Questions tagged [brain]

The primary component of the central nervous system, which, along with the spinal cord, controls the body of bilaterally symmetrical beings.

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Why didn't the human Cerebrum evolve to have granule cells like the Cerebellum does?

The Cerebellum is much smaller compared to the Cerebrum yet it contains more than half of the total neurons contained in the brain. That's mainly due to the granule cells in the Cerebellum which ...
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Does the cranial dura consist of the periosteum? and if not, then is there a mistake in my textbook?

My textbook (Neuroanatomy an illustrated colour text) states that: The spinal dura and much of the cranial dura are separate from the periosteum, which forms the inner lining of the surrounding ...
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Janina kolkiewicz who faced Lazarus phenomenon

I've just read about Janina kolkiewicz case who faced Lazarus phenomenon and I was wondering how could her brain and organs survive these long hours without oxygen?
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Gaba and Magnesium

I read read that magnesium divalent ion binds to gaba receptors and induces the same effects as if gaba has binded. Does anyone know what happens to the gaba that would have been synthesised and ...
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Do new neurons divide propotionally?

Do new neurons divide propotionally? if i try to improve my reasoning skills,are the new neurons only made for that specific region of the brain that controls reasoning skill? i have heard that one ...
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adverse effects of reduced food variety on microbiome

We often see, in science fiction, food being produced from, say, algae or yeast. Any idea what could be the effect of such a limited diet on the gut microbiome? Could there be any side-effect that ...
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Can a brain be damaged by overstimulation?

I am wondering what, if any, long term health effects there are from high levels of brain activity. I don't mean cases where a brain is being artificially stimulated, but rather where there is a high ...
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Why does music give you emotions?

Why do we feel emotions when we hear music? Click to see video How can a set of tones arranged in a specific order and timing make you feel sad or happy? I read that music can somehow trigger the ...
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Is sexual desire stronger in men than women?

Usually in popular culture it's considered men sexual desire is stronger than women. This seems to be congruent with the availability of sexual related items for men and women, such as magazines, ...
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What determines the influx of calcium ions in the voltage-gated ion channels?

Calcium channels play a crucial role in neuronal signaling by helping the synaptic vesicles to fuse through the synaptic active zone and release their neurotransmitters. My question is, at a given ...
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Why does brain invert the image formed on retina? [duplicate]

I have been studying about the human eye and it's working in school for some time. I came across something. I have been taught that the image formed on the retina of the eye by the lens is inverted ...
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Identify brain junk - What are all the known intracellular and extracellular substances which build up with age and clog the brain?

What are the known junk substances which the body is unable to dispose of and which build up in the brain with age to eventually causes age related problems? Starting with the most obvious ones: ...
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What is the water and fat composition of the human brain?

Everywhere I look online says the brain is about 60% fat. But when it comes to water, I see numbers like 70-75%. One webpage even makes both those claims back to back! That doesn't make any sense. So ...
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Looking for books on How the limbic system works and it role in non-verbal behavior

This is my first post. I just read and I'm currently studying a book called "How everybody works" as a guide to understanding nonverbal behaviors. After I'm done studying it and while I experiment ...
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How do parasites “reprogram” brains?

Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a parasite that uses ants as a second intermediate host (which means that ants aren't its primary host/target, but are rather a temporary host to help reach their main/...
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Where would I point to if I wanted to indicate the location of the anterior insular cortex?

I understand research suggests the anterior insular cortex is where human empathy originates. The images I found researching the location of the AIC do not give me a clear sense of where it is in ...
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What makes synaptic vesicle release probabilistic?

The fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) with the plasma membrane of the active zone (AZ) upon arrival of an action potential (AP) at the presynaptic compartment is a tightly regulated probabilistic ...
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Pharmacokinetics and cell-membrane permeability of Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate

【My Question】 (1) Please tell me the pharmacokinetics of this ATP (or Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate) when it is administered orally or intravenously. In particular, Does this material has ...
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Does the prefrontal cortex fold over the diencephalon (limbic lobe) during embryogenesis?

The frontal lobe as the top of the vertebrate brain, does it fold over the diencephalon during embryogenesis and development of the brain?
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Do monkeys understand 2+2?

Asked on behalf of my 9-year-old son: As the title says, do monkeys understand 2+2, or math in general? If so, to what extent? Can they compare individual objects to groups, understand greater/less ...
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Cerebral/Cerebellar Cortex versus Deep Nuclei

I have troubles using the terms Cortex & Deep Nuclei, and 'Nuclei' in general. From what I understand, a brain has '3 matter types in accordance to anatomical locations' Superficial Grey matter - ...
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What material fills the synaptic cleft? Is it water?

The synaptic cleft is the gap between the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons, and neurotransmitters are transferred between the neurons within this region. What substance exits in this space, is ...
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Correlation brain size and muscle volume

I have 3 dogs that weigh ≈ 5 kg, ≈ 20 kg and ≈ 45 kg. The smallest dogs whole head would fit in the mouth of the biggest dog. Although I haven't measured it exactly but by just looking at the dogs I ...
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What differentiates neurons in different parts of the brain?

For example: what makes a neuron in the hippocampus of the brain different from a neuron in, say, the amygdala, or the frontal lobe, or anywhere else in the brain? Do neurons in different parts of the ...
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Do lychees cause encephalitis?

