Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Biological Nitrogen Fixation

I just studied Biological Nitrogen Fixation and saw it's reaction but i do not understand why there is 8 electrons and 8 protons are involved and Hydrogen molecule is formed side by side along with ...
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Naming of Secondary Structure Elements

I have 2 questions regarding the naming of secondary structure elements ($\alpha$-helix and $\beta$-sheets), like helix C or sheet 2, which are often used in publications. Example protein: CYP1A2 ...
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176 views

Where would vegetarians/vegans get a substitute of hemo/myoglobin from?

As far as I understand, there is a difference in the iron absorbed from meat than from other sources like grains and vegetables. If this is the case, is it possible that not ingesting the hemoglobin ...
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39 views

Why does carbon dioxide diffuse easier through the bilipid layer than oxygen?

When gas exchange occurs during respiration, the pressure of oxygen in alveoli is around 105 mmHg, whereas in the blood vessels in close contact with alveoli is 40 mmHg. For carbon dioxide the values ...
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Conversion of 2E trans-2-enoyl CoA to 3E trans-2-enoyl CoA

I am working on a project that aims to synthesize a particular molecule from a purely synthetic route, in doing so I am attempting to create a strain of e.coli which would be able to use its trans ...
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What happens to drug metabolism when CYP450 enzymes are presented with two substrates

What happens when two substances, both substrates for Cytochrome P450 metabolism, are both present in the bloodstream? For example, with sertraline and cannabidiol (CBD), if someone took a sertraline ...
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Is there a software simulator for monomeric formation, a la Miller-Urey?

At the moment, does any widely-available software exist for small-scale, programmable simulation of monomeric formation in specific conditions? Could one, for instance, recreate the Miller-Urey ...
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99 views

What happens to Bacterial Cells stored at 4 degrees?

4C is when water is most dense and is not so low as to cause ice crystal formation. For short term storage bacterial cultures are often simply kept in a fridge at 4C. I guess that this significantly ...
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plant uptake of large molecules

I have read several studies concluding that plants can indeed take up molecules with a molecular weight larger than 390 g/mol. Does this mean plants do also take up large molecules like hormones if ...
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Why does hydroxylation of fatty acids occur in the middle of the acyl chain and increase fluidity?

I wanted to check and see why a) hydroxylation of fatty acids is most likely to occur in the middle of the acyl chain and b) why that increases fluidity. If our goal is to increase fluidity, then by ...
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Lipids triacylglicerol

I wanted to ask about triacylglycerol fatty acid, as you know its got 3 fatty tails. A hydrogen-saturated tail creates more van der Waals connections with neighboring fatty acids and the melting ...
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133 views

How are fingerprints formed?

I know what influences the fingerprints to be unique always. But what actually process is taken to make these as we grow?
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Muscular tetany and hypocalacemia

Decreased serum calcium level leads to increased excitability of neuron and at same time decreases the contractibilityof the muscle fibres.But still its causing tetany.Wouldn't these two counteract to ...
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263 views

PBS or TBS, where cannot use each buffers?

As you know, Tris buffered saline and Phosphate buffered saline is multipurpose. For finding each buffer's use, there's so many use experiment for PBS and TBS. TBS uses for western blotting, and PBS ...
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Why might a cell have no respiratory reserve capacity?

I am trying to understand why a cell might have minimal respiratory reserve capacity in the presence of unlimited substrate supply. This essentially means that the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) of the ...
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1answer
214 views

Why is there a layer of moist lining the inner walls of alveoli?

I'm taught that the walls of the alveoli are moist, so gaseous oxygen molecules can dissolve into this water. This then allows the dissolved oxygen (liquid state) to diffuse faster from the alveoli ...
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Difference in Basic Amino Structures

I'm having a hard time understanding why my slides in my biology course have two different representations of the "basic structure" of the amino acid: 1: 2: The top one seem like what I would ...
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15 views

What is the composition of a standard diluent buffer in a leptin ELISA kit?

I am trying to find the composition of the diluent buffer used for the dilution of a human leptin stock to be used in an ELISA assay. The manufacturer of the kit (https://www.thermofisher.com/elisa/...
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20 views

How is Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on acetate and ammonium able to produce TCA intermediates?

I am working with a metabolic model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and I am studying its growth on acetate and ammonia. I am performing Flux Balance Analysis to compute the growth rate and then I am ...
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Can an epileptic seizure start in the spinal cord?

My understanding of an epileptic seizure is caused by "invalid electrical signaling" in the brain. Can these start from the spinal cord (outside the brain) and move into the brain and cause an ...
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31 views

Where does the additional 1 proton cost of oxidative phosphorylation come from?

I've been quite confused by the source of the additional 1H+ cost right now. I know it costs the F1Fo-ATP synthase 3H+ to produce an ATP, and it is also stated that: ADP3−cytoplasm + ATP4−matrix → ...
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46 views

Sweating at all temperatures

Is sweating possible if surrounding temperature is below the body temperature? How the sweating occur due to the combustion of food?
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150 views

What are the sources of molecular hydrogen in human breath?

In the BBC News article CES 2019: Tech preview of the expo's hottest new gadgets there is a new product that one can use to measure the hydrogen in ones breath, and this is supposed to have some ...
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Why are higher doses of atropine required to produce central effects?

Reason given in my book is restricted entry into the brain..is it something to do with the chemisty?
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How to grow a Spirulina biofilm on a carbon/graphite cylindrical cathode

I am trying to grow a spirulina biofilm on my cathode for a fuel cell but it doesn't seem to be sticking to the cathode. I have a culture of spirulina and I've submerged a few cathodes in it to try ...
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94 views

Why biologic systems tends to become more complex?

