Questions tagged [brain]

The primary component of the central nervous system, which, along with the spinal cord, controls the body of bilaterally symmetrical beings.

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How do the biophysics of how cerebrospinal fluid mechanically protects the brain work?

The two mechanisms I've seen mentioned are the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acting as a hydraulic cushion or shock absorber, and how CSF creates a micro-gravity environment through buoyancy. I have very ...
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Correlation brain size and muscle volume

I have 3 dogs that weigh ≈ 5 kg, ≈ 20 kg and ≈ 45 kg. The smallest dogs whole head would fit in the mouth of the biggest dog. Although I haven't measured it exactly but by just looking at the dogs I ...
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Dopamine and other neurotransmitter release during music listening

I'm looking for any studies that show a positive curve in respects to music sessions in humans and neurotransmitter release (specifically dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin.) Any direct links would ...
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Parts of Brain Active for Dreams | Right Hemisphere or Cortex

I found a research that states cortex is responsible for the contents of the dream. Contents could be people, place, objects etc. The cortex is responsible for the content of dreams, including the ...
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How optimal are the distances of voltage-gated ion channels on axons?

In both myelinated and not-myelinated axon segments ("axons" for short) there are theoretically maximal distances of voltage-gated ion channels beyond which propagation of the action potential would ...
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Does brain activity generate heat gradients in the brain?

I'm reading this article on guiding axon growth using temperature gradient, and it mentions that the trajectory of growth of neuron connections can be influenced by temperature gradients as little as ...
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Can an epileptic seizure start in the spinal cord?

My understanding of an epileptic seizure is caused by "invalid electrical signaling" in the brain. Can these start from the spinal cord (outside the brain) and move into the brain and cause an ...
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What is operating temperature of the human brain?

I've heard several times that human brain can die in temperatures over 40 °C, or under 10 °C, as an engineer I'm curious. In what temperature region can brain properly work? And just an underlying ...
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What happens to apetite hormones like ghrelin and leptin when a person in coma?

Don't coma individuals feel hungry? If so, how does the brain senses this condition (as coma is caused by neural death or damage) and switches off gene expression of ghrelin and leptin. Is there any ...
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Access and decay time of long-term memory

As for STM (short-term memory), access time is 70 ms and decay time is 200 ms. Is there any calculated time for LTM (long-term memory) also? And does LTM really decay with the passage of time?
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What is the biological basis of “energy” that extraverted humans draw from social engagements and introverts expend?

This question is related to this question about introverts becoming exhausted after extended social events on cognitive sciences stack exchange. As I read more on the topic of human extraversion-...
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How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
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What will be the deficits when left half of the brain is removed in adults?

Hemispherectomy is a surgical procedure to remove half of the brain. It is typically done on children with severe epilepsy. What will be the deficits when left half is removed in adults? Is aphasia a ...
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At what rate does synaptogenesis occur in adults?

From many articles, I can find the rate of synaptogenesis at its highest: roughly 580,000/minute (weeks 6-23 after conception). However, I'm having trouble finding the rate with which it occurs in ...
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Spatial distribution of axons connecting distant groups of neurons

It would help me to shape my picture of the brain, if I knew the following: Consider two specified groups of neurons A and B in the brain that are well-located but quite distant from each other (e.g. ...
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Can memories intentionally be overwritten, or forgotten?

Over the years, I've come across studies (e.g., here, here, and here), and have watched documentaries (similar to this), that speak about memory retrieval, and how that, every time you recall a memory,...
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Is 8 hours of sleep necessary?

Many studies claim that humans need 8 hours of sleep. During sleep there are several different stages, from stage 1 to 4 as well as REM sleep. However, are all these stages actually necessary? If yes, ...
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What happens to the brain during sleep versus unconsciousness?

How does being unconsciousness differ from being asleep and whether it causes breaks in consciousness?
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Acetylcholine and muscles- excitatory or inhibitory? (muscle atonia and myasthenia gravis)

I have heard that acetylcholine can be excitatory or inhibitory, but I am confused as to which it is when it comes to muscles. On the one hand, I believe that muscle atonia during REM sleep is ...
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Is it possible that weak memory is due to interference between signals in the brain?

"Weak memory", as used in this question, refers to the inability to retrieve a memory that a person otherwise knows he has memorized earlier. An example of this is some fact snippet that the ...
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Does the Jungian notion of collective unconsciousness have any legitimacy in the light of modern neurobiology and epigenetics?

Carl Jung has long ago proposed a rather controversial notion of collective unconsciousness [1, 2, 3], a form of the unconscious (that part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which ...
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TV's so loud when I turn over

Scenario: I'm about to fall asleep with the T.V. on. Having completely forgotten that it was, no longer even hearing it, just before falling asleep I turn over with a 'fresh' ear and it's blaring. If ...
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The Operation of tuning in the S1 layer of ventral model

According to my previous question in ventral Stream pathway and architecture, I want now to get a brief example about how the S1 layer is constructed. In other words, how all the simple units are ...
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Alzheimer's disease - Hyperexcitability

I am trying to read literature on Alzheimer's disease. A very important phenomenon that occurs in AD patients, is hyperexcitability in neurons close to A-beta concentrations. Some authors only ...
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How sharp are the borders between Brodmann areas?

