Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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23 views

If a cell has two different GPCRs, how does the cell differentiate between the phosphorylation cascade caused by each?

In my biochem course, we learned that GPCR receptors trigger a phosphorylation cascade, with the end result being a large amplification of the signal in the form of cAMP. We never studied any ...
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Why don't our tongue receptors for salt and sugar adapt to them, like the ones for pepper do?

Many (most?) physiological receptors adapt to the substance they bind to, leading to higher dosages required to elicit the same response. In pharmacology, it’s called “drug tolerance”. In physiology, ...
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Do chilli peppers change in composition after they change color?

I grow some chilli peppers and was wondering when the time is right to harvest them. Of course gardening-focused sources say that they are ripe when they change color. This usually happens very ...
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Is there anyway from which we can measure the viscosity of honey using a refractometer?

Is it possible to use a refractometer to measure the viscosity of honey because as we know, a refractometer is used to measure moisture and therefore water influences the viscosity of honey so is ...
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How it will taste if one puts two substances on tongue simultaneously?

If we put two substances having different taste on tongue simultaneously how it will taste? Does specific part of tongue is sensitive to specific taste?
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Does the brain absorb heme and non-heme iron differently?

I know that for the brain to absorb iron, the iron must first pass through the blood brain barrier. Is this absorption different for heme and nonheme iron?
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Are there any known consequences of the right-handedness of the DNA double helix?

In this article it is suggested (without evidence) that the right-handedness of DNA may be the cause that "kick[s] off asymmetry in the early embryo [of snails]". On the one hand we know that ...
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Testing the viscosity of honey?

I am carrying an experiment where I will be measuring the viscosity of honey using Zahn cup but I don't know what is the optimal and efficient size and the size of the opening to purchase if you can ...
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166 views

Reasons why this protein is not suitable as an immunogen?

In a paper entitled "Progress and Prospects on Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2", the authors write the following in section 2.5: "Compared with S, N, and M protein, E protein is not suitable ...
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45 views

What's the role of bromelain in pineapple?

Bromelain refers to one of two proteases found in pineapple and its relatives. Like other proteases, many believe it has therapeutic uses and it's the subject of a lot of research. But what role does ...
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How many histidine tags are in the glucose dehydrogenase?

How many histidine tags are in the glucose dehydrogenase (from Bacillus subtilis) and how does this number influence the process of affinity chromatography?
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Basic Molecule Editor for use in journals / theses?

My background is Geosciences and Physics and I am going to study water and biomolecules in the Autumn. I was reading a PhD thesis about peptides and peptoids by someone in my research group and I had ...
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Does it make sense to express membrane transporters as concentration?

Let's assume a situation where a molecule, S, is transported out of the cell by membrane transporter T. For simplicity we do not consider any other synthesis or production processes. Furthermore, we ...
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How does exercising/starved muscle import glucose (released by liver)?

Adrenaline releases glucose from the liver during sport or if starved. This glucose goes to the blood through GLUT2 transporter. But how does it get transported into the muscle cells? GLUT4 is the ...
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Can muscles remake pyruvate from lactic acid, or does it have to go to the liver in the Cori cycle?

When the muscle is exercising, and only anaerobic respiration is done, pyruvate -> lactate to regenerate NAD+. Lactate is then transported out of the muscle and into the liver, to regenerate glucose, ...
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Can receptors exist on nanoparticles?

Given I have x amount of Gold nanoparticles or some type of nanoparticles that I wanted to bond together to create some sort of molecule or even a macro structure. Would it be possible to mimic the ...
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What relation do glycerol-3-P DH and acyl-CoA DH have with Complex II of the ETC?

I am sorry if this may be a purely definitional/nomenclature question. Complex II of the electron transport chain (ETC) would be succinate dehydrogenase, transporting electrons to ubiquinone (and ...
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What makes the cytoplasm a reducing environment?

