Questions tagged [brain]

The primary component of the central nervous system, which, along with the spinal cord, controls the body of bilaterally symmetrical beings.

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1answer
709 views

Why don't we consciously know how our bodies work?

Our brain is responsible for regulating our entire body. However, we don't consciously know how our bodies work — our brain has to learn about biology, medicine, and so on. Since our brain controls ...
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Do self-exciting neurons exist?

I have two questions concerning self-exciting neurons in the brain. Have directly self-exciting neurons been oberved, i.e. neurons with an axon terminal building a synapse with one of its own ...
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Can controlled dose of Codeine improve brain's functionality?

What I know so far about drugs (codeine, heroin, etc) is, the first time you take them you will feel better, think sharper, and act better, just like a supercharged engine. But as this goes on a ...
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1answer
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Does terminology for changes in membrane potential refer to additive or multiplicative change?

Is the membrane potential just the number of mV, or is it to what extent it differs from 0? For example: If the mV goes from -40 to -60, can you say that: The membrane potential decreases, because ...
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Is neurogenesis essencial for learning?

So I read that our brain produces 700 new neurons in the hippocampus every day and that if we perform cognitive demanding tasks, eat omega-3 or exercise (other things?) it can produce even more ...
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Neurobiology of tantrums

As mentioned here, tantrums are primarily observed in young children and often involve a loss of self-control, both physical control and the ability to calm after a demand has been met. What changes ...
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Does the brain process sound in “clips” or “frames”?

I've always been under the impression that our brains process images (relayed to it via the eyes) at a particular frequency or "framerate"; this is supported by lots of sources, such as this one. I'm ...
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What is operating temperature of the human brain?

I've heard several times that human brain can die in temperatures over 40 °C, or under 10 °C, as an engineer I'm curious. In what temperature region can brain properly work? And just an underlying ...
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what is the meaning of VIP-cre::LSL-TOM::SOMGFP(GIN) mice?

I am reading the following paper and the researchers use "VIP-cre::LSL-TOM::SOM-GFP(GIN)" mice (page 4) for multi cell patch clamp and "VIP-cre::LSL-TOM and SOM-cre::LSL-TOM" mice injected ...
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1answer
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Where can I find a diagram of cortex connections?

Has anyone come across a diagram (2D, 3D, maybe even interactive) of the connectiontions between cortex regions? Especially, the diagram should display the strength and direction of those connections (...
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1answer
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How do I interpret this depiction of dopamine neuron signaling?

I am studying the work of Wolfram Schultz on reward signals. He depicts dopamine reward signals as shown below, which I do not know how to interpret. Each dot represents an action potential in a ...
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What causes sleep inertia?

Sometimes after a nap, I wake up in a state of grogginess. I learned that this is actually called sleep inertia. I'm able to find lots of methods to overcome this, but what causes it in the first ...
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What is two photon calcium imaging?

I have encountered the term "two photon calcium imaging" in a few papers. I have tried to look in the internet but can't understand what this technique actually is. I will be very happy for ...
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Does our brain emit any kind of waves? [closed]

I am currently trying to start a research project, and this is the most important question that needs to be answered. I cant't move ahead without knowing the chemistry of the brain.
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What is a unitary post synaptic potential?

I am reading the paper Cooperative subnetworks of molecularly similar interneurons in mouse neocortex and have encountered the term: "Unitary (excitatory or inhibitory) post synaptic potential". I ...
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1answer
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Why a brain's hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body? [duplicate]

As a physics student with very little understanding of biology, in a course about physics foundations diagnostic techniques I have come up with this question. I don't even know if it does make sense ...
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Does human brain store duplicate data?

There are several answers and articles about how the brain stores data, but none specifically cover whether a human's brain stores duplicate data. I was reading in this article that a human brain can ...
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1answer
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Why does Stereology use Systematic Random Sampling?

I am a student of Neuroscience and in all my textbooks and lecture notes it is written that in Stereology, Systematic random sampling (SRS) is used to obtain sections. Why it's that and not any other ...
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1answer
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What are the factors that contribute to genetically identical individuals behaving differently? [closed]

If you run the same task on a pair of identical computers, you will end up getting the same results, even with the same response time. But let's say you line two different person, and ask them the ...
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1answer
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Do brain cells regenerate in the adult brain?

I know that most cells in the body regenerate, dying and being replaced with new cells. For example, in bone special enzymes move radially outward from the marrow in a narrow tunnel, destroying the ...
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1answer
193 views

Attraction and hormones levels

Why do we ignore all imperfections in people we fall in love with for a couple of months, but after a certain period we start noticing imperfections? Can hormones - or any chemical - be used to ...
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1answer
269 views

What is this structure in human brain?

Scientists made a new image of brain. I wonder, what is this arc (denoted by blue)? Is it the caudate nucleus?
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4answers
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Are there organisms with fewer than 1000 neurons?

I'm developing neural networks comprised of just 3 to 10 layers of virtual neurons and I'm curious to know if there are any insect brains out there with fewer than a thousand neurons? Are there any ...
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1answer
103 views

How are sequential patterns grouped into meaningful objects in the brain?

The background how I came up with this question derives from information theory so I am not sure that it will formulate it well. What I am looking for it is the process how our brain forms patterns. ...
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What happens to apetite hormones like ghrelin and leptin when a person in coma?

Don't coma individuals feel hungry? If so, how does the brain senses this condition (as coma is caused by neural death or damage) and switches off gene expression of ghrelin and leptin. Is there any ...
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Do animals exhibit handedness (paw-ness?) preference?

