Questions tagged [cancer]

A malignant group of uncontrollably dividing cells that form a tumour. Questions regarding (proto)oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes should also use this tag.

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25 views

Bio transformation [closed]

1-What is the difference between metabolic activation and detoxification? I am taking about the differences in their mechanisms? 2-In the third phase of bio transformation, what is the difference ...
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How exactly does chemotherapy cause anemia?

I’ve been trying to figure this out for the past few hours but I still can’t find something as in depth as I’m looking for. So far all I’ve found is that chemo drugs kill bone marrow cells and some ...
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Are all carcinogens mutagens?

I assume that all carcinogens must be mutagens, but I've read that this is not the case. However, I can't find any good examples or an explanation of why it is not the case. How can a non-mutagenic ...
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Is the binding of androgen to androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells a requirement for the production of prostate-specific antigen?

The binding of androgen to the androgen receptor results in the transcription of androgen-regulated genes, which signals the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. This process also produces prostate-...
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How can Chronic myeloid Leukaemic drugs reduce the production of the Philadelphia genotype?

How can Chronic Myeloid Leukaemic drugs (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g. imatinib, etc.) that act by inhibiting bind of ATP to the active site of the BCR-ABL1 protein actually reduce the prevalence ...
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CML (Chronic Myeloid Leukemia) and blast cell percentage

I'm trying to understand the oncogenesis of CML. I have a question about CFC cells and blast cells. Are those the same? I know that in the chronic phase of CML there is a blast percentage of 1-10% of ...
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Average Amount of normal stem cells in a given organ

I am trying to find an estimate of the amount of normal stem cells in an organ, because I need it as initial conditions for a model to estimate the secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy. I know ...
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1answer
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Can aflotoxin presence be inferred from the mild discolorotion at the middle parts of a hazelnut?

Can aflotoxin presence be inferred from the mild discolorotion at the middle parts of a hazelnut? For instance, how likely is it that the hazelnuts pictured below contain Aflotoxin? P.S.: these ...
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Does anybody have an references to share or idea onhow the tumor behaviour changes as it grows from oligometastasis to polymetastasis?

I have looked at the literature and mostly scientist discuss about how a metastatic lesion is formed. But what I am interested to learn is how does a new metastatic lesion develop when there is ...
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How do tumor cells 'gravitate' towards each other?

In a popular article it is mentioned that in centrifugal experiments with cancer cells that When subjected to microgravity-conditions, the cancer cells were unable to sense each other and therefore ...
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Cancer in cardiac cells

We were recently taught that cancer occurs only in those cells which undergo cell division so, cancer is not possible in cardiac cells and neurons. But we know that till a certain age our heart grows ...
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When cancer is detectable, how many sub-clones are there at that stage?

I have read somewhere that cancer is detectable when the number of cells reaches $10^7 - 10^9$, which probably varies according to the specific tumor. At this early stage, what is the expected number ...
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What is the substance that tumors release that stimulates growth of blood vessels but suppresses its release from other tumors?

I'm currently in high school and I am working on a cancer research project. My project consists of a cancer, and different ways to treat it. I have a set of benign tumor and I was thinking of ...
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Why are organs not harvested from deceased cancer patients?

From my understanding, cancer is not contagious, and if a cancerous cell from a patient is introduced to a healthy person, then the immune system of the latter can destroy this cell. In such a case, ...
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Why might long telomeres be selected for in laboratory mice?

In a recent episode of The Portal, Eric Weinstein sits down with his brother Bret Weinstein to discuss Bret's Reserve-Capacity Hypothesis. It's an incredible story of scientific discovery and and ...
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Why is chemotherapy-related hair loss temporary?

Chemotherapy kills cancer cells by targeting rapidly growing cells. That is why patients lose hair as well. Why is chemotherapy-related hair loss temporary? The doctors say it is because healthy cells ...
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What are some good books on oncology?

I'm looking for some book suggestions on oncology, preferably I want them to be fairly recent. I am not worried if they are fairly technical, as long as they have good accurate content and layout.
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1answer
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Should I consider [H+] as substrate in MCT transport equation?

I'm trying to model the transport of lactate in cells (in both direction via Monocarboxylate transporters): [Lactate]intra + [H+] <----> [Lactate]extra + [H+] I found some data on kinetics of ...
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Can a dividing cell that skipped DNA replication become cancerous?

Let's assume that a cell fails to replicate its DNA during the S Phase of the cell cycle. Let's also assume that the appropriate CDKs are inactive (perhaps due to mutation or lack of cyclin proteins ...
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Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
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How a pathologist would analyse this H&E image?

I am working on a project which involves writing computer software to analyse histological images. A typical image looks like this: It is a Hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy of breast cancer ...
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1answer
63 views

Ways cancer cells spread through blood

If I understand correctly when tumor grows, it can reach blood vessel and then spread through it to another organ - it called metastasis. How do cancer cells then are spreading through blood? Do they ...
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Getting some concept of cancer genetics

I have two groups of patients : Responders to chemotherapy and non-responders to chemotherapy. I treat this as a dichotomous ...
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1answer
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Could tumor cells have normal genomic profiles?