In India, there is a recent outbreak of this disease after many consumed lychees. Many people link this to lychee's "toxins". I'm not a biology major hence can't elaborate further on this, but here ...
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Is gender identity a result of the outside environment?

This article says "Sex is based on biological factors such as sex chromosomes and gonads [reproductive organs]," she said, "whereas gender has a social component and involves expectations and ...
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Does the nature of nervous impulses give us a finite number of things we can perceive?

This is a subject that is very disturbing to me and one that I've been obsessing over for years. I warn you now that this is probably not the sort of thing you get asked on this website and I'm not ...
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Do nerves work as I think they work and what does that mean for our senses?

Let me start off with a couple of metaphors. In the third Lord of the Rings film, a signal for help is sent from Minas Tirith to Gondor, using a chain of beacons. When the keepers of one of these ...
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Is there a link between brain's energy consumption and human experience?

I was read the article (in Scientific American Mind) about energy consumption of brain. There are: Say you are learning a new skill—how to juggle or speak Spanish. Neuroscientists have made the ...
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How much is the motion speed of calcium ions in ion channels and neurons?

As far as I know, calcium ions moving in a Brownian manner are responsible for the performance of neurons and neuro-transmitters. My question is, how much kinetic energy these calcium ions have and ...
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How many neurons do we have in our forearm?

I am developing a neural interface, getting signals from the forearm and mapping them to hand gestures. The question we have at the moment is what is the upper bound of information bandwidth that we ...
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How would the brain represent represent elapsed time?

When we are waiting for an elevator, we know that the elevator will not open right away. There is a delay of 2 or 3 seconds. How does the brain (likely cerebellum) represent the running time of 2 or 3 ...
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Does our brain use up more ATP after smoking cannabis?

kind of an amateur here. If the firing of the neurons' signals uses up some ATP, and smoking cannabis makes them fire off more quickly, do our brains use up more ATP to sustain that rapid firing?
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Analysis of dynamic connectome data?

I have heard about existence of full brain connectome data of some worms or fishes. I have heard about GEVI - genetically engineered voltage indicators - that allow to see voltage data at subcellular ...
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Can humans read thoughts through technology? [duplicate]

Can humans read thoughts through technology? Is there a way that humans can correlate the words a person thinks with the specific ideas that they portray or know what the words are themselves?
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249 views

What are the brain structures directly on top of the brain stem?

I have been trying to learn the anatomy of the brain, and some information on their functions, through an iPad app called 3D Brain. Whilst going through the different parts, I have noticed that one ...
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human sight at 1000x while looking into the mirror [closed]

I noticed that my eyeballs have the ability to see in what appears to be 1000x. Setting the conditions: Look into a mirror while in a well lit room. (for me the lighting in my living room as opposed ...
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What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

This is what I have understood so far: Neuroendocrine system involved neuroendocrine cells (also known as neurosecretory cells) that receive nerve impulses by a sensory neuron to release ...
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How to find papers about voltage imaging (with GEVI) for human brain research?

I would like to follow the Nature article https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-06694-6 about voltage imaging of brains, about use of GEVI - Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators. But I am ...
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Does the brain have a clock and can it be sped up?

Before i start, I'm an engineer and have very limited knowledge on biology and neuroscience. My question is, does the brain have a clock like a computer where it has a set processing speed? Clocks in ...
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Can an epileptic seizure start in the spinal cord?

My understanding of an epileptic seizure is caused by "invalid electrical signaling" in the brain. Can these start from the spinal cord (outside the brain) and move into the brain and cause an ...
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How do Neurotransmitters get into the neurons?

This may be a dumb question. I'm not a Neuroscientist. I'm just trying to learn more about the brain to improve my AI learning algorithms… I understand that there are different kinds of ...
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What will be the deficits when left half of the brain is removed in adults?

Hemispherectomy is a surgical procedure to remove half of the brain. It is typically done on children with severe epilepsy. What will be the deficits when left half is removed in adults? Is aphasia a ...
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What is the reason behind that sometimes when I see new thing I feel that I have already seen them?

I have googled it and I found that it is, because of good memory, but how it can be due to good memory as it didn't happen before. It happened to me many times, that I feel that the scene which is ...
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Is it possible to grow brain tissue in vitro? Can we make a super-brain this way? [closed]

I wonder whether such experiments were conducted? Is it possible to create a "biological super-computer" this way?
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Energy consumption of the human brain: thinking vs not thinking [duplicate]

I'm wondering about the human brain's energy consumption at different "uses". If you use a muscle it uses more energy than if you hold it still. Is the brain like this, or is it "always on" like a ...
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Does mother feed information?

Does the mother feed information to the child in the fetus? If so, How is that done? IF not, How can the just born baby breath involuntarily if brain doesn't know it should generate impulses to ...
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Is the structure of human brain white matter fixed at/near birth?

I have been reading that, with exceptions for a few parts of the human brain, no neurogenesis occurs, so no new neurons are created. I have also heard that no new axons are formed through the white ...
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Why Is Gray Matter Gray?

When I researched I found different reason for this, the popular ones are 1) white matter is mylinated .this reason was given in reference books and this website while others say 2)cell body ...
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Can cognitive functioning of the human brain change the physical state of the brain? [closed]

Can cognitive functioning of the human brain change the physical state of the brain? E.g. does self-awareness, self-reflection change the number of neurons or synapses among neurons? I.e. I am trying ...