It is known that the cytoplasm is a "reducing" environment, where disulfide bonds cannot form (will soon be reduced to 2 cysteines) [I'm not putting a link as this is a fact in many biology textbooks]....
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Does an FAD:FADH2 ratio exist in the cytoplasm? (similar to NAD+:NADH ratio?)

I have learned about a lot of enzymes/proteins which are covalently bound to FAD, and use this as an oxidising agent. In vivo, FAD is (almost) always protein bound (very low concentrations of free FMN/...
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51 views

Sickle-cell trait : Why is only one type of beta chain found in any one hemoglobin molecule?

I was reading a textbook (iGenetics, 3rd edition page 71), and came across the following passage: Homozygous bS bS people make Hb-S, the defective hemoglobin, with two normal a chains specified ...
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90 views

Base-stacking interactions versus hydrogen bonds

Is it correct that the hyperchromic shift in DNA is a result of the disruption of the base-pairing hydrogen bonds, but the actual denaturation of dsDNA has more to do with the base-stacking ...
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16 views

Overcoming palmitic acid intolerance

What can stop the body from being able to process or break down palmitic acid? The acid stays in the stomach and burns causing a similar reaction as heart burn when the volume is high. Heart burn ...
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Is there any free software similar to CellDesigner that allows me to represent large networks of biochemical reactions in the human body?

I continually have to review multiple articles, in multiple journals. These articles present how various enzymes, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, etc. intervene in the processes that lead to certain ...
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Why is it that evolution of organisms had oxygen as their life-supporting gas?

On Earth, gaseous N2 is abundant. However, life began by dealing with O2 and CO2. What can be considered the major reason for life developing in such manner?
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What causes the localization of myoglobin in turkey to regions of muscle tissue?

I've read that myoglobin localization is responsible for the darker colour of leg muscles in turkeys. Why does this localization occur in terms of any of cell biology, molecular biology, or ...
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Growing Mouth Bacteria in a bowl of sugar water

I want to teach my nephew why brushing in necessary and how sugar in mouth reduced by bacteria to acid. I plan to put sugar mixed water in bowl and take swab from his mouth and dip in bowl, and test ...
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How do microtubules “Push” agaisnt the cell membrane if they are polymerizing at the very tip that makes contact with the membrane?

Trying to understand the reasoning behind the various Push VS pull microtubule arrangements, if it is "push" then I dont see how it would be able to push up against the cell membrane while ...
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Are there any organisms that do not perform glycolysis (or anything similar)?

To clarify I know that there are alternative pathways similar to glycolysis, what I mean is are there any organisms that perform a different pathway that is radically different from glycolysis, but ...
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Why do all anabolic reactions need energy?

Catabolism is the process of breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones and this 'always' releases energy. Anabolism is the process of building up larger molecules, effectively a polymerisation ...
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34 views

Pros and cons of using x-ray crystallography vs. protein NMR of individual proteins vs. a protein complex? [closed]

For a lab quiz I have to determine the structure of a 30Kda protein and a 70Kda protein, as well as a complex of the two. I was thinking that x-ray crystallography would work for all three structures, ...
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Are there any “thermotroph” lifeforms?

I only found chemotroph and photoroph examples of life, but are there organisms that can use a temperature gradient to convert energy?
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128 views

Is touching or inhaling 70% isopropyl alcohol dangerous to humans?

I bought 99% isopropyl alcohol and made 70% alcohol + 30% water in small spraying bottles as a disinfectant. I also read that this solution is safe and recommended by Apple for cleaning iPhones. My ...
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Do proteins contain phosphorous? If its true then how alfred hershey and martha chase used the statement that proteins do not contain phosphorous?

I hv heard about phosphorus that it is a constituent of certain protein, although we know that no amino acids have phosphorus... and if its true then how Alfred hershey and Martha chase experiment got ...
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Can mold grow on copper pipes?

