Questions tagged [biotechnology]

Biotechnology is a field of biology which utilizes biological systems like microorganisms to produce valuable products, such as biofuels, drugs, and vaccines.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0 votes
1 answer
31 views

In traditional plant cloning, why do we require two different vectors (plasmids)?

So I was recently taught cloning in plants and I came to wonder what is the need to first put the gene of interest in the entry vector plasmid and then the final vector plasmid before finally ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
37 views

How many non-pairing bases can a PCR primer have in directed mutagenesis?

I'm not including a lot of details here, because the problem I'm working with is actually more complex. Say you have the DNA sequence 5'-...tct gcg gtg gtt ggc att ctg ctg...-3' Could this sequence ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
110 views

What breaks hydrogen bonds while producing sticky ends using restriction endonucleases?

I am a high school student and I am little confused about the uses of restriction endonucleases. Why do hydrogen bonds(base pairing) break when restriction endonucleases produce sticky ends? If they ...
user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
53 views

How do scientists create an environment that favors the selection of a microbe with higher production of a certain enzyme?

Let's say you want to create a strain of bacteria that is resistant to heat. You expose all bacteria to high heat and those who have mutated to survive this heat will be the survivors. Then you allow ...
user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
110 views

Could the use of genetically engineered crops result in the population decline of other organisms?

Population decline of other organisms has been an ongoing phenomenon since man learned how to domesticate corps. Many people, including me, is curious if the use of genetically engineered grops result ...
user avatar
  • 17
1 vote
0 answers
24 views

What is the difference between using an open or a closed configuration for a microfluidic chip?

I am doing a college BioMed project on Lungs-on-a-chip to make disease models and I have seen some authors use open configurations, while others use closed configurations. What advantages and ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

Is CRISPR being utilized when scientists use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit genes?

"CRISPR" and "Cas9" are different things. When a virus attacks a bacteria, the bacteria stores the viral code of the virus in CRISPR. And when the virus attacks again the Cas9 ...
user avatar
  • 493
0 votes
0 answers
56 views

How was gene knock out done in pre CRISPR era?

I am trying to understand how CRISPR has made the gene knockout or gene editing process simpler to make transgenic animals. Here is an old (pre CRISPR) flowchart from Manis, 2007 that shows how ...
user avatar
  • 3,626
0 votes
0 answers
81 views

How can I clone a gene into a plasmid vector with an N-terminal his tag and TEV cleavage site between the tag and the start of the sequence?

I'm a scientist who has significant experience in chemistry but am relatively new to molecular biology and biochemical techniques. I'm trying to make an isolated domain of a protein (166 residues, 19....
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

Calcium ions and bacterial transformation

What is the mechanism by which calcium ions and heat treatment allow the bacterial membrane to become permeable, allowing the uptake of plasmids?
user avatar
  • 11
0 votes
1 answer
730 views

Alkaline Phosphatase and Ligase Protocol for Cloning

In the image the circular molecule is a restricted vector and the linear red molecule is a DNA insert. I found this protocol in my lessons notes, but I don't understand how it is possible that ligase ...
user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer
64 views

What material is permeable for plant roots, but "impermeable" for fungi & bacteria?

I'm designing an experiment where the roots of the plant will grow in a sterile environment while the shoot will grow in a non-sterile grow room. For this reason the environments of the shoot and the ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
52 views

Hybrid seed production requires a male sterile parent. Why?

Hybridization is the process of crossing two plant species or varieties. In this case, two varieties of plants. In plant breeding, crossing is a very useful technique to improve the features of the ...
user avatar
  • 86
7 votes
2 answers
48 views

Meaning of "stripped" in "stripped antibody-depleted sera"

From a research paper: FOLR1 autoantibody detection The assay for identification of the presence and relative quantification of FOLR1 autoantibodies in serum samples was performed as previously ...
user avatar
  • 1,277
45 votes
1 answer
4k views

What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
user avatar
  • 975
0 votes
1 answer
54 views

Why we need a plasmid for r-DNA technology [closed]

Recently I was studying Biotechnology. When I went through the texts, I had a doubt: both plasmids and gene of interest are made of DNA stretches and bacteria directly absorb plasmids in a test tube (...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
61 views

Can we achieve complete photosynthesis on a petri dish? Barriers and potential

If we were to place bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase in an acidified solution (for H+ ions) filled with phospholipids, ADP and inorganic phosphate, hopefully the bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase ...
user avatar
  • 119
2 votes
1 answer
83 views

Is synthesizing DNA in-house feasible?

