Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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86 views

Quantification of various amino acids from bacteria?

I would like to characterise how much of various (uncommon) cytosolic amino acids are produced in bacteria, and was wondering if there are good suggestions of how to go about doing this. I know that ...
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educational sources for learning biochemistry

I just finished high school and am going into a biology undergraduate degree, I'm getting into biochemistry too and would like to learn more about it through online platforms or even non-fiction books ...
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How does SDS-PAGE separate based on mass?

In SDS-PAGE, electric field and mass-to-charge ratio are approximated to be constant for all proteins. Also, if $F=qE =ma$, then $\frac{m}{q}a=E$. Thus, all proteins must migrate with a constant ...
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What is the charge on oligonucleotide 5' pGpGpApCpT 3' at pH 7.00? [closed]

What is the charge on the nucleotide 5'pGpGpApCpT 3' @ pH 7.00? I thought adenine has 1 NH group and Guanine has NH and ...
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317 views

What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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Will ammonia continue to accumulate in an aquarium tank if a strong antibacterial or chlorine is added to the water?

I've always wondered what would happen if dead plants and fecal matter lay in chlorinated waters and/or waters treated with strong antibacterials or antibiotics. I've heard that aquarium tanks ...
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If Melatonin is anti-gonadal, why is it associated with early sexual maturity in congenitally blind girls?

If melatonin is anti-gonadal, that is, it delays sexual maturity, then shouldn’t it delay sexual maturity in congenitally blind girls rather than helping them attain sexual maturity at an early age?
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Human Digestion of Cellulose?

Most animals can digest the cellulose in grass because of the anaerobic bacteria called Fibrobacter succinogenes living in their rumen (gut). The bacteria produces the enzyme cellulase and is ...
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Cellulose structure

In cellulose structure, some beta glucose are inverted. I’ve read that therefore the hydroxyl groups stick on both sides, but aren’t there hydroxyl groups on both sides anyways whether it was inverted ...
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Can catecholamines degrade back into tyrosine, or, is synthesis irreversible? (in human body)

Catecholamines like dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are broken down with enzymes that catalyze the reaction. Can they degrade back into tyrosine (a conditionally essential amino acid), or is ...
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Reverse oxidative phosphorylation?

I noticed that all of the cellular energy production methods that I covered have a fixed ratio of ATP to NAD(P)H out. For example, in the combined process of glycolysis, pyruvate oxidization, and the ...
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VPg priming of the replication of RNA viruses

I'm doing a presentation on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 for my chemistry class, and I found that to replicate its RNA, the virus uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is primed by a VPg primer. ...
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Vitamin A Deficiency

I have a quick question regarding Vitamin A deficiency. The photoreceptor molecules in both rods and cones have the same general structure which is retinal which is bound to a protein called opsin ...
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Reasons why this protein is not suitable as an immunogen?

In a paper entitled "Progress and Prospects on Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2", the authors write the following in section 2.5: "Compared with S, N, and M protein, E protein is not suitable ...
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Growing Mouth Bacteria in a bowl of sugar water

I want to teach my nephew why brushing in necessary and how sugar in mouth reduced by bacteria to acid. I plan to put sugar mixed water in bowl and take swab from his mouth and dip in bowl, and test ...
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Do chilli peppers change in composition after they change color?

I grow some chilli peppers and was wondering when the time is right to harvest them. Of course gardening-focused sources say that they are ripe when they change color. This usually happens very ...
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Are there known life forms that are able to transform mechanical energy into chemical energy?

Are there known life forms that are able to transform mechanical energy into chemical energy? This question asks a similar subject, but more specific and has no answers. The background of this ...
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Histone Deacetylase Inhibition

So I am trying to brush up on my knowledge of HATs and HDACs. I am reading the just the 1st paragraph of the background of this study I remember learning that HATs turn things on on, and HDACs turn ...
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2answers
128 views

What exactly happens to hydrogen atoms in step 4 of citric acid cycle?

It seems that there are four hydrogen atoms in alpha-ketoglutarate and one in HS-CoA (not counting the ones in CoA), five in total. Two of them go to NADH and H+, so there should be three atoms in ...
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1answer
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If a cell has two different GPCRs, how does the cell differentiate between the phosphorylation cascade caused by each?

In my biochem course, we learned that GPCR receptors trigger a phosphorylation cascade, with the end result being a large amplification of the signal in the form of cAMP. We never studied any ...
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30 views

Why don't our tongue receptors for salt and sugar adapt to them, like the ones for pepper do?

Many (most?) physiological receptors adapt to the substance they bind to, leading to higher dosages required to elicit the same response. In pharmacology, it’s called “drug tolerance”. In physiology, ...
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52 views

Is there anyway from which we can measure the viscosity of honey using a refractometer?

Is it possible to use a refractometer to measure the viscosity of honey because as we know, a refractometer is used to measure moisture and therefore water influences the viscosity of honey so is ...
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Do we consume DNA and proteins of other organisms?

When we eat raw meat, e.g. chicken or fish, we are actually consuming the DNA, proteins etc. which are present in their cells. Wouldn't this affect our cell functions as this DNA might enter our ...
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What causes the overactivity of keratin production and expression in the cells of the nail bed/ nail matrix after some traumata?

What is the cellular mechanism of traumatic(sterile) onychodystrophy(hypertrophy)? I.e one hits his toenail and has it removed twice( once after the first trauma and then again 3 years after the first ...
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How many molecules of ATP are actually produced in aerobic respiration?

I have been through the process of aerobic respiration a few times in different text books and almost every book quotes a different value for the number of ATP molecules produced. The consensus seems ...
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How it will taste if one puts two substances on tongue simultaneously?

