Questions tagged [brain]

The primary component of the central nervous system, which, along with the spinal cord, controls the body of bilaterally symmetrical beings.

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How does the brain’s limbic system work together to form a working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory?

In the past few days, I was reading about the limbic system and how its components (hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, etc.) cooperate. Among papers and forum posts I read about how those ...
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How fast the brain recover itself at sleep? What can be done to accelerate this process?

In Computer Science we have "Big O Notation" to describe how efficient is an algorithm at processing some task. Those can be linear, time constant, exponential among others. Using that analogy, How ...
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Ipsilateral vs contralateral side of body

I know that the dorsal columns carry ipsilateral information. Is this fact relative to the dorsal column in question? If I want to talk about the right dorsal column, then the right side of the body ...
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brain and fingers movement theorie

I heard somewhere that when we want to do a repetitive movement of one finger (ex the index) . Our brain (in a very crude way) sends a first message to move all the fingers, and then a second message ...
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Are male and female brains physically different from birth?

Male and female brains are wired differently according to this article: Maps of neural circuitry showed that on average women's brains were highly connected across the left and right hemispheres, ...
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Evolutionary explanation for hypoxia causing euphoria? [duplicate]

Why would something potentially very dangerous, such as hypoxia induce something pleasurable like euphoria? Are there any evolutionary hypotheses for this link? I'm thinking that something like the "...
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Why does excess dopamine activity in the pleasure centers results in less pleasure in schizophrenics?

According to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is an excess of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway (nucleus accumbens), and this contributes to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. I ...
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An introduction to nuclei in the pons?

I have a couple of questions regarding the nuclei in the pons, thus I figured it would be best to frame the main question in the way that I did. My main question, however, is whether the basal pontine ...
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Reference request - Neuroscience of Free Will [closed]

I am a computer science student taking a course on philosophy. My topic of research is on freedom of will and whether it is possible to create a machine capable (or closely) of doing so. I felt that ...
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82 views

Since the matter in the brain is recycled every few days how does consciousnesses work?

Since parts of the brain are recycled every few days does that mean that materialistic theories of consciousness don't work?
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Where does the initial action potential come from?

When talking about action potentials we say that previous neurons caused an action potential in this neuron and that this neuron's action potential caused the same in further neurons. But what is the ...
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What in the brain has gone awry during sleep paralysis?

I experience episodes of what I assume is sleep paralysis (lasting ~ 10-30 seconds) a few times a year, where I'm conscious of being somewhat awake but unable to move. I can hear, but not see, and am ...
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Neuroscience of confusion

How does (neuro)science characterize "confusion" that occur to "healthy" persons when engaged on a particular mentally-intensive task? I would exclude the case where we are rationally and with clear ...
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Is it possible to affect a brain with electromagnetic waves? [closed]

A human brain can generate electrical signal. So it generates magnetic field as well. Is it possible to affect a brain with electromagnetic waves?
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Does the brain store information and personality traits in different areas?

I'm aware that muscle memory, language etc can remain largely intact after brain injury that impairs other forms of memory, suggesting that different kinds of memory are stored in different places in ...
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Cockroach brain functional anatomy

In insects like the cockroach the brain is distributed, i.e. some parts lie in the head and some in the abdominal cavity. Which part is responsible for controlling locomotion?
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Reference request: neocortex creating 11 dimensional structures

I've come across several pop science articles like this one that vaguely describe a method of analyzing brain tissue involving algebraic topology and 11 dimensional structures. They all seem to cite ...
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What is dendritic processing good for? [closed]

Can - on a very coarse level - the functional role of dendritic processing as a whole (at least one of possibly many functional roles it might play) be described as rewarding spatially coherent ...
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Simple model of dendritic processing

[I striked through some passages that might be misleading, resp. where I have been misled.] Is the following - very simplified - model biologically (or physically) plausible, explaining how ...
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105 views

Effect and functional role of voltage-gated channels on dendrites [closed]

I'd like to understand better the effect and functional role of voltage-gated channels on dendrites. What I believe to have understood: It is important that a more distal post-synaptical potential (...
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171 views

Number and function of voltage-independent ion channels

Googling for "voltage-independent" ion channels neurons doesn't give a good overview over the topic (and yields only approx. 50,000 hits, compared to 500,000 hits when searching for "voltage-dependent"...
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62 views

Does neural oscillation happen at the same frequency in all parts of the brain simultaneously?

Does neural oscillation happen at the same rate in all parts of the brain at a given time? I'm trying to learn and understand about brainwaves, and I know about the various categories of brainwave. ...
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Excitability of neurons

[The following includes a) two specific questions (at the end), b) an attempt to capture a dispositional concept (excitability) in geometric and physical terms.] I assume that "excitability of a ...
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123 views

How is “firing together” detected in Hebbian learning?

I assume, that the signal that forces a synaptic receptor/ion channel complex to change its behaviour (i.e. strengthening in the course of upregulation) must be the combination of the state of the ...
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How optimal are the distances of voltage-gated ion channels on axons?

