Questions tagged [brain]

The primary component of the central nervous system, which, along with the spinal cord, controls the body of bilaterally symmetrical beings.

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43 views

Reference request: neocortex creating 11 dimensional structures

I've come across several pop science articles like this one that vaguely describe a method of analyzing brain tissue involving algebraic topology and 11 dimensional structures. They all seem to cite ...
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77 views

What is dendritic processing good for? [closed]

Can - on a very coarse level - the functional role of dendritic processing as a whole (at least one of possibly many functional roles it might play) be described as rewarding spatially coherent ...
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66 views

Simple model of dendritic processing

[I striked through some passages that might be misleading, resp. where I have been misled.] Is the following - very simplified - model biologically (or physically) plausible, explaining how ...
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1answer
98 views

Effect and functional role of voltage-gated channels on dendrites [closed]

I'd like to understand better the effect and functional role of voltage-gated channels on dendrites. What I believe to have understood: It is important that a more distal post-synaptical potential (...
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149 views

Number and function of voltage-independent ion channels

Googling for "voltage-independent" ion channels neurons doesn't give a good overview over the topic (and yields only approx. 50,000 hits, compared to 500,000 hits when searching for "voltage-dependent"...
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Does neural oscillation happen at the same frequency in all parts of the brain simultaneously?

Does neural oscillation happen at the same rate in all parts of the brain at a given time? I'm trying to learn and understand about brainwaves, and I know about the various categories of brainwave. ...
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665 views

Excitability of neurons

[The following includes a) two specific questions (at the end), b) an attempt to capture a dispositional concept (excitability) in geometric and physical terms.] I assume that "excitability of a ...
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1answer
116 views

How is “firing together” detected in Hebbian learning?

I assume, that the signal that forces a synaptic receptor/ion channel complex to change its behaviour (i.e. strengthening in the course of upregulation) must be the combination of the state of the ...
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How optimal are the distances of voltage-gated ion channels on axons?

In both myelinated and not-myelinated axon segments ("axons" for short) there are theoretically maximal distances of voltage-gated ion channels beyond which propagation of the action potential would ...
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How much and how often to maximise caffeine's effects? (for humans) [closed]

In regards to human's enhanced mental state from caffeine, how much and how often should a human take caffeine to have the most mind altering effect with the least amount of withdrawal symptoms? This ...
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Spatial distribution of axons connecting distant groups of neurons

It would help me to shape my picture of the brain, if I knew the following: Consider two specified groups of neurons A and B in the brain that are well-located but quite distant from each other (e.g. ...
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413 views

What is the difference between prefrontal cortex and frontal lobe? [duplicate]

They are both in the front. Looks like they're the exact same thing. Is one part of the other? What? Why is it called prefrontral cortex? What does pre before frontal mean? Before front?
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48 views

Homogeneous and complex nuclei

In the Wikipedia article on nuclei one reads: "The neurons in one nucleus usually have roughly similar connections and functions." I read this as "a nucleus usually is roughly homogenous", i.e. ...
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867 views

Why is the prefrontal cortex called such?

Pre means before. Frontal means front. What does cortex means? Brain? Is it the front most part of the brain? Is it located at the most frontal part of the brain and that's why it's called ...
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88 views

How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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123 views

Can memories intentionally be overwritten, or forgotten?

Over the years, I've come across studies (e.g., here, here, and here), and have watched documentaries (similar to this), that speak about memory retrieval, and how that, every time you recall a memory,...
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Is the shape of the skull important for brain size?

I do not know biology, but I notice that human skull have a particular form that is like a upward spike and other skulls which are only oval. upward spike: oval: I know that in the example images ...
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99 views

Neurons during Numb feeling

We become numb when there is short supply of blood to some parts, as mentioned here. If that is the reason, why don't neurons and other cells die at that part if they don't receive oxygen and other ...
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The colors blue and golden (yellow-orange) and the human eye / brain

Many years ago I read a review in an article about why we love for example Lapis Lazuli so much. The article stated that there are two specific colors, yellow as golden (when it glows or shines) and a ...
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If I receive dopamine only from doing difficult things will I eventually enjoy them?

I've recently read a post from reddit about how dopamine affects our motivation. Author states: Dopamine is pleasure. Your brain craves more pleasure. You get too much pleasure and your brain ...
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73 views

Longest pathway from sensory to motor neurons

How long is the longest pathway a neural signal can take starting from a sensory neuron and ending at a motor neuron (without loops)? [This is a purely theoretical question concerning only the ...
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320 views

Is it true that the human brain has not evolved in 100 000 years? [closed]

I read that the human brain has not evolved in 100 000 years and that's why there are no genes for intelligence.
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1answer
44 views

Can cognitive enhancement from exercise be replicated/replaced through prolonged standing?

