Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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2
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1answer
14 views

Confusion regarding the Kir2.1 inward-rectifying potassium channel

I was trying to find out more about gustation and the transduction of sourness when I came across the supposed inward-rectifying potassium channel $\ce{K+_{ir} 2.1}$. Here's the thing, despite being ...
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0answers
8 views

Is protein intake required for the formation of new myosatellite cells?

Hypertrophy of muscle fibers requires an adequate (significant, really) intake of protein, but what about just forming new myosatellite cells as a response to a stress applied to the muscle? Does that ...
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1answer
120 views

Why can't certain nucleoside analogs be used to label bacterial RNA?

A 2020 publication in Nucleic Acids Research 1 includes the following passage: A variety of nucleoside analogs have been developed for metabolic RNA labeling in various eukaryotic cells (9–16). Among ...
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1answer
42 views

What is the thickness of the membrane if only alpha helixes are embedded of a transmembrane protien?

Given is the representation of a transmembrane protein. Calculate the thickness of the membrane if only alpha helixes are embedded in it. One turn = 5.4Å Please read: The reason I didn't submit my ...
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0answers
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How are new myosatellite cells formed within muscle tissue?

Can anyone break down the process of exactly how and why satellite cells in skeletal muscles are formed, and how one can deliberately generate new myosatellite cells in their muscles? Specifically: ...
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1answer
27 views

What is meant by 4 –12% or 8% SDS-PAGE?

I am reading a journal paper and I am looking at the materials and methods section. Regarding the Western blot method in the paper, I have come across the following statement: Proteins were separated ...
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0answers
18 views

How to calculate from u(atomic mass unit) to mol? [closed]

I have quite some problems to get from the unit "u" to "mole". Can someone help me? I got a dilution with 2,2mg/ml. My u(atomic muss unit) is 34000. I don't ask for the answer. ...
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1answer
53 views

Were nicotinic acid/amide or flavin nucleotides ever part of primary RNA sequence?

NADH and FADH2 redox reactions are built deep into our biochemistry. For example, pyridine nucleotides are involved in >500 enzymatic reactions. When we look at the structure of deamido-NAD+, it ...
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0answers
14 views

How to get from u(atomic mass unit) to mol? [closed]

I have quite some problems to get from the unit "u" to "mole". Can someone help me? I got a dilution with 2,2mg/ml. My u(atomic muss unit) is 34000. How much Mol/l do I have? ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Basis of enzyme nomenclature — pyruvate dehydrogenase

In the formation of AcetylCoA from pyruvate, why is the enzyme called “pyruvate dehydrogenase (complex)” when it involves the decarboxylation of pyruvate or the replacement of a carbonyl group by ...
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1answer
80 views

Biochemistry - Plastic eating microbes at home [closed]

Is it possible for me to locate, without too much difficulty, and culture, at home, a bacteria (like yeast) on plastic? I tried a similar process with yeast and I was able to culture it on extremely ...
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1answer
31 views

Electrochemical and concentration gradient confusion [closed]

I am learning membrane transport and learnt that there are 2 gradients that determine passive and active transport. If the concentration of a cation is higher in the cytoplasm side (hence ions should ...
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0answers
33 views

Flip-flopping in plasma membrane

Flip-flopping of lipids (and in proteins it is impossible) in plasma membrane is rare due to high energy barrier (video ref). However, it is an important mechanism since it allows asymmetric ...
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1answer
70 views

The Relationship between Copper and Alzheimer's Disease

I've been reading up about the research concerning the etiological factors behind Alzheimer's and I came across two papers - "Studies on Copper induced stability changes in DNA fragment (GCA ATC ...
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0answers
19 views

Western blotting: what common tweaks do you make to the protocol and why would you make membrane cuts?

I'm building an app which helps researchers plan out Western blots, record protocol tweaks and receive warnings in the app if: you're trying to multiplex antibodies of similar molecular weight on the ...
2
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1answer
56 views

CAM Photosynthesis Oxygen Generation?