I have thawed primary tumor cells and performed FACS. They were EpCAM positive cells. Then, I expanded them as organoids in 3D and did another FACS analysis. Again, they were EpCAM positive. I also ...
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Why are smaller mammals more prone to cancer and tumors

especially rats and mice usually develop cancer and tumors very fast, reducing their life expectancy. From an evolutionary point of view, how come that these mammals are so prone to cancer and tumors ...
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Circulating Tumor Cell vs Circulating Tumor DNA

I'm a little confused about the wording of these two phrases and under which context the epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs. For example: Is it the circulating tumor cell that releases the ...
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Explain to a layperson how cigarettes smoke might cause cancer

I have a very intelligent friend who is a light smoker, and also a Biology layperson. I wondered whether understanding exactly how cigarettes smoke can cause cancer, might encourage him to smoke less ...
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Does anyone know any statistics about the rate of cell division of malignant cells?

I've tried to look online to find some statistical data about the rate of growth of any type of cancerous cells, but haven't been able to find any. Would anyone know an appropriate time period for a ...
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226 views

Is it safe to work with HeLa cells?

Hela cells are infected with HPV. So is it safe to work with them? What are the safety precautions?
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Are all mutagens carcinogens?

Not all carcinogens are mutagens. Alcohol and estrogen, for example, does not damage DNA. It's one of the assumptions of the Ames test that mutagenicity implies carcinogenicity, but is this always ...
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KRAS gene and K-Ras Mutations

This question pertains to the KRAS wikipedia page, and I just want to double check and clarify my own understanding of how this mutation works in cancer. It states: K-Ras protein acts like a switch ...
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63 views

A question about cancer antigens and their mechanism [closed]

Can you name the most common antigen that cancer cells in general can't live without?
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Is blood donation risky for patients with MGUS?

Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) is often considered a pre-cancerous condition. Blood donors with MGUS are typically advised to discontinue blood donation as their blood may be ...
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1answer
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Can a drug induce specific mechanism of resistance in tumors?

For example, can a drug that targets a given protein induce overexpression of that protein or increase the copy number of the gene coding that protein? I strongly suspect that antineoplastic ...
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Which sample type is more proper for whole genome sequencing in AML patients? Peripheral blood or bone marrow?

I intend to perform whole genome sequencing in AML patients in order to find genomic abnormalities, particularly translocation and gene fusions. However, I am not sure whether it is better to obtain ...
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Can primary tumor cells grow in 2D culture? [closed]

Is it possible to expand primary tumor cells in 2D culture? Are they adherent cells? Do you have any experience especially with culturing non-small cell lung cancer in 2D? Thank you.
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Is p53 a cyclin dependent kinase? [closed]

I've been reading some research papers about p53 and associated tumour suppressor proteins, such as p21. I see them referred to and associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. Is p53,p63 et cetera part ...
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2answers
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How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer?

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer? I know that a mutation in DNA can cause the triplet code on the mRNA to change so different amini acids are made and a different order means a ...
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2answers
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Isn't biological immortality strictly speaking impossible?

This question relates to both immortal cells such as cancers and organisms like the Hydra genus. Isn't it technically impossible for these "immortal" biological systems to live forever, even ...
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1answer
60 views

Where does the number 67 in the nuclear protein/antigen Ki-67 come from? Why not 66 or 68?

I have read in in the original paper that in the year 1983 a research group in Kiel, Germany (that's where the Ki- in the name comes from) developed monoclonal mouse antibodies against Hodgkin ...
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What does “radiographic progression” mean in cancer?

I tried looking up the definition of the term "radiographic progression" using Google and medical dictionary, etc., but I couldn't find its meaning anywhere. All research articles that I found just ...
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2answers
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Are tumor-associated antigens unique to cancerous cells?

Are tumor-associated antigens found only on the membrane of cancerous cells or just over-expressed on the membrane of carcinogenic cells? In other words, are these antigens also found on healthy ...
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Which chemokines are being produced by melanocytes?

I am looking into Vitiligo it's an autoimmune disease that results in apoptosis of melanocytes due to misfolded protein accumulation. It also dramatically increases breast cancer rates (600 times) ...
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1answer
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Non-coding DNA as a protection to deleterious mutations

We know that most part of our genome (at least 75 percent) is non-coding DNA. Can it be a way to protect the organism from mutations in important genes, such as the ones which control cellular cycle, ...
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How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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1answer
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Does anyone know a good pancreatic-cancer metastasis cell line?

Researching about pancreatic cancer. We have mostly "main-tumor" cell lines in our lab, and I´m currently looking for cell lines originating from metastases (liver, lung, etc.). Does anyone know a ...
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Contact Inhibition of Cell Division: Signaling Pathway

The following article refers to contact inhibition of cell division in epithelial cells, specifically MDCK cells: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. In their review ...
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Does increased cell turnover cause cancerous mutations?

If a certain set of cells or tissue are undergoing a lot of reproduction and repair cycles for some reason, does this inevitably lead to cancerous growths? If the mutation rate exceeds the normal '...
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1answer
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Are all fusion genes somatic in origin or can fusion genes be germline?

Fusion genes should have an origin.These are essentially hybrid genes that are translocated in its entirety. Eg. BCR-ABL, EML4-ALK are known to be implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Do these ...
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What is the meaning of “Rb is in the active state”?

I am reading about cyclins, cdks and Rb (Retinoblastoma) and some of the terminology is not clear to me. I understand that when CDK phosphorylates Rb, it disconnects from E2F, and E2F can act as a ...

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