Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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13 views

Evolution of the reproductive drive?

At some point in the early earth the right mix of biochemicals combine to form to first organisms(or maybe they came on a meteor). Regardless, I would assume the original unicellular organism did not ...
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Why doesn't chloride cause high blood pressure?

Assuming osmotic pressure is the (main?) culprit, why isn't the chlorine ion loose in your body after eating salt considered equally responsible for hypertension?
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What is the chemical structure of myosin? [on hold]

What is the chemical structure of myosin? Specfically, what functional groups or monomers are they made of?
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What animal has fat with the highest energy density?

Fat is more energy-dense than protein and carbohydrates, it is not only an energy deposit but also an organ with many functions such as cushioning and metabolism regulations. I want to know are animal ...
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“interaction with water is a primary factor in determining the type of structure form” [on hold]

my prof asked me to gave examples to this statements, could someone help me? been searching and can't find one. Thank you!!
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Is α-keratin a fully functional protein?

Is α-keratin before it coils with another polypeptide, makes chains, and build intermediate filaments a fully functional protein? I mean, is the single monomer of α-keratin a protein or does it have ...
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Why do specifically bananas go brown quicker in the fridge?

Perhaps the title should be: Why don't all fruits containing phenol residues go brown quickly when left in the fridge? Bananas go brown over time because of the oxidation of phenol residues. ...
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944 views

White residue from ginger juice

I’ve been juicing some ginger by grating it and pressing it (by hand). A white residue collects at the bottom of the liquid. What is this?
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Excluding one step from the cellular respiration, and consequences? [closed]

What would the consequences be if energy extraction took place in one step of the cellular respiration, and not in the three processes of the cells? Namely, glycolysis, kerb’s cycle, and the electron ...
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Why do we need to grow plants to make food?

Why can't we synthesize the nutrients that we need directly from chemical reactions, from energy and simple inorganic molecules found around us? If it's hard, why not try to copy how plants do it? I ...
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What inactivates pepsin in infants?

In infants, rennin helps in digestion of milk. Pepsin is also present in their stomach. Why do infants need rennin for milk digestion, at the first place? Why does pepsin not act on the milk ...
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Which chemokines are being produced by melanocytes?

I am looking into Vitiligo it's an autoimmune disease that results in apoptosis of melanocytes due to misfolded protein accumulation. It also dramatically increases breast cancer rates (600 times) ...
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Why does the ring finger not move independently?

Why is it that we need to move little finger in order to move ring finger with it? For example, put your palm on a table and fold your middle finger inside. You won't be able to move your ring finger ...
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Can protein/codon chirality be described in tRNA molecules? [closed]

Is left-handed chiral protein and right-handed chiral RMS factored in to the tRNA molecuar structure? If so, how.
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Why does cucumber skin kill ants?

I recently read that cucumber skin is an effective repellent for some ants: Set out cucumber peels or slices in the kitchen or at the ants' point of entry. Many ants have a natural aversion to ...
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Which are mobile and immobile elements in plants?

I am confused with this element or nutrient classification in the plants, since some authors set elements like $\ce{S}$ and $\ce{Ni}$ as mobile and other as immobile elements (Citation 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). ...
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What is ApoCas9 in the CRISPR-Cas9 system?

I am currently reading an article about a particular assay of Cas9 nucleases. In one of the experiments, they have used ApoCas9 (Apo variants of other CRISPR nucleases) as some sort of control. But ...
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Difference between fertilin and fertilizin

I am confused between fertilin and fertilizin.Are these two same or different? Here are a few sources i referred Julian Lombardi (auth.) - Comparative Vertebrate Reproduction-Springer US (1998) Page ...
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plant uptake of large molecules

I have read several studies concluding that plants can indeed take up molecules with a molecular weight larger than 390 g/mol. Does this mean plants do also take up large molecules like hormones if ...
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Revert lettuce to vegetative phase by cutting it down [migrated]

I have read several article stating that it is possible to revert a bolted lettuce to vegetative grow by cutting it down to 1 centimeter. Is that right?
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Dipeptide approximations for making Ramachandran plot [closed]

How did Ramachandran arrived at his plot? Did he consider only the nearest neighbor amino acids and their steric clashes? In general all those interactions in protein are electrostatic in nature which ...
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Isolating enzymes participating in gluconeogenesis [closed]

Is it possible to isolate enzymes participating in the gluconeogenesis? An example would be to isolate fructose bisphosphatase and phosphoglucose isomerase. If yes, how do I do that without using very ...
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Catabolism of Triacylglycerides

Please do correct me if I'm wrong and which steps I'm missing! The order of the metabolism (catabolism) are the following: 1. Lipolysis where triacylglycerides are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and ...
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Why have plants evolved to photosynthesize glucose instead of another molecular compound?