From elements, chemical compounds, cells, multicellular organisms, society evolves and with each step possibilities increase and things get complex. We are builing structures like ribosome builds ...
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114 views

Osmotic Pressure Clarification

My textbook states that the higher concentration of solutes, the greater the osmotic pressure will be and the greater the pull of water in will be. However, osmotic pressure is defined "as the ...
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47 views

can magnesium bicarbonate be absorbed in the mouth?

Can Magnesium Bicarbonate be absorbed in the mouth?" Magnesium Bicarbonate occurs naturally in some mineral waters.
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150 views

Inhibition of beta-oxidation by acetyl- or malonyl-CoA

Which molecule, in excess, inhibits beta-oxidation? a. Acetyl-CoA b. Malonyl-CoA The answer to this question seems debatable to me, as I think both are correct. However, according to my ...
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1answer
17 views

Technical reason that specialized embryonic cells form

During the embryonic stage of human development, rapid cell division occurs and specialized cells form to build the various parts of the developing fetus. I'm curious: Why technically do specialized ...
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42 views

Is studying chemical and physical properties of chemical substances that make up organisms really a task of molecular biology?

I have read in a high school textbook that (translated into English by myself): "Branch of science that concerns itself with studying chemical and physical properties of substances that make up ...
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56 views

Why don't primates have galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), but other mammals do?

I read in wikipedia that: Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, commonly known as alpha gal, is a carbohydrate found in most mammalian cell membranes. It is not found in primates, including humans. My ...
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64 views

Are the chemical constituents of human bodily fluids similar to sea water?

I have heard a comparison of human bodily fluids to sea water from various sources in the past. The most notable was a teacher who claimed, if I remember correctly, embryonic fluid is comparable in ...
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1answer
49 views

Resting membrane potential in cells

My textbook says “Among K+, Na+ and Cl-, K+ contributes to the resting membrane potential the most, because it has the greatest permeability across the membrane.” I agree with this, but I’m just ...
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197 views

What is the difference between a signal peptide and a transit peptide?

From what I know, the two names are used interchangeably and I haven't found any resource which says otherwise either. Is there at all any difference, is there a transit peptide that is not a signal ...
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Can we spike with a different enzyme to a SYBR Green Master Mix?

I followed the standard SYBR Green Protocol for doing a qPCR. For which I used 10 uL of 1X SYBR Green Master Mix Forward Primer and Reverse Primer (each at a final conc. = 8.5 uM) Template (unknown ...
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62 views

Design rules for DNA linkers

I want to use double stranded DNA linkers to physically bind two "things" together, by grafting ssDNA on each one of them and using DNA hybridization as the locking mechanism. I do not expect the ...
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2answers
317 views

How does zoo and laboratory animal feeding work?

What steps are taken to ensure those animals are fed adequately? When dealing with larger populations of animals, how is it ensured that all of those animals received food during a certain time period,...
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33 views

How do the chemicals in our skin react with stainless steel?

What acid/chemical in human skin can react with stainless steel to leave a black mark on the skin? Why is it secreted/produced in larger quantities by some people and not by others?
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353 views

Why don't the heads of phospholipid bilayers repel hydrophobic molecules?

What I Think I Know: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic things repel each other. Since the cell membrane contains hydrophobic tails, it is difficult for hydrophilic molecules to pass through the cell ...
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1answer
124 views

What characteristic(s) of inverse agonists allow for inhibitory effects?

I know that inverse agonists have similar structure to its complement agonist; and, as a result, they have the ability to bind to the same receptor, causing an inhibition of the pathway considered. ...
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53 views

Why does pyruvate from lactate and pyruvate from other sources follow different pathways in gluconeogenesis?

My teacher taught me in a lecture that PEP forms from Pyruvate by two ways, based on their sources, that is - 1. If the Pyruvate was from lactate (by lactate dehydrogenase action), it gets shuttled ...
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How does garlic preparation affect its active compounds or medicinal properties? [closed]

I read the following claims about how to consume garlic: Consume immediately after crushing since the active compounds (allicin) is volatile and gets oxidized as soon as it's crushed Allow to sit 10 ...
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80 views

Arsenic (V) Reduction to Arsenic (III) by Microorganisms

I am currently doing research on arsenic toxicity in microorganisms, and I learned about arsenic (V)/(III) cycling. Arsenic (III) (usually in the form of arsenite) is generally 50 times more toxic to ...
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1answer
69 views

Struggling to make sense of Km [closed]

So I have two substrates for one enzyme and I measured the product formation-> michaelis menten kinetics. The Vmax for both substrates is the same, the Km however is higher on substrate number 2. ...
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64 views

Glycolysis step 5: isomerization by triose phosphate isomerase

On the 5th step in glycolysis, triose-phosphate isomerase converts dihydroxy-acetone-phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Now my question is: Why? Most books and sites I've read only say that ...
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Why isn't Fluorine, or Neon, the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration?

I'm a Chemistry student learning about periodic trends. I know that in (many organisms') cellular respiration, oxygen serves as the final electron acceptor due to its high electronegativity. However, ...
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1answer
52 views

Why is free ribose not reduced to deoxyribose rather than the reduction occuring on ribonucleotides

I cannot understand why deoxyribonucleotides are not synthesized directly from deoxyribose, but ribonucleotides have to be synthesized first, and only then can deoxyribonucleotides be synthesized.
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80 views

Could a mammal convert ingested dissolved CO2 to usable energy?

I'm trying to find out if it's possible that a mammal could orally ingest dissolved CO2 and convert it to energy for body heat, organ function, etc. Unfortunately, most of the scientific sources I've ...
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Does freezer burn affect only the cells on the surface of food?

Suppose i submerge a banana halfway through in a tray with water. Part of the banana is submerged in water, part of it is on the outside. The water and banana in the tray is being put in the freezer ...