Questions tagged [biochemistry]

The study of chemistry within the scope of biology: the compounds that occur and the reactions involving them in living organisms.

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Could a mammal convert ingested dissolved CO2 to usable energy?

I'm trying to find out if it's possible that a mammal could orally ingest dissolved CO2 and convert it to energy for body heat, organ function, etc. Unfortunately, most of the scientific sources I've ...
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Does freezer burn affect only the cells on the surface of food?

Suppose i submerge a banana halfway through in a tray with water. Part of the banana is submerged in water, part of it is on the outside. The water and banana in the tray is being put in the freezer ...
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about lipid oxidation, does acid fatty transforms in glucose? [duplicate]

Lipid oxidation generates fatty acid and glycerol going into the bloodstream. Can they be converted into glucose by gluconeogenesis or are they turnd into ketone bodies?
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Are unsaturated fats antioxidants?

Unsaturated fats contain double bonds like carotenoids (which is an antioxidant), and from my understanding, what makes carotenoid an antioxidant is that its double bonds allow it to undergo oxidation,...
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Is a fatty acid a polymer?

From my understanding, polymers are long chain molecules containing repeating units of monomers. For example, proteins are polymers called polypeptides with repeating units of (different) amino acids....
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Fruiting of trees — environmental stimuli and biochemical cascades

My question concerns fruiting of trees in general. However, I live in a tropical country (Philippines) where mango trees are ubiquitous, so I'll use it in stating my question. The question is about >...
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Chemistry of phosphodiester bond formation by DNA polymerase

As I'm teaching General Biology to my college students, I realized that I don't fully understand how a 3-P nucleotide like ATP is broken down to be incorporated into DNA during replication. How does ...
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1answer
82 views

When forming an enzyme-substrate complex in a spontaneous reaction, why free energy increases?

We ate food, and then food was digested into proteins, carbohydrates... Does not digestion break bonds within food macromolecules? and thus free energy decreases? why when looking to the curve we see ...
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glycogenesis, glycogenolysis and weight gain or loss

I am under the impression (from dietary websites) that when excess serum glucose is stored as glycogen, body weight is increased and the reverse: when glycogen is converted to serum glucose, body ...
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White residue from ginger juice

I’ve been juicing some ginger by grating it and pressing it (by hand). A white residue collects at the bottom of the liquid. What is this?
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Light/Heavy Isotopes in Living Organisms

I was wondering, why are lighter isotopes (e.g. carbon-12 as opposed to carbon-13) preferentially used by life on Earth? Is their increased stability the only factor? Thanks in advance!
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Why are plants unable to take up Phosphorus directly in their organic form like Phytic Acid?

I am researching acquisition strategies of phosphorus by decidious trees. I am reading a lot that plants take up nutrients as their inorganic form. In the case of P according to literature this is ...
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How can two biological sequences be anything but homologous?

If we consider homology between two nucleotide sequences as a yes/no answer to whether they have shared a common ancestral sequence, then given that all life share common ancestry and sequences are ...
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Is there a reliable source for storage and stability of reducing agents like DTT?

Reading the literature on DTT, one is confronted with a confusing mass of papers; some claim that a 1M solution in water is stable, other papers say it is not. I use the reaction with DTNB to show ...
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How do molecular biologists determine biochemical pathways?

I'm new to this community, so hopefully this is the right place to ask this question. I know my question is really general, but in all of my biology courses we are merely taught the chemical pathways ...
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Coacervater were more like Viruses or Cells?

The answer considers them as first formed living cells as they were precursor of life. But they had no lipid bilayer nor any cellular organization, shouldnt they be more like Viruses ,or like Prions ...
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Protein Pathways, Superfamilie, Function database/website?

I'm going trough some old data - but I'm running into this problem that all website we used use is not existing anymore. What I have is a very long list of proteins with accession number (refSeq from ...
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Where can I find resources of the biological processes occurring after death of a mammal at various temperatures?

Using google I usually end with results in cell death. I found some layman articles, but that does not help. My main interest is the brain part.
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Is hydroxyproline an amino acid? (Classification question)

So I know that hydroxyproline is created from proline via hydroxylation as a post-translational modification. I also know that proline is considered an amino acid. However, once you hydroxylize it, ...
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How plausible is it that pesticides and mosquito spraying is affecting insect populations?

I live in Massachusetts and I notice that there are a lot fewer bugs than when I was a child. 40 years ago if you drove around for 4 or 5 hours in the summer the grill of your car would collect a ...
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1answer
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Is α-keratin a fully functional protein?

Is α-keratin before it coils with another polypeptide, makes chains, and build intermediate filaments a fully functional protein? I mean, is the single monomer of α-keratin a protein or does it have ...
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1answer
608 views

Why do crocodiles have a high concentration of lactic acid in their blood?

Crocodilians have high concentration of lactic acid in their blood. This is the cause that prevents them from prolonged intense activity, since prolonged intense activity causes the muscles to secrete ...
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Can low melatonin levels and/or LED lights cause or exacerbate macular degeneration?

I have two questions that may or may not be interconnected. My first question is: Does melatonin prevent macular degeneration? Could low melatonin levels (caused by blue-rich light exposure in the ...
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What does 'half life' of a protein mean?

Why do we use the term 'half life' for proteins? Here is a link to some information regarding this question, but I am unable to infer it.
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Why are the first and last amino acids of an alpha helix not hydrogen bonded?

I am studying protein structures and in alpha helix I found out that one amino acid residue's carbonyl oxygen is linked to the nitrogen of amino group of 4 residues ahead.. However the first and last ...
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Why don't phosphatases both add and remove phosphate groups if enzymes catalyze reactions in both directions?