In both myelinated and not-myelinated axon segments ("axons" for short) there are theoretically maximal distances of voltage-gated ion channels beyond which propagation of the action potential would ...
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Spatial distribution of axons connecting distant groups of neurons

It would help me to shape my picture of the brain, if I knew the following: Consider two specified groups of neurons A and B in the brain that are well-located but quite distant from each other (e.g. ...
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447 views

What is the difference between prefrontal cortex and frontal lobe? [duplicate]

They are both in the front. Looks like they're the exact same thing. Is one part of the other? What? Why is it called prefrontral cortex? What does pre before frontal mean? Before front?
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Homogeneous and complex nuclei

In the Wikipedia article on nuclei one reads: "The neurons in one nucleus usually have roughly similar connections and functions." I read this as "a nucleus usually is roughly homogenous", i.e. ...
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Why is the prefrontal cortex called such?

Pre means before. Frontal means front. What does cortex means? Brain? Is it the front most part of the brain? Is it located at the most frontal part of the brain and that's why it's called ...
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How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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Can memories intentionally be overwritten, or forgotten?

Over the years, I've come across studies (e.g., here, here, and here), and have watched documentaries (similar to this), that speak about memory retrieval, and how that, every time you recall a memory,...
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Is the shape of the skull important for brain size?

I do not know biology, but I notice that human skull have a particular form that is like a upward spike and other skulls which are only oval. upward spike: oval: I know that in the example images ...
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Neurons during Numb feeling

We become numb when there is short supply of blood to some parts, as mentioned here. If that is the reason, why don't neurons and other cells die at that part if they don't receive oxygen and other ...
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The colors blue and golden (yellow-orange) and the human eye / brain

Many years ago I read a review in an article about why we love for example Lapis Lazuli so much. The article stated that there are two specific colors, yellow as golden (when it glows or shines) and a ...
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If I receive dopamine only from doing difficult things will I eventually enjoy them?

I've recently read a post from reddit about how dopamine affects our motivation. Author states: Dopamine is pleasure. Your brain craves more pleasure. You get too much pleasure and your brain adapts ...
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Longest pathway from sensory to motor neurons

How long is the longest pathway a neural signal can take starting from a sensory neuron and ending at a motor neuron (without loops)? [This is a purely theoretical question concerning only the ...
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Is it true that the human brain has not evolved in 100 000 years? [closed]

I read that the human brain has not evolved in 100 000 years and that's why there are no genes for intelligence.
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Can cognitive enhancement from exercise be replicated/replaced through prolonged standing?

Can cognitive enhancement from exercise be replicated/replaced through prolonged standing? Like, will BDNF be released from prolonged standing. I would prefer to use a standing desk than exercise (...
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The human brain in numbers II-A: synaptic connections per structural type [closed]

The overall number of synapses in the human brain is roughly 1,000 trillion, i.e. 10,000 synapses per neuron. I assume that each structural type of neuron (basket, pyramidal, ...) has a somehow ...
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What sections of the brain can be removed without causing instant death? [closed]

Years ago I've read about a young man you had lost a large section of his brain (frontal lobe) in an accident but surprisingly he survived it and continued his normal life. You may have read about ...
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132 views

The human brain in numbers II: synaptic connections [closed]

The overall number of synapses in the human brain is roughly 1,000 trillion, i.e. 10,000 synapses per neuron. My question here is three-fold: I assume that each structural type of neuron (basket, ...
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Alternative conditions for Liquifactive Necrosis

A person is beaten on the head hard enough to swell the whole front part of the head. The body is thrown into the river and recovered after about 36 hours. Is this condition enough for liquifactive ...
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Is it theoretically possible to create two humans by splitting one human in two? [closed]

There have been cases where a person has had one of their brain hemispheres removed, and they ended up living a fairly normal life. Could it be possible to split a normal person down the middle and ...
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Cerebral activity during exposure to non - visible light

Our eyes only have the ability to sense light within a certain spectrum. My understanding is that particular frequencies energize specific cells in our eyes, each responsible for a different "color". ...
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Do some colors trigger more neural activity in human brain?

On this webpage I found this: The study found that “globs” in the brains of monkeys reacted differently to colored stimuli, and reacted based on color. The brain was most triggered by specific ...
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Do smaller intelligent animals have a higher neuron density to account for their seeming intelligence? Otherwise, what?

It seems like there's a lot of very small animals that have a much higher intelligence than what you would expect if you linearly projected intelligence as a function of brain size. There's ravens, ...
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Neurons competing for survival

I was reading in a book that in the process of neurogenesis - when new neurons are born - neurons compete for survival. Or in other words they have to make themselves useful to the brain otherwise ...
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Why don't we consciously know how our bodies work?

Our brain is responsible for regulating our entire body. However, we don't consciously know how our bodies work — our brain has to learn about biology, medicine, and so on. Since our brain controls ...
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Do self-exciting neurons exist?

I have two questions concerning self-exciting neurons in the brain. Have directly self-exciting neurons been oberved, i.e. neurons with an axon terminal building a synapse with one of its own ...
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Can controlled dose of Codeine improve brain's functionality?

What I know so far about drugs (codeine, heroin, etc) is, the first time you take them you will feel better, think sharper, and act better, just like a supercharged engine. But as this goes on a ...

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