Questions tagged [cancer]

A malignant group of uncontrollably dividing cells that form a tumour. Questions regarding (proto)oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes should also use this tag.

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What's the RAS pathway in Cancer cells? [closed]

Can anybody help me and answer my question; What's the RAS pathway in Cancer cells?
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Is there any evidence that pancreatic cancer might be caused by an infectious agent?

I'm talking primarily(though perhaps not exclusively) about pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma(PDAC). I could not find any citations suggesting a viral cause for it but I did find this article ...
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How does a cell ask for more blood vessels?

How exactly does warts or cancers or tumours ask for more blood vessels? Whenever we see a wart, there are newly formed blood vessels around the core of it. What exact chemicals does cells use to call ...
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Exclusion and inclusion criteria for healthy controls in colorectal cancer study

I'm working on colorectal cancer, and I'm facing a problem in the sampling step, I can't figure out how to choose healthy subjects. In the literature, I've found many criteria that are different and ...
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Data repositories for data on the Tumor Microenvironment?

Does anyone know of any data repositories for data on the Tumor Microenvironment? I know of the The Cancer Gene Atlas and the Gene Expression Omnibus databases but I'm more curious about data on the (...
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Acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing capacity

how many cells can a CTL eliminate sequentially? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are a subset of the adaptive immune system which can target cells for apoptotic elimination. This elimination begins ...
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Coinfecting oncolytic viruses - first virus carrying the receptor for the second

One challenge to using oncolytic viruses as a treatment for cancer is that the viruses may cause off-target effects. I'm curious to know how useful it would be to create an oncolytic virus that has ...
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HPV. How do viruses persist outside the body?

The main route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is generally believed to be sexual. While fomites have been postulated for inexplicable infections, sexual health professionals regularly ...
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Why does UV radiation from the Sun cause skin cancer?

What is the specific mechanism makes non-ionizing UVA and UVB radiation carcinogenic? Can lower energy light, like visible light, be carcinogenic because of this mechanism, or is there some kind of ...
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How to assemble three 60mer nts by pcr?

Good morning, I am new to molecular biology. The question might be silly but i would like to know the answer. I have three 60mer single strand synthetic oligonucleotide. Namely Tag 1 - 3. My goal is ...
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Chromosome Deletion Notation in Cancers

The cancer literature often refers to the deletion of certain sections of a chromosome (e.g. "17p del" or "Del(17p)" for the deletion of chromosome 17's p-arm.) Does this mean both ...
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Why is the IC50 an interesting measure for in vitro cancer drug screenings?

Large-scale in vitro screenings of (potential) cancer drugs are done to access their effectivity depending on the actual transcriptome of a tumor cell line. Databases like GDSC or CCLE supply data of ...
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Cancer: what does it mean “at presentation”?

Unclear to me what this means: "Objective The biological heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes prognosis difficult. We translate the results of a genome-wide high-throughput ...
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Is Hematoxylin/Eosin stained tissue used for cancer scoring?

I am an engineering student working for the first time in breast cancer field. I am trying to learn breast cancer scoring (for example Allred score). I have come across 2 types of images: First (let ...
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What is the significance of interclonal cooperation in tumorigenesis?

I have been reading about tumorigenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster lately, there are 3 questions which I have in mind: How does interclonal cooperation differ from the canonical tumor evolution model?...
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What are the characteristics of a cancerous cell surface membrane?

A notable characteristic of cancer is that it thrives at a high glycolytic rate, and doesn't require much aerobic respiration. I am curious, how does the cell surface membrane composition change so ...
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How exactly does chemotherapy cause anemia?

I’ve been trying to figure this out for the past few hours but I still can’t find something as in depth as I’m looking for. So far all I’ve found is that chemo drugs kill bone marrow cells and some ...
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Is the binding of androgen to androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells a requirement for the production of prostate-specific antigen?

The binding of androgen to the androgen receptor results in the transcription of androgen-regulated genes, which signals the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. This process also produces prostate-...
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How can Chronic myeloid Leukaemic drugs reduce the production of the Philadelphia genotype?

How can Chronic Myeloid Leukaemic drugs (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g. imatinib, etc.) that act by inhibiting bind of ATP to the active site of the BCR-ABL1 protein actually reduce the prevalence ...
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CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia) and blast cell percentage

I'm trying to understand the oncogenesis of CML. I have a question about CFC cells and blast cells. Are those the same? I know that in the chronic phase of CML there is a blast percentage of 1-10% of ...
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Average Amount of normal stem cells in a given organ

I am trying to find an estimate of the amount of normal stem cells in an organ, because I need it as initial conditions for a model to estimate the secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy. I know ...
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Does anybody have an references to share or idea onhow the tumor behaviour changes as it grows from oligometastasis to polymetastasis?

I have looked at the literature and mostly scientist discuss about how a metastatic lesion is formed. But what I am interested to learn is how does a new metastatic lesion develop when there is ...
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Cancer in cardiac cells

We were recently taught that cancer occurs only in those cells which undergo cell division so, cancer is not possible in cardiac cells and neurons. But we know that till a certain age our heart grows ...
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When cancer is detectable, how many sub-clones are there at that stage?

