wondering if other people have used ...
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507 views

How to find the radius of gyration for a protein?

While going through the paper titled "GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONFORMATIONAL FEATURES OF PROTEIN STRUCTURES" by Manish Dutt, it talked about finding the radius of gyration of each protein structure. ...
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671 views

Is the glucose produced from photosynthesis considered an aqueous solution when written as a chemical reaction?

In the very simplified reaction for photosynthesis, the states of the reactants and products are clear to me except for glucose. Inside a plant, it would be dissolved in water, so would it be an ...
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161 views

Why is black eumelanin black even though it consists of black AND brown molecules?

In dogs,eumelanin consists of molecules of DHI and DHICA. DHI and DHICA are made from dopachrome. DHI through DHI oxidase and DHICA through DHICA oxidase also known as TYRP1. When TYRP1 has a mutation ...
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302 views

Why is the protein ubiquitin so ubiquitous?

Ubiquitin is a protein tag that is attached to proteins in order to mark them for destruction/proteolysis by the cell. This system is sometimes used for clearing out harmful viral proteins that infect ...
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49 views

Questions about Genetic algorithm paper of Gilman and Ross

I want to reproduce an (old) biochemistry paper of Gilman and Ross, i.e. " Genetic algorithm selecetion of a regulatory structure that directs flux in a simple metabolic model." ( The following link ...
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493 views

Can the respiratory quotient be calculated from a formula or must it be measured directly?

I found the following question on the Respiratory quotient: A normal human diet has a Respiratory quotient (RQ) of approximately 0.85. Given that pure oxidation of fatty acids has a Respiratory ...
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128 views

Insulin and leptin action on Anorexigenic Neurons in Hypothalamus?

Receptors for Insulin are present on liver, adipose tissue and muscles. In addition, there are Insulin Receptors present in arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus, which influences anorexogenic neurons ...
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53 views

Estimating RNA concentration from Specific Activity of Labeled RNA

The question reads, Using T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe in vitro a 100-nt RNA off a DNA template. This RNA contains 19 Adenosines. In your 100 uL transcription reaction you added 1.00 µL of α32P•[...
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31 views

Loooking for dataset of proteotypic and non-proteotypic peptide

I'm experimenting with peptide prediction using machine learning. I need some data for testing. I already have one dataset, but I need another one or two for verification. I'm looking for data for a ...
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281 views

What do sharks not like the smell of?

I was reading about the sharks strong sense of smell ( Shark senses - @EnhancedLearning.com ) and wondered if any research has been done into what they don't like the smell of? Is there any material ...