Couple months ago noticed something was literally, for lack of a better term, eating paint off of lead pipes. And I noticed joints in copper pipe seemed to be "leaking" flux. Now all the water in my ...
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Why are proteins considered Informational macromolecules?

I can understand somewhat why DNA and RNA are considered Informational macromolecules, because they contain genetic information. But why are proteins considered Informational macromolecules?
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Can catecholamines degrade back into tyrosine, or, is synthesis irreversible? (in human body)

Catecholamines like dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline are broken down with enzymes that catalyze the reaction. Can they degrade back into tyrosine (a conditionally essential amino acid), or is ...
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Any phyla in Animalia that does ammonia assimilation?

A key step in nitrogen metabolism is the initial assimilation of inorganic ammonia into amino acids. Are there phyla within Animalia that do assimilation of ammonium (NH4+)? Phyla with symbionts from ...
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What causes the overactivity of keratin production and expression in the cells of the nail bed/ nail matrix after some traumata?

What is the cellular mechanism of traumatic(sterile) onychodystrophy(hypertrophy)? I.e one hits his toenail and has it removed twice( once after the first trauma and then again 3 years after the first ...
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how can we identify the novel protein amino acid sequence and function? [closed]

if there is a novel protein, how would you know the amino acid sequence and how would you determine the number of subunits and the function of that protein? Specifically what molecular techniques we ...
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1answer
16 views

Values of the blood tests pancreatic amylase and lipase

Anyone know what is considered slightly elevated, moderately elevated and strongly elevated values of pancreatic amylase and lipase? Many different laboratories in my country divide between these ...
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Toxicity of stannous fluoride in toothpaste?

I recently purchased a new brand of toothpaste, and when I looked at the medicinal ingredients, it listed stannous fluoride 0.454% w/w, instead of the regular sodium fluoride. I was a bit concerned ...
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How to recalibrate qpCR reading when incorrect qty of solution is added during DNA elution step?

I have 20 viral DNA samples collected for 6 time points. The DNA content varies over time My DNA extraction protocol step suggests that in the last step of the protocol during elution I had 100uL of ...
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26 views

Examples of alkali metal and halogens covalently bonded in biological molecules?

Divalent and monovalent ions are often non-covalently bonded in biological molecules, they are primary building blocks of the machinery of biology. Iodine, the halogon in period 5, is covalently ...
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Does the zeta potential of a nanoparticle generally take into account ligand charge?

For example, if I had a quantum dot nanoparticle with conjugated linker peptides capped with polyarginine tracts. Would the localization of negative charge from arginine change the zeta potential ...
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1answer
47 views

Why doesn't copper affect human skin?

It's been known for a long time that copper has antimicrobial properties, but if it is so potent, why does it seem to have no effect on human skin or really any large animal?
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Why does Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System cultivation improve nutritional quality of Okinawa spinach (Gyruna bicolor)?

I wrote a review paper and it involves in growth system of a plant “Okinawa Spinach (Gynura bicolor)”. A research of (Wang, Fu, & Liu, 2015) reported that Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (...
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Ratio of bleach to water required to disinfect COVID-19?

I am confused about the needed ratio of bleach to water required to disinfect COVID-19 from surfaces. The guide on CDC states that: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/home/cleaning-...
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42 views

Relationship between bacteria size and temperature?

I'm, doing a research in a TOC (total organic carbon) degradation in a BAC (biologically active carbon) filter for the grey-water treatment. Recently, I started to wonder if there is a relation ...
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Why is Ibuprofen contraindicated in asthma patients?

So yesterday a patient showed up at the clinic with a massive swelling in his left face region. Upon examination it was found to be due to infected first premolar. Dentist recommended him to get the ...
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Does the composition of a meal play a big, or small, role in food's thermogenic effect on the body?

Reading in: "Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk / Calories: Total Macronutrient Intake, Energy Expenditure, and Net Energy Stores" [NCBI Resources]: "The thermogenic ...

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