I've been reading up about DNA writing, and it seems there are machines available around the five-figure US dollar mark for DNA synthesis, and I'm considering picking one up for my lab. We normally ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
36 views

Do we come to know which allele is dominant by seeing family genration tree only?

I know that a Gene has Alleles (variation) and one is Dominant over Other i.e the Other Recessive. Then I got a Thought that How can we tell whether an Allele is Dominant or Recessive...... and I came ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

how long would oxidation of ammonia solution to nitrates take?

A hot topic among amateur chemists is making nitric acid from ammonia. While not as useful, im interested in making nitrate salts from ammonia as well. A simple idea is to just infect ammonia solution ...
user avatar
-4 votes
2 answers
210 views

DNA denaturation and Renaturation

If we denature dsDNA by heating it and then rapidly cooling it then what would happen? I read this question, where it was written that if we were given dsDNA sample which was completely denatured and ...
user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
72 views

Public fermentation/cell cultivation database?

I am wondering if there are any large collections of fermentation or cell cultivation data publicly available. I am interested in all cell types used within industrial biotech and biopharma, ...
user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
71 views

What does this mean? [closed]

The phenotypic ratio of dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1 can be derived as a combination series 3 yellow: 1 green, with 3 round :1 wrinkled. This derivation can be writtenbas follows: (3 round :1 wrinkled) (...
user avatar
  • 7
4 votes
2 answers
98 views

Is it possible to reduce maturity time of plants with biotechnology?

I've heard of speed breeding which makes use of optimal circumstances in glasshouses and growth chambers. Is it also possible to shorten a plant's maturity time (i.e. the time it needs from being ...
user avatar
  • 189
1 vote
3 answers
97 views

Technologies that rely on evolution [closed]

It's possible that this is offtopic here; if so, please let me know. I'm wondering what technologies exist that rely on evolution being a correct model; I'd like to be able to offer examples of that ...
user avatar
  • 169
14 votes
4 answers
833 views

What are the difficulties/challenges against developing a coronavirus vaccine?

Multiple groups of scientists are trying to develop a coronavirus vaccine but they are not yet being fruitful. What challenges or difficulties are there in the process that slowing down and/or causing ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
578 views

Design primers for PCR from given DNA sequence

Given the sequence: 5’-ACTGACTATGTAGAA………GGCCCTAAGGGCCAA-3’ (1) You wish to do PCR of this dsDNA to add “overhangs” on the ends of it. On the 5’ end of you will put the restriction site for ...
user avatar
  • 121
-1 votes
1 answer
47 views

Why is an antibiotic-resistance gene required during transformation of recombinant plasmid?

In my biology textbook, it said that in transformation, the recombinant plasmid containing an antibiotic-resistance gene act as a 'selective marker'. That means that plasmid in transformed bacteria ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
99 views

Are there any ways to force DNA-origami to create a geometric shape from non-nucleotides (not from DNA)?

I mean, can we create with the help of DNA-origami figures that would not consist of DNA, but, for example, carbon? Is it even possible?
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
59 views

Fluorescence assays to identify protein concentration without adding a large peptide sequence?

I'm trying to find a way of tagging a protein with something visually quantifiable to track protein concentration through potential purification steps and screen for the most efficient such steps. ...
user avatar
  • 685
0 votes
1 answer
44 views

What pH ranges are used in industrial scale fermentation?

When reading Hans-Peter Meyer, Wolfgang Minas, and Diego Schmidhalter (2017) Industrial-Scale Fermentation. Industrial Biotechnology: Products and Processes, First Edition. Edited by Christoph ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
42 views

Why haven't humans been able to make blood producing vats?

There are people in hospitals in life threatening circumstances that need blood packages, and they fully depend on blood donors' blood. With our current technology, we have been able to "persuade" ...
user avatar
  • 121
0 votes
1 answer
24 views

How DNA probe binds

I am studying about southern hybridization now and I've a doubt.After the DNA has been fragmented using restriction enzymes and obtained on nitrocellulose blot , it is still double stranded (the ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
548 views

What is the use of having a surrogate mother in animal cloning?