We know that Phosphatase is a type of enzymes that removes a phosphate group. Why can't phosphatases add a phosphate group if we know that all enzymes reactions are reversible ?
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What is the source of the fat in adipose tissue?

I have heard the opinion that all of it comes from de novo lipogenesis of carbohydrates, but I'm skeptical. Is there evidence either way - either that dietary fat definitely gets stored in the adipose ...
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Synthesis of adenosine diphosphate? [closed]

Where does the ADP come from? As in before ADP was made from ATP and visa-versa how is it conceived that they appeared in nature?
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Why is the macromolecular composition of a human cell seemingly hard to find?

I am trying to find a 3D rendering or list of molecules by volume in a cell (originally I was searching for human, but I'll take any at this point!). I understand the open-endedness of the question: ...
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Young family members to learn genetics - Amino Labs? [closed]

I'm an engineer but want to learn about biology with a niece and nephew who are early teens. I saw Amino Labs (https://amino.bio/) and thought because I work a lot with my hands, doing hands on ...
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When in Ampicillin degraded (gone) in liquid TB-media? Concerns about selectivity

Question: Specifically regarding Ampicillin; When growing cells in TB (terrific broth) for protein expression - when should I expect the ampicillin to be gone due to degradation by b-lactamases? (and ...
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1answer
119 views

How long does it take for a blocked dopamine receptor to be broken down by the body?

Do the blocked dopamine receptors get broken down by the body and if so how often ? In other words how long does it take for the dopamine receptors blocked by irreversible dopamine antagonists to ...
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1answer
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How would a medication cause a one to maintain a different weight?

This isn’t really a medical question, I’m just really curious about this. I was maintaining weight A and then started taking a medication that brought me to weight B. While on the medication, I ...
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About The Selfish Gene Book - How Replicators Molecules forms duplicates?

I was reading The Selfish Gene. In the 2nd chapter - "Replicators" I read: Think of the replicator as a mold or template. Imagine it as a large molecule consisting of a complex chain of various ...
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What is the equation and mechanism of Hopkins-Cole Test reaction?

The Hopkins-Cole reaction or glyoxylic acid reaction, is a chemical test used for qualitative detecting of tryptophan in protein solutions. tryptophan + glyoxylic acid + sulfuric acid > violet ...
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Neuroscience - A neuron with two types of synapses (electrical and chemical) at the same time

I learn that the nerves from the Peripheral Nervous System can carry signals from and to other organs of the body. I'm wondering if A Single Nerve carries 1) Only chemical signals 2) Only physical ...
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Michaelis-Menten equation; how to find the constants from enzyme activity experimental results?

I was wondering what the constants in the Michaelis-Menten equation actually mean in experimental data of enzymes. How do I process the data to find Km and Kcat? I did an experiment on catalase and ...
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1answer
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Pyruvate oxidation - where did the hydrogen come from?

As shown in the diagram above, NAD+ is reduced and becomes NADH by gaining two electrons Now, where did the hydrogen come from? In the diagram, pyruvate has 3 hydrogen, but it still has 3 hydrogen ...
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What proportion of proteins require chaperone-assisted folding?

I am new to the field of biochemistry (I am a chemist, actually). I have long known the process of folding as the process that leads to the minimum energy conformation of a protein. Now, I am ...
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If I stop consuming protein, will I still excrete urea? [closed]

Will an animal that is not eating any aminoacids stop excreting urea (or whichever other form of excreting nitrogen)? If the body is not in a position to lose nitrogenated compounds, in which ...
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1answer
910 views

Mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion

Is there any known mechanism by which hypokalemia reduces insulin secretion? This video explains a mechanism, but its inherently wrong because ATP dependent K+ channels will allow movement of K+ from ...
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Is it ok to keep primers at 4 degrees?

I reconstitute my primers in nuclease free water ( no sterilised) this morning and I forgot them at 4 degrees, acording to the instructions, they should be storage at -20 after the reconstitution. I ...
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What is protein secondary structure?

Could someone please clarify what is protein secondary structure: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_secondary_structure I believe I understand the primary structure, I am not sure what's the ...
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Technique to test antibiotic resistance in a bacteria in presence of another compound

so I have to 'quantitatively' assess a bacterial strain for its antibiotic resistance property (it is a specific antibiotic) in the presence and absence of another compound alongside antibiotic. What ...
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Experimental methods to demonstrate coupling of GPCRs [closed]

How would you experimentally demonstrate receptor coupling through each of the G proteins, Gs and/or Gi?
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Will the interaction of two proteins vary across different tissues? [closed]

Suppose protein A and B is both abundant in tissue X an tissue Y. Will A and B interact in X but not interact in Y? I guess A and B could be biomarkers of a certain disease, and in the pathological ...
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1answer
263 views

How are Mono and Diglycerides metabolized without the Free Fatty Acids of Triglycerides?

Having difficulty figuring out what the body does with ingested mono and diglycerides if the usual process of TAG metabolism includes the FFA released from the TAG returning to the MAG to recreate a ...
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1answer
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How can enzymes be immobilised on glass?

I’m studying a hypothetical model for urease activity, which involves fluorescence measurement, hence the need for an optical window to which the enzyme urease is immobilised. From my previous ...
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Who creates first nitrogen compounds in the food supply chain

As I understand the food supply chain, organic compounds have to be created from a unlimited source (air, water...). For instance, I figure that plants transform CO2 from air to organic carbon ...
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Is tyrosine hydrophobic or hydrophilic?

I’ve seen tyrosine classified as a hydrophobic amino acid due to its aromatic ring in some textbooks and as hydrophilic due to its hydroxyl group in other textbooks. How does tyrosine actually ...

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