I have been observing my cat and found that when confronted with an unknown item, she will always use her front left paw to touch it. This has me wondering if animals exhibit handedness like humans ...
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What is the science behind talent? [closed]

So some people are better at doing stuff than others of the same age..in other words, they have talent. So I am asking, what is the science behind talent? What is different in their brains than ...
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1answer
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Why is the internal capsule dark in this transverse section of the brain?

Why is the internal capsule dark in this transverse/horizontal section of the brain? If it is white matter, then why isn't it white? P. S. : Formalin was used for fixation. Why the same color was ...
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What is the brain's preferred energy source? Glucose or ketones?

As with all cells in our body, I know that the brain can get fed from both glucose and ketones, so my question is, given both of them, which one would the brain prefer to utilize first?
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Book recommendation to know and understand the brain and the phenomena and processes related to it [closed]

I need a book recommendation or, more properly, any source recommendation to know and understand more about the phenomena related to the brain, as far as we know how the brain works. I'm interested in ...
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1answer
403 views

The simplest organism that can learn?

What is the simplest organism that was observed to learn: change its behavior permanently in response to some event/stimuli in a way that this change persists even if the event does not happen again?
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What are Intersensory Associations?

While I was reading about "Neural Control and Coordination" I came across this "Association areas in the forebrain are responsible for complex functions like intersensory associations, ....." What ...
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1answer
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In what situations, when reacting to impressions, are the signals sent directly from the thalamus to the hypothalamus?

Normally when humans react to impressions, signals are being sent through different centers in the brain through the chain of: Impression ${\rightarrow}$ Thalamus ${\rightarrow}$ Cerebral Cortex ${\...
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How do humans know what goes on in optical illusions? [closed]

Optical illusions are designed to deceive humans, I think. That thing is moving! It really is! It's moving! However, user Konrad Rudolph just told me what went on in a different optical illusions ...
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Being able to write/type different texts using each hand respectively, at the same time?

Has there been any documentation of being able to either write down (jot down) or type in (key in) different texts using the left hand and the right hand respectively, simultaneously? So, I'm ...
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How can a powernap boost memeroy and cheerfulness?

Background A power nap is a short sleep which terminates before the occurrence of deep sleep or slow-wave sleep (SWS), intended to quickly revitalize the subject. (wiki) The results of ...
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1answer
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Why use embryonic neurons to study protein knockouts/mutants in long term potentiation?

Just wondering if anyone had some ideas about the question in the title. I'm just wondering why some papers use embryonic cultures of specific brain regions for neurones to test the effects of ...
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4answers
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Is the information in the brain stored in the connections rather than neurons?

Can I imagine the difference between the model of the grandma neuron and the model of interconnected neuron network so that the information isn't primarily stored in the neurons (respectively in their ...
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1answer
691 views

Has the concept of allostasis been adopted in biology, in place of homeostasis?

Peter Sterling, among others, has been a prominent critic of the concept of homeostasis. He instead proposes a process called allostasis. Homeostasis involves having fixed set points for ...
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1answer
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Are these principles worth being validated? [closed]

Odunayo's principle of inhalation states that provided a given amount of water is ingested, inhalation through the nostrils will be excluded due to the presence of oxygen in the water. From the above ...
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1answer
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Are we naturally born right or left handed or ambidextrous?

Most of you here will be right or left handed. A few might be ambidextrous. But were we born that way? I'm wondering if everyone was born ambidextrous, but as they grew up became more dependent on ...
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1answer
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How is the beginning of an episodic memory encoded in the brain?

before asking how information is stored, I need to understand how does episode start and end are determined by the brain ? how do i remember a movie ? can you suggest a link to article addressing ...
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Why do cells in the cerebral cortex act as interacting nonlinear oscillators?

I'm not a biologist, but I'd like to know something about EEG analysis. In particular, I have read that EEG signal derive from cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. And that these cells act ...
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0answers
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Hand motor control of the brain [closed]

I was watching a documentary (don't remember the name or the URL to the documentary) but they stated that the brain is layered and that each new layer is placed on top of the last. So the most ...
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1answer
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The human brain in numbers I: neurons

Even though knowing the number of neurons in a functional unit or with the same function is not of main importance, it may be interesting to know their orders of magnitude, especially in the human ...
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Is hunting animals, crafting and attacking/defending from enemies intellectually equivalent to learning quantum physics? [closed]

Our brains were shaped after natural selection. Which means that, as long as we were being affected by it, our brains were changing, evolving. Once we stepped out of nature and stopped being targets ...
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1answer
159 views

What happens to the hollow nerve cord? [closed]

The dorsal nerve cord of vertebrates is a hollow structure that develops into the nervous system. This embryonic tissue is hollow and I wonder what happens to this 'hollow' later? Does it form the ...
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1answer
80 views

Is there a complete connectome of a cortical minicolumn? [closed]

I know that there are projects that try to map brain connectivity. Given that a cortical microcolumn has only around a hundred neurons I wonder whether there is a dataset available with the complete ...
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361 views

Most accurate depiction of cortical homunculus?

I was looking at cortical homunculus and I realized there are several different pictures and they don't quite agree. For instance: http://wellbeing.media.mit.edu/2014/02/21/mindfulness-neuroimaging-...
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How many neurons are stimulated by electrodes in memory engram experiments?

Researchers have recently identified "engrams" in the mouse hippocampus, "sparse populations of neurons" or "small clusters of cells", stimulation of which elicits a specifically trained fear memory ...

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