I think this question can be broken down into two sub-questions: Why do plants produce $C_6H_{12}O_6$ as opposed to another molecule following the formula of $C_nH_{2n}O_n$? Why not $C_8H_{16}O_8$, $...
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Why isn't the human zygote considered a human life how is a living anatomically modern human defined biologically?

It has 46 chromosomes by default when healthy(Differences almost always are pathological) and has almost every biological functions, processes a Newborn or and Adult person has. It even invades ...
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Cerebral/Cerebellar Cortex versus Deep Nuclei

I have troubles using the terms Cortex & Deep Nuclei, and 'Nuclei' in general. From what I understand, a brain has '3 matter types in accordance to anatomical locations' Superficial Grey matter - ...
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Green Film Build up in Glass Water Bottle

So I have this Large Water Jug that I fill only water with. And this is the 2nd time there has been a layer of green film that builds up at the bottom of the bottle. I don't have any way of getting ...
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How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
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Why is the DNA helix anti-parallel? [duplicate]

Why is it that DNA strands are running in anti-parallel fashion? Given the chemical base-pairing, they could have been parallel just as well.
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Where is the H+ ion in this step of glycolysis coming from?

(from Fundamentals of Biochemistry by Voet, 5th ed.) In this step of glycolysis, I'm not seeing where the $\ce{H+}$ ion on the product side is coming from. It seems to me that the G3P's aldehydic H ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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How to generate protein graphics for illustrating articles?

The structure of insulin shown below appears in a Wikipedia entry. What software was (or can be) used to create pictures of this type?
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10k views

What is “enzymatic activity”? [closed]

I should be grateful if anyone would send me a link to an article or an encyclopedia/handbook contaning an explanation of the concept of enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, I did not manage to find ...
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Does cat urine really fluoresce? If so, why?

I temporarily got caught in the Sad and Useless website, and found Science is Fun. Most of the claims seem plausible, but I can't guess why cat urine would fluoresce. Comments have directed me to ...
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How do organophosphates actually work?

The common explanation as to what the primary mechanism of action for organophosphates (and carbamates) is is the inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and resulting buildup of acetylcholine ...
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How are humanized antibodies made?

What kind of antigen is used to provoke/induce an immune response if you are trying to make therapeutic humanized antibodies for cancer and alzheimer's disease? For example, if you wanted to make an ...
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What enzyme or bacteria could dissolve plastic?

What enzyme or bacteria could dissolve plastic aside from acetone? Preferably, low-cost and environmentally friendly. Any suggestions would be helpful. I'm targeting for thin plastic (low-density ...
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Can an RNA anneal to its complementary (not reverse) sequence?

Say I have a target RNA strand: 5'--AAUGGCCCUUUAAA-->3' I know that this strand will readily anneal to the sequence 3'<--UUACCGGGAAAUUU--5' which is the reverse-complement. I'm wondering if ...
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What is the subcellular location of synthesis of non-essential amino-acids?

What is location of non-essential amino acids synthesis in a cell? Is it some specific organelle? And what is the gene driver behind this? I thought the whole point of DNA is coding for how to ...
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How can I get the yield of my purified immunoglobulins?

In order to get the yield of IgY through a set of purification steps, what method can I use? Thanks in advice!
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How can I change my buffer system for protein purification?

I have a protein that I purified in PBS buffer, pH 7. I will do dialysis to remove salt and will then further purify the protein with ion exchange chromatography. I will need to use another buffer (...
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Biochemistry of pleasure of/desire for physical exercise in mammalians and humans?

Are there some known biochemical mechanisms, that induces desire for/pleasure of physical exercise in mammalians and humans? I have heard, that horses can not live without physical exercise and they ...
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29k views

Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions

How do we differenciate between catabolic and anabolic reactions? According to my researches; Catabolic Reactions Catabolic reactions (also called “catabolism”) break down larger, more complex ...
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What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool?

What's the difference between Cytoplasmic pool and Granular storage pool when speaking about neurotransmitters and synaptic cleft. I encountered this here: Amphetamine’s mechanism of action thus ...
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Rice left in water for several months - what biological reactions or growths would occur?

In an attempt to make a hair care product, uncooked white basmati rice was left in an air-tight container half filled with tap water for several months. When opening the container, the smell was ...
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Using nanodrop for analysing biological samples other than nucleotides

I am a 3rd timer postdoctoral fellow with some experience in molecular biology and biochemistry, but major skills in Zoology and Natural History. I am studying some natural extracts, and isolating ...
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Edible and non-edible leaves [closed]

For humans, what's the difference between an edible leaf like lettuce, and a non-edible (in the sense of null nutritional value) leaf like grass?
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Cellular respiration in carnivorous animals

What is the equation for cellular respiration in carnivores as they don’t consume carbohydrates to break down into glucose in the following manner: Glucose + oxygen -> water + CO2 +energy. Do they (...