I've been looking into CAM plants - notably the snake plant which is native to West Africa. Upon researching the CAM photosynthesis cycle, I've found it fascinating that the plant stores CO2 at night ...
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0answers
21 views

Concentration/molarity of lichen acids (particularly oxalic acid) in soil/rock substrates?

I am trying to design an experiment testing the efficacy of lichen acids to solubilize and mobilize nutrients from minerals in a lunar regolith simulant. My research so far indicates that oxalic acid ...
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0answers
36 views

Why are disaccharides less reducing than monosaccharides?

My teacher told me the statement, but if both monosaccharide and disaccharides have a single free active group, how is this possible?
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35 views

Biochemistry of ageing new discoveries

A scientist from Harvard, David Sinclair, has a few videos, a book and some papers on the topic of ageing. Particularly, I've seen this video a couple of times where he explains their discoveries on ...
2
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0answers
78 views

Appropriate regeneration of StrepTrap HP columns for FPLC

My question is related to protein purification using a ÄKTA FPLC. We used StrepTrap HP Columns (1 ml column Volume (CV)) from GE Healthcare Life Sciences to purify a strep-tagged protein. In the first ...
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0answers
70 views

Are proton and water consumed in glycolysis?

These are the inputs and the outputs of glycolysis (1): $$\ce{C6H12O6 + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ → 2C3H4O3 + 2H2O + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+}$$ but when ATP converts to ADP in the first step of glycolysis, it ...
33
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1answer
3k views

Why do animal cells “mistake” rubidium ions for potassium ions?

So, I was browsing the Wikipedia article for rubidium, and came across this interesting tidbit: Rubidium is not a known nutrient for any living organisms. However, rubidium ions have the same charge ...
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3answers
60 views

Book recommendation: protocols and recipes handbook for molecular biology / biochemistry

I'm a 5th-year PhD student in chemical biology. I've mostly been doing computational work, so my bench skills are rusty. To help me, I'd like a handbook of common techniques -- transformations, ELISA, ...
2
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1answer
113 views

Is this experiment to check enzyme reaction rate according to substrate concentration correct?

We just had an experiment to check enzyme reaction rate according to it's substrate concentration. In the experiment, we used a varying amount of substrate and the same amount of enzyme: (1.5mm enz, ...
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0answers
50 views

Calvin cycle- combining three “turns”

In the common Calvin cycle diagram, it is commonly stated that "three cycles are combined to show the production of 1 molecule of G3P". How does the G3P molecule escape from this cycle in ...
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0answers
26 views

Need help designing an enzyme immunoassay (EIA)

I have a FITC-labelled DNA sequence and an anti-FITC antibody, however this antibody is not conjugated with HRP or any other enzyme. I work in a lab with limited finances, so is there a way I could ...
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1answer
42 views

How do organophosphates affect kidney function?

Many organophosphates, besides inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, can also permanently inhibit the enzyme neuropathy target esterase, leading to nerve damage. NTE also happens to be found in the kidneys,...
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1answer
101 views

How to convert cell units (c.u.) to mole?

If one has values in terms of cell units (c.u.) how may it be converted to $\mu$M? Should I think a "cell unit" as $1\;c.u.= \frac{1}{\text{cell volume}}$ and $1\;c.u.=\frac{1}{\text{cell ...
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0answers
22 views

Do house mites feel pain? [duplicate]

I was wondering three questions about house mites. -When we kill them by washing our hands, washing our clothes, aerating our bed and our room, do they suffer ? -And if they ever feel pain, what is ...
2
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1answer
584 views

What tests can be performed to test the purity and quality of the raw peptide HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)

What tests could be run to test the purity and type of HCG? We are looking to purchase HCG from China but the purity and quality varies between labs, we are able to receive samples of the raw peptide ...
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1answer
888 views

How can we digest lactose even though it has Beta glycosidic linkages?

I have Read that we cannot digest cellulose because we do not have enzymes to digest Beta glycosidic linkages in Cellulose Then how is it that we have an enzyme called Lactase to digest the Beta ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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0answers
36 views

VDJ sequencing in mice, DNA or RNA?