Can cognitive enhancement from exercise be replicated/replaced through prolonged standing? Like, will BDNF be released from prolonged standing. I would prefer to use a standing desk than exercise (...
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The human brain in numbers II-A: synaptic connections per structural type [closed]

The overall number of synapses in the human brain is roughly 1,000 trillion, i.e. 10,000 synapses per neuron. I assume that each structural type of neuron (basket, pyramidal, ...) has a somehow ...
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What sections of the brain can be removed without causing instant death? [closed]

Years ago I've read about a young man you had lost a large section of his brain (frontal lobe) in an accident but surprisingly he survived it and continued his normal life. You may have read about ...
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123 views

The human brain in numbers II: synaptic connections [closed]

The overall number of synapses in the human brain is roughly 1,000 trillion, i.e. 10,000 synapses per neuron. My question here is three-fold: I assume that each structural type of neuron (basket, ...
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48 views

Alternative conditions for Liquifactive Necrosis

A person is beaten on the head hard enough to swell the whole front part of the head. The body is thrown into the river and recovered after about 36 hours. Is this condition enough for liquifactive ...
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Is it theoretically possible to create two humans by splitting one human in two? [closed]

There have been cases where a person has had one of their brain hemispheres removed, and they ended up living a fairly normal life. Could it be possible to split a normal person down the middle and ...
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Cerebral activity during exposure to non - visible light

Our eyes only have the ability to sense light within a certain spectrum. My understanding is that particular frequencies energize specific cells in our eyes, each responsible for a different "color". ...
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1answer
193 views

Do some colors trigger more neural activity in human brain?

On this webpage I found this: The study found that “globs” in the brains of monkeys reacted differently to colored stimuli, and reacted based on color. The brain was most triggered by specific ...
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299 views

Do smaller intelligent animals have a higher neuron density to account for their seeming intelligence? Otherwise, what?

It seems like there's a lot of very small animals that have a much higher intelligence than what you would expect if you linearly projected intelligence as a function of brain size. There's ravens, ...
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Neurons competing for survival

I was reading in a book that in the process of neurogenesis - when new neurons are born - neurons compete for survival. Or in other words they have to make themselves useful to the brain otherwise ...
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1answer
510 views

Why don't we consciously know how our bodies work?

Our brain is responsible for regulating our entire body. However, we don't consciously know how our bodies work — our brain has to learn about biology, medicine, and so on. Since our brain controls ...
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361 views

Do self-exciting neurons exist?

I have two questions concerning self-exciting neurons in the brain. Have directly self-exciting neurons been oberved, i.e. neurons with an axon terminal building a synapse with one of its own ...
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402 views

Can controlled dose of Codeine improve brain's functionality?

What I know so far about drugs (codeine, heroin, etc) is, the first time you take them you will feel better, think sharper, and act better, just like a supercharged engine. But as this goes on a ...
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246 views

Does terminology for changes in membrane potential refer to additive or multiplicative change?

Is the membrane potential just the number of mV, or is it to what extent it differs from 0? For example: If the mV goes from -40 to -60, can you say that: The membrane potential decreases, because ...
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297 views

Is neurogenesis essencial for learning?

So I read that our brain produces 700 new neurons in the hippocampus every day and that if we perform cognitive demanding tasks, eat omega-3 or exercise (other things?) it can produce even more ...
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Neurobiology of tantrums

As mentioned here, tantrums are primarily observed in young children and often involve a loss of self-control, both physical control and the ability to calm after a demand has been met. What changes ...
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2answers
158 views

Does the brain process sound in “clips” or “frames”?

I've always been under the impression that our brains process images (relayed to it via the eyes) at a particular frequency or "framerate"; this is supported by lots of sources, such as this one. I'm ...
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What is operating temperature of the human brain?

I've heard several times that human brain can die in temperatures over 40 °C, or under 10 °C, as an engineer I'm curious. In what temperature region can brain properly work? And just an underlying ...
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668 views

what is the meaning of VIP-cre::LSL-TOM::SOMGFP(GIN) mice?

I am reading the following paper and the researchers use "VIP-cre::LSL-TOM::SOM-GFP(GIN)" mice (page 4) for multi cell patch clamp and "VIP-cre::LSL-TOM and SOM-cre::LSL-TOM" mice injected ...
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137 views

Where can I find a diagram of cortex connections?

Has anyone come across a diagram (2D, 3D, maybe even interactive) of the connectiontions between cortex regions? Especially, the diagram should display the strength and direction of those connections (...
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How do I interpret this depiction of dopamine neuron signaling?

I am studying the work of Wolfram Schultz on reward signals. He depicts dopamine reward signals as shown below, which I do not know how to interpret. Each dot represents an action potential in a ...
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What causes sleep inertia?

Sometimes after a nap, I wake up in a state of grogginess. I learned that this is actually called sleep inertia. I'm able to find lots of methods to overcome this, but what causes it in the first ...
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2k views

What is two photon calcium imaging?

I have encountered the term "two photon calcium imaging" in a few papers. I have tried to look in the internet but can't understand what this technique actually is. I will be very happy for ...
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1k views

Does our brain emit any kind of waves? [closed]

I am currently trying to start a research project, and this is the most important question that needs to be answered. I cant't move ahead without knowing the chemistry of the brain.
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What is a unitary post synaptic potential?

I am reading the paper Cooperative subnetworks of molecularly similar interneurons in mouse neocortex and have encountered the term: "Unitary (excitatory or inhibitory) post synaptic potential". I ...
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1answer
968 views

Why a brain's hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body? [duplicate]

As a physics student with very little understanding of biology, in a course about physics foundations diagnostic techniques I have come up with this question. I don't even know if it does make sense ...
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Does human brain store duplicate data?

There are several answers and articles about how the brain stores data, but none specifically cover whether a human's brain stores duplicate data. I was reading in this article that a human brain can ...
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Why does Stereology use Systematic Random Sampling?

I am a student of Neuroscience and in all my textbooks and lecture notes it is written that in Stereology, Systematic random sampling (SRS) is used to obtain sections. Why it's that and not any other ...