How does the border between two Brodmann areas look like in Nissl stains? How large is the transition zone where one cannot tell to which of the two areas a neuron belongs to? How many neurons are ...
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Pharmacokinetics and cell-membrane permeability of Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate

【My Question】 (1) Please tell me the pharmacokinetics of this ATP (or Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate) when it is administered orally or intravenously. In particular, Does this material has ...
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How would the brain represent represent elapsed time?

When we are waiting for an elevator, we know that the elevator will not open right away. There is a delay of 2 or 3 seconds. How does the brain (likely cerebellum) represent the running time of 2 or 3 ...
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What are the differences (if any) in brain activity when hallucinating versus perceiving a real object?

I was wondering if there is difference in brain activity when someone is hallucinating an object, say a giraffe compared to when someone is genuinely observing a real giraffe?
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The colors blue and golden (yellow-orange) and the human eye / brain

Many years ago I read a review in an article about why we love for example Lapis Lazuli so much. The article stated that there are two specific colors, yellow as golden (when it glows or shines) and a ...
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Alternative conditions for Liquifactive Necrosis

A person is beaten on the head hard enough to swell the whole front part of the head. The body is thrown into the river and recovered after about 36 hours. Is this condition enough for liquifactive ...
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Neurobiology of tantrums

As mentioned here, tantrums are primarily observed in young children and often involve a loss of self-control, both physical control and the ability to calm after a demand has been met. What changes ...
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Being able to write/type different texts using each hand respectively, at the same time?

Has there been any documentation of being able to either write down (jot down) or type in (key in) different texts using the left hand and the right hand respectively, simultaneously? So, I'm ...
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Atlas from human brain structures to 3D coordinates?

I would like to visualize specific human brain structures in the three dimensional space and compute specific geometric properties of these brain structures (size, centroid, etc). Therefore, I am ...
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Is there an evolutionary reason why so many white matter tracts decussate in the brainstem and spinal chord?

From a developmental perspective, I would tend to assume that it would be much simpler for the fibers descending from (for instance) the pyramidal tracts, superior cerebellar peduncles, or ascending ...
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Limits of brain neuronal spatial mapping

It is being claimed that brain maps the world space in (roughly) 1-to-1 correspondance of a place to a neuron (link1, link2). My question is: as the mapping happens in 1-to-1 manner, then is it ...
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Thinking quickly causes elevated mood

I read this article: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/09/060926171045.htm It says, "When people are made to think quickly, they report feeling happier as a result. They also say they are ...
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Is dysharmonia an actual disease or something only Oliver Sacks believes in?

In his book Musicophilia, Oliver Sacks discusses a case involving a woman named Rachel Y. who lost the ability to process harmony in a car accident. He then explains how this lead to simultanagnosia. ...
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Physiologically, how can stress/anxiety cause neuropathy?

According to the Mayo Clinic, stress/anxiety can cause "pins and needles" (neuropathy) sensations all over the body. But how can this be? My understanding of the sensory pathway is that sensory ...
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When the mind is highly active, roughly how many neurons become excited in one second?

I'm curios to know how many times neurons send signals in one second when the brain is highly active (Highly active meaning during difficult problem solving, or any task that might bring the brain to ...
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Can scientists “see” thought?

Touching an object activates a nerve - something that can be observed by scientists. Scientists can also trace the resulting "signal" through your nerves to your brain. They may know which ...
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How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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Difference between Processing and Preprocessing

In the wikipedia article of emotion lateralization it is mentioned: The right hemisphere is important for processing primary emotions such as fear while the left hemisphere is important for ...
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Why do we get tunnel vision during fight or flight response?

I have a question regarding tunnel vision during the fight or flight response. I believe that during fight or flight high levels of adrenaline are released which causes the pupils to dilate allowing ...
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Why do we have both on and off bipolar cells?

I have a question regarding the reason behind the 2 bipolar cells. So, from my understanding we have both on and off bipolar cells and from the numerous diagrams I have seen, I find that most show a ...
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Can the eye determine which type of defocus is presented to it?

I have a question regarding myopic and hyperopic defocus. My question is, is the eye able to determine which type of defocus is presented to it and if so what mechanisms allow it to distinguish ...
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Why doesn't the spinal cord get thicker the further up we go?

The cervical and lumbar enlargements exist on the spinal cord as a result of the increased nerve input/output required for the arms and legs respectively. However, I don't understand how the ...
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Schematic of neural lineage tree and position of Choroid Plexus cells

I am trying to understand which are the different type of progenitors in the human brain and I am currently following this schematic. My question is, are Choroid Plexus cells progenitors to Radial ...
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Breakdown of functional human genome by organ/What fraction of the functional human genome is devoted specifically to brain functioning?

Of course, there won't be a precise known answer to the question, as it is not even known precisely what percentage of the genome is functional in the first place - but I am still looking for research....
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Are there “old” neuron types in the neocortex?

"Old" may mean a neuron type that appeared early in the tree of life, and it may mean – going together – that it comes early in the lineage tree of neuronal cells, rooted in the fertilized ...
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Are there nuclei with “real” interneurons?

In Kandel's "Principles of Neural Sciences" in the chapter about the anatomical organization of the brain one reads (p. 323, 4th ed.): »Although a variety of [relay] neurons are involved at each ...