I have read somewhere that cancer is detectable when the number of cells reaches $10^7 - 10^9$, which probably varies according to the specific tumor. At this early stage, what is the expected number ...
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Why are organs not harvested from deceased cancer patients?

From my understanding, cancer is not contagious, and if a cancerous cell from a patient is introduced to a healthy person, then the immune system of the latter can destroy this cell. In such a case, ...
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Should I consider [H+] as substrate in MCT transport equation?

I'm trying to model the transport of lactate in cells (in both direction via Monocarboxylate transporters): [Lactate]intra + [H+] <----> [Lactate]extra + [H+] I found some data on kinetics of ...
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Can aflotoxin presence be inferred from the mild discolorotion at the middle parts of a hazelnut?

Can aflotoxin presence be inferred from the mild discolorotion at the middle parts of a hazelnut? For instance, how likely is it that the hazelnuts pictured below contain Aflotoxin? P.S.: these ...
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What are some good books on oncology?

I'm looking for some book suggestions on oncology, preferably I want them to be fairly recent. I am not worried if they are fairly technical, as long as they have good accurate content and layout.
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How a pathologist would analyse this H&E image?

I am working on a project which involves writing computer software to analyse histological images. A typical image looks like this: It is a Hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy of breast cancer ...
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Ways cancer cells spread through blood

If I understand correctly when tumor grows, it can reach blood vessel and then spread through it to another organ - it called metastasis. How do cancer cells then are spreading through blood? Do they ...
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Getting some concept of cancer genetics

I have two groups of patients : Responders to chemotherapy and non-responders to chemotherapy. I treat this as a dichotomous ...
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91 views

Why are smaller mammals more prone to cancer and tumors

especially rats and mice usually develop cancer and tumors very fast, reducing their life expectancy. From an evolutionary point of view, how come that these mammals are so prone to cancer and tumors ...
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Why might long telomeres be selected for in laboratory mice?

In a recent episode of The Portal, Eric Weinstein sits down with his brother Bret Weinstein to discuss Bret's Reserve-Capacity Hypothesis. It's an incredible story of scientific discovery and and ...
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Circulating Tumor Cell vs Circulating Tumor DNA

I'm a little confused about the wording of these two phrases and under which context the epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs. For example: Is it the circulating tumor cell that releases the ...
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Does anyone know any statistics about the rate of cell division of malignant cells?

I've tried to look online to find some statistical data about the rate of growth of any type of cancerous cells, but haven't been able to find any. Would anyone know an appropriate time period for a ...
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Is it safe to work with HeLa cells?

Hela cells are infected with HPV. So is it safe to work with them? What are the safety precautions?
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Are all carcinogens mutagens?

I assume that all carcinogens must be mutagens, but I've read that this is not the case. However, I can't find any good examples or an explanation of why it is not the case. How can a non-mutagenic ...
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1answer
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KRAS gene and K-Ras Mutations

This question pertains to the KRAS wikipedia page, and I just want to double check and clarify my own understanding of how this mutation works in cancer. It states: K-Ras protein acts like a switch ...
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A question about cancer antigens and their mechanism [closed]

Can you name the most common antigen that cancer cells in general can't live without?
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Which sample type is more proper for whole genome sequencing in AML patients? Peripheral blood or bone marrow?

I intend to perform whole genome sequencing in AML patients in order to find genomic abnormalities, particularly translocation and gene fusions. However, I am not sure whether it is better to obtain ...
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How do tumor cells 'gravitate' towards each other?

In a popular article it is mentioned that in centrifugal experiments with cancer cells that When subjected to microgravity-conditions, the cancer cells were unable to sense each other and therefore ...
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Can primary tumor cells grow in 2D culture? [closed]

Is it possible to expand primary tumor cells in 2D culture? Are they adherent cells? Do you have any experience especially with culturing non-small cell lung cancer in 2D? Thank you.
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Could tumor cells have normal genomic profiles?

I have thawed primary tumor cells and performed FACS. They were EpCAM positive cells. Then, I expanded them as organoids in 3D and did another FACS analysis. Again, they were EpCAM positive. I also ...
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Can a drug induce specific mechanism of resistance in tumors?

For example, can a drug that targets a given protein induce overexpression of that protein or increase the copy number of the gene coding that protein? I strongly suspect that antineoplastic ...
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1answer
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Is p53 a cyclin dependent kinase? [closed]

I've been reading some research papers about p53 and associated tumour suppressor proteins, such as p21. I see them referred to and associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. Is p53,p63 et cetera part ...
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What is the substance that tumors release that stimulates growth of blood vessels but suppresses its release from other tumors?

I'm currently in high school and I am working on a cancer research project. My project consists of a cancer, and different ways to treat it. I have a set of benign tumor and I was thinking of ...
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Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
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How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer?

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer? I know that a mutation in DNA can cause the triplet code on the mRNA to change so different amini acids are made and a different order means a ...
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What does “radiographic progression” mean in cancer?

I tried looking up the definition of the term "radiographic progression" using Google and medical dictionary, etc., but I couldn't find its meaning anywhere. All research articles that I found just ...
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Are tumor-associated antigens unique to cancerous cells?

Are tumor-associated antigens found only on the membrane of cancerous cells or just over-expressed on the membrane of carcinogenic cells? In other words, are these antigens also found on healthy ...

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