In animal cloning, an ovum is collected by an animal and processed to form an embryo after fusion, which is going to be inserted to a surrogate mother. So my question is that why can't the embryo be ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
55 views

Problem with joining the gene of interest into the open plasmid when their lengths are not the same

Before the recombinant plasmid is obtained in recombinant DNA, the gene of interest is inserted into a linearized plasmid by DNA ligase. What happens if the length of the gene of interest is not the ...
user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
447 views

Why are there two abrupt changes in the genome sequencing price curve?

In the price curve of the genome, from NIH: NIH explained the abrupt drop at 2008 thusly: beginning in January 2008... the sequencing centers transitioned from Sanger-based (dideoxy chain ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
35 views

How can parentage test be accurately done even though crossing over occurs?

As crossing over occurs when gametes are secreted, so when a zygote is formed after fertilization, the base pairs of DNA in the child should be different from that of the parents. So when gel ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
83 views

Can Cas13 be used with multiple crRNAs in the same reaction?

CRISPR-Cas13 equipped with crRNA (complementary to transcripts of interest) can be designed to target ssRNA transcripts in cells. Upon successful crRNA and ssRNA binding, a fluorescent domain on ...
user avatar
  • 389
2 votes
1 answer
89 views

Transformation of a multicellular organism

I was reading about using RNA-interference as a method of introducing pest-resistance in plants. In tobacco plants, using Agrobacterium vectors, genes specific to the nematode Meloidegyne incognitia ...
user avatar
  • 23
2 votes
2 answers
129 views

Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I was told by a Biotech professor (who came in our college for a guest lecture) that Bio Technology has now become so advanced that if we want to make an identical twin (or Genetical DNA Twin) of a ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
101 views

Protein electrophoresis

Three proteins A, B and C of equal molecular weight are being investigated in a study. They contain six, four and four cysteine residues respectively. Only Proteins A and B were treated with β-...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

What are the obstacles to modifying an algae to secrete fuel?

I've been reading a bit about algae fuel. It sounds like people did some work and then decided it was too difficult. This link mentions Exxon's work: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae_fuel#...
user avatar
  • 111
1 vote
1 answer
76 views

What is the role of CRISPR-dCas9 in gRNA-dCas9 transcription regulator complexes?

In this paper1, I read that mutant versions of Cas proteins such as a deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) are used alongside a guide-RNA (gRNA) to form variants of CRISPR tool that can function as transcription ...
user avatar
  • 389
1 vote
2 answers
445 views

How do biologists estimate that there is 8% of protein coding genes in human genome?

In class, the professor said that there is about 8% of protein-coding genes in human. I wonder how biologists estimate this without annotating all of human genes. Thank you!
user avatar
  • 151
1 vote
1 answer
401 views

What promoter is required for expression of a human protein Y in bacteria?

This is the actual question. It's from an entrance test for a research institute: A scientist wants to express human protein Y in bacteria. For effective expression of this protein he should use (A) ...
user avatar
  • 71
0 votes
1 answer
41 views

Finding out the best concentration for my plant extract to be used as drug for diabetes

I am using plant extract of Ajuga parviflora and found out that it possess anti-diabetic properties by using alpha-amylase inhibitory assay. I used various concentration 250 µg/ml(29% inhibiton of ...
user avatar
  • 417
4 votes
2 answers
420 views

Why is PCR possible to amplify DNA template before Sanger Sequencing for unknown DNA sequences?

Most of the informations show that both PCR and cloning can be used before Sanger Sequencing to amplify the DNA template. But how is it possible for us to design the primers if we don't know the DNA ...
user avatar
  • 151
-1 votes
1 answer
28 views

I haven't seen any gel lanes

I haven't seen any gel lanes in neither my PCR samples nor the marker itself when photographing them. This is not my first time performing 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis. I see gel lanes when I ...
user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
134 views

What are the meaning the nomenclature in high cell density cultivation for the production of a protein? [closed]

I'd like to know the meaning of these terms in a HCDC studies of a modified strain. Max specific yield (mg/g DCW) Max volumetric product yield (g/l) Specific product formation rate Qp (mg/g DCW/h)
user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
482 views

Using nanodrop for analysing biological samples other than nucleotides

I am a 3rd timer postdoctoral fellow with some experience in molecular biology and biochemistry, but major skills in Zoology and Natural History. I am studying some natural extracts, and isolating ...
user avatar
  • 308