I am wondering if anyone who is well versed with VDJ sequencing for TCR repertoire analysis (specifically CDR3) would know if DNA or RNA is a better starting material? We are looking at the effects of ...
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2answers
78 views

Numbering amino acid residues

While reading about primary structures of protein, I came across the following image. What do the numberings $n-1, n, n+1$ in the below image refer to? I thought about it : The amino acid residues are ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Exact average molecular weight of a dsDNA basepair

I am trying to calculate the exact weight of a given dsDNA. On the Internet and the literature, different values for the av. molecular weight of one basepair are given : 660 g/mol (probably wrong), ...
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0answers
15 views

Is the dehydration process used twice in the preparation of permanent slides?

I am taught "preparation of permanent slides" by one of my teachers in the course of Biological Techniques. He gave me the following steps to prepare a permanent slide: Totally, there are ...
0
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1answer
64 views

How do cellular conditions change the Gibbs free energy of a reaction?

How do cellular conditions change the Gibbs free energy of a reaction? Taking glycolysis as an example, how exactly would cellular conditions affect the free energy released from this reaction?
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1answer
17 views

When should I use cryofixation and chemical fixation?

We know that the technique used in TEM sample preparation involves multiple steps, one of the most important of them is fixation. Fixation can be of two types: Cryofixation, that suggests that the ...
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0answers
33 views

Can fermentation and aerobic respiration occur at the same time?

In muscle cells during exercise, does lactic acid fermentation and aeorobic respiration occur at the same time, and does this mean the cell makes more or less ATP during this time? The cell can't ...
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0answers
18 views

Why do the “most sensitive photoreceptors” of insects consume so much energy it exerts evolutionary pressure to minimize receptor number?

The video Wireless Steerable Vision for Live Insects and Insect-scale Robots from the University of Washington's Paul G. Allen School of Computer Science begins with the following: Vision is an ...
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2answers
50 views

How would one track a mineral nutrient in a plant in order to prove that nutrient has been re mobilized?

Before abscission - senescence of a plant structural components that contain mineral nutrients (E.g. Magnesium, Potassium...) are re-mobilized from the senescent tissue and used in other plant tissue ...
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1answer
100 views

In which reactions of glycolysis is magnesium involved?

I am currently studying the metabolic pathways for biochemistry and I am not quite clear in which reactions of glycolysis magnesium is involved. So I have now found out that magnesium is present in ...
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1answer
31 views

How does lipoid pneumonia lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?

How does lipoid pneumonia lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? The vaping illnesses that have been happening on the news in the United States are being caused by the federal ...
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0answers
17 views

Why my protein transferred but ladder did not (western blot)?

My protein of interest is about 200Kd, I ran the gel for 35 min at 95V, the protein transferred but the ladder did not, I used dual color ladder(Precision Plus Protein™ Dual Color Standards, 500 µl #...
4
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1answer
53 views

Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
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1answer
91 views

Question About Molecular Weight [closed]

In Lehninger's Principle of Biochemistry Pg. $14$, this is the definition for molecular weight (relative molecular mass): The molecular weight of a substance is defined as the ratio of the mass of a ...
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1answer
28k views

Why does NAD+ become reduced if it gains a hydrogen proton?

I've heard that $\ce{NAD^+}$ gains a Hydrogen proton during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle and becomes reduced to $\ce{NADH}$. However, isn't reduction when a molecule receives an electron? Maybe I'...
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4answers
21k views

Why is the brain dependent on glucose?

The strict dependence of the (human) brain on glucose has always been puzzling to me. While ketones can substitute for a portion of the brain's energy needs, it cannot substitute completely: blood ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Does the fact cordyceps mostly affect insects have something to do with chitin being polysaccharide?

This is just a conjecture of mine based on those observations: Fungus seems to be very good at attacking tough chains of sugars like cellulose and starch. insects are covered by Chitin, a ...
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0answers
16 views

Where is a coacervate located in the levels of organization?

I'm confused about where to position in the hierarchy of the levels of organization of living things, the coacervate in the context of Oparin-Haldane's theory of the origin of life. In short, ...

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