If we put two substances having different taste on tongue simultaneously how it will taste? Does specific part of tongue is sensitive to specific taste?
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271 views

Cold water sour taste

Recently I underwent a wisdom tooth extraction, and while there is still numbness I have observed something peculiar. If I drink cold water, it tastes sour, however the same effect is not observed ...
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Are there any known consequences of the right-handedness of the DNA double helix?

In this article it is suggested (without evidence) that the right-handedness of DNA may be the cause that "kick[s] off asymmetry in the early embryo [of snails]". On the one hand we know that ...
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Why is thymine not incorporated into mRNA?

I am aware that in transcription uracil bonds to adenine and not thymine. But what is it that actually prevents thymine from bonding to adenine in transcription, that is not present in replication?
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Do proteins contain phosphorous? If its true then how alfred hershey and martha chase used the statement that proteins do not contain phosphorous?

I hv heard about phosphorus that it is a constituent of certain protein, although we know that no amino acids have phosphorus... and if its true then how Alfred hershey and Martha chase experiment got ...
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What's the role of bromelain in pineapple?

Bromelain refers to one of two proteases found in pineapple and its relatives. Like other proteases, many believe it has therapeutic uses and it's the subject of a lot of research. But what role does ...
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DNA as a digital storage medium; sequences algorithmically avoided for safety reasons (or should be)?

Safety for the environment is probably implicit here as well, but the focus should be on the people who may come in contact with large amounts of synthetic DNA used to encode information as a data ...
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Basic Molecule Editor for use in journals / theses?

My background is Geosciences and Physics and I am going to study water and biomolecules in the Autumn. I was reading a PhD thesis about peptides and peptoids by someone in my research group and I had ...
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What is the use of futile reaction cycling such as Fruc-P to Fruc-BP?

One rate-limiting step of glycolysis is the conversion of Fructose-6-Phosphate (Fruc-6-P) to Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate (Fruc-1,6-BP), catalysed by Phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK 1). The reaction involves ...
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How does exercising/starved muscle import glucose (released by liver)?

Adrenaline releases glucose from the liver during sport or if starved. This glucose goes to the blood through GLUT2 transporter. But how does it get transported into the muscle cells? GLUT4 is the ...
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Does it make sense to express membrane transporters as concentration?

Let's assume a situation where a molecule, S, is transported out of the cell by membrane transporter T. For simplicity we do not consider any other synthesis or production processes. Furthermore, we ...
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1answer
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Sickle-cell trait : Why is only one type of beta chain found in any one hemoglobin molecule?

I was reading a textbook (iGenetics, 3rd edition page 71), and came across the following passage: Homozygous bS bS people make Hb-S, the defective hemoglobin, with two normal a chains specified ...
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Can muscles remake pyruvate from lactic acid, or does it have to go to the liver in the Cori cycle?

When the muscle is exercising, and only anaerobic respiration is done, pyruvate -> lactate to regenerate NAD+. Lactate is then transported out of the muscle and into the liver, to regenerate glucose, ...
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What relation do glycerol-3-P DH and acyl-CoA DH have with Complex II of the ETC?

I am sorry if this may be a purely definitional/nomenclature question. Complex II of the electron transport chain (ETC) would be succinate dehydrogenase, transporting electrons to ubiquinone (and ...
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What makes the cytoplasm a reducing environment?

It is known that the cytoplasm is a "reducing" environment, where disulfide bonds cannot form (will soon be reduced to 2 cysteines) [I'm not putting a link as this is a fact in many biology textbooks]....
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Does an FAD:FADH2 ratio exist in the cytoplasm? (similar to NAD+:NADH ratio?)

I have learned about a lot of enzymes/proteins which are covalently bound to FAD, and use this as an oxidising agent. In vivo, FAD is (almost) always protein bound (very low concentrations of free FMN/...
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1answer
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Base-stacking interactions versus hydrogen bonds

Is it correct that the hyperchromic shift in DNA is a result of the disruption of the base-pairing hydrogen bonds, but the actual denaturation of dsDNA has more to do with the base-stacking ...
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Is it possible to synthesize chiral version of an organism (incompatible with our pathogens)?

In theory, it should be possible to synthesize chiral (mirror image) version of some organism: with all molecules replaced with their enantiomers, e.g. L-sugars in place of our D-sugars. Direct ...
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Overcoming palmitic acid intolerance

What can stop the body from being able to process or break down palmitic acid? The acid stays in the stomach and burns causing a similar reaction as heart burn when the volume is high. Heart burn ...
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Why is it that evolution of organisms had oxygen as their life-supporting gas?

On Earth, gaseous N2 is abundant. However, life began by dealing with O2 and CO2. What can be considered the major reason for life developing in such manner?
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Is there any free software similar to CellDesigner that allows me to represent large networks of biochemical reactions in the human body?

I continually have to review multiple articles, in multiple journals. These articles present how various enzymes, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. intervene in the processes that lead to certain ...
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Why do we have no enzyme to digest cellulose?

As we know, cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in nature. Why don't we have an enzyme to digest cellulose?
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154 views

What causes the localization of myoglobin in turkey to regions of muscle tissue?

I've read that myoglobin localization is responsible for the darker colour of leg muscles in turkeys. Why does this localization occur in terms of any of cell biology, molecular biology, or ...
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596 views

Topological property of DNA

I was reading a course about DNA Supercoiling, and I stopped at this definition : [...] In the case of DNA, a topological property is one that is not affected by twisting and turning of the DNA ...
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Relationship between bacteria size and temperature?

I'm, doing a research in a TOC (total organic carbon) degradation in a BAC (biologically active carbon) filter for the grey-water treatment. Recently, I started to wonder if there is a relation ...

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