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Questions tagged [carbohydrates]

A carbohydrate is a diverse group of biological molecules that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. They are commonly used in biological metabolism and catabolism.

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Why is beta- D fructofuranose two different structures when in free form and as part of sucrose?

This is the structure of fructose in free form: The right moiety is the fructose as part of sucrose. The left one being glucose: Both of the fructose are beta-D fructofuranose. But as it can be ...
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What is the role of lactic acid bacteria (such as L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus) in glycolysis during yogurt fermentation?

I am trying to prove that an increase in monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) that have been added to milk during fermentation will result in a decreased pH. My current argument is: "The ...
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Is it possible for human body to convert carbohydrates to protein? [closed]

Is it possible for human body to convert carbohydrates to protein to build muscle for example? EDIT: I read in many articles that you should eat more than 1.5 gram protein for each 1 kg weight of ...
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Statistical Analysis for Blood Sugar Measurements

I've conducted a lab aimed towards finding the impact of soluble fiber intake on the change in blood sugar levels. Following an 8 hour fast, I had test subjects consume a fixed amount of carbohydrates,...
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What is the source of the fat in adipose tissue?

I have heard the opinion that all of it comes from de novo lipogenesis of carbohydrates, but I'm skeptical. Is there evidence either way - either that dietary fat definitely gets stored in the adipose ...
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What is the carbohydrate found in almonds, cashews, pecans, hazlenuts and pistachios? [closed]

So for a school assignment I need to figure out which carbohydrates those nuts have. I first though they probably have starch but I am not sure. Can someone verify this for me, and/or send a link ...
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Glycosidic bonds

For the glycosidic bond in maltose, why is the glycosidic bond formed between hydroxyl group on C1 in 1 glucose molecule and hydroxyl group on C4 of the other glucose molecule? Why not between, say, ...
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Carbohydrate diet and dental health

I read that human started carbohydrates rich diet after adopting agriculture before that meat was main energy source which has comparatively less carbohydrate. High carbohydrate started destroying ...
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Why does enteral carbohydrate yield higher energy than parenteral?

The following is written in a well-known textbook of surgery: Each gram of enteric carbohydrate provides 4.0 kilocalories (kcal) of energy. Parenterally administered carbohydrates (eg, ...
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Difference between feral and domesticated honey?

Is there any significant differences in composition (and/or taste) between the honey of wild ("feral") honeybees versus that of domesticated ones used in beekeeping?
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Why do animals use glycogen for their polysaccharide storage whereas plants use starch?

The polysaccharide storage form of glucose in animals is glycogen, whereas in plants it is starch. Both of these are polymers of α-glucose with α-l,4 glycosidic linkages and α-l,6 glycosidic branch ...
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Why is the chemical of an hexose not sufficient to ID the molecule? [closed]

Here is the homework question I have to answer to The Chemical formula C6H12O6 can mean any number of different hexose sugars that share the same chemical formula. To tell the hexoses apart, you ...
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Why do food items expire?

Why do food items and medicines expire after sometime?
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Why is carbon dioxide produced in alcohol fermentation but not in lactic acid fermentation?

From my understanding, alcohol fermentation takes place in yeast and lactate production takes place in humans. These two pathways take place only when there is insufficient oxygen, because the other ...
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Carbohydrates- D-Glucose & L-glucose , alpha and beta [closed]

What's the difference between D-glucose & L-glucose ? Yes , I know that L-glucose is an isomer of D-glucose . But what differences do they have ? They are the same , they are glucose . ...
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Does hunger necessarily mean that we should eat?

People feel hunger sooner after they eat food that consists mostly of carbohydrates. For example, if someone eats a good portion of rice then most likely they will be hungry after a couple of hours. ...
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How is the rate of gluconeogenesis controlled in the cell?

As far as I am aware, all steps in glycolysis are readily reversible except the phosphorylation of glucose, the phosphorylation of fructose6 phosphate, and the phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate ...
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Is aquafaba readily digestible?

I have always drained and tossed the water from canned beans. My understanding has been that the water that canned beans are soaked and cooked in contains raffinose, the gas-causing sugars that humans ...
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Digestion Enzymes in Carbohydrate Metabolism?

Digestion of carbohydrates is ending in small intestine with mainly disaccharidases. Isomaltose is broken down to 2 molecules of glucose by the enzyme called alpha dextrinase(oligo-1,6 glucosidase or ...
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Carbohydrate in egg white

I looked up online to find which type of carbohydrate is found in egg white, but the only information I found is the quantity of sugar. I would like to know the exact name of the carbohydrate found in ...
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Sugars which are Carbohydrates and vice-versa?

Is it right that are all sugars are carbohydrates but not all carbohydrates are sugars? If so, which carbohydrates are sugars and which aren't and why all sugars are carbohydrates? If I had to ...
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Why do Proteins store energy when the body already contains Carbohydrates and Lipids?

We already know that lipids are a source of long term energy and carbohydrates are much faster energy releasing sources. So why do we need specific proteins within the body to store energy? Are ...
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anabolism in plants

The question is as following: Which substance has the greatest contribution to the anabolism of glucose in plants. A- Oxygen (O2). B- Water (H2O). C- carbon dioxide (CO2). The official answer given ...
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Can a human being live without any carbohydrates? [duplicate]

Nowadays low-carb is in fashion, but what I recently wondered is whether a human can live without any carbohydrates at all? Of course this would be hard to do in reality, as most food will contain ...
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Living on pure glycogen?

I was recently fascinated when I learned about polysaccharides (I am a biology newbie) and was wondering about some of their properties. After doing some googling I was unable to find any information ...
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How does consumption of vinegar affect food chemistry?

For example: does consumption of vinegar somehow change digestion of flour (bread, cakes, pasta, puffs) ? May be there are some benefits to eat flour meal with vinegar ?
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Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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What is the relationship between the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis?

My main concern is why are the dark reactions (those that produce hexose) needed? As far as I understand, the sole purpose of photosynthesis is to synthesize carbohydrates, which are only used for ...
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Cellulose - why is it fibrous and not granular?

I was reading a book where it said that the 1 - 4 Glycosidic bond of the Beta Glucose meant that cellulose is fibrous and not ...
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Are carbohydrates an essential component of human diet?

Are people able to satisfy all the needs of a healthy diet without consuming carbohydrates? My question includes the assumption that a person has no health condition that would prevent them from ...
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Chitin, homo or heteropolysaccharide?

My teacher told me that Chitin is a heteropolysaccharide but my book regards it as a homopolysaccharide.I am so confused
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Since nature highly favors the pyranose forme of Ribose, what explains the fact we find it in the form of furanose in DNA and RNA?

I read in my notes that relative abundance of ribopyranose represents about 80% of all ribose in solution (including the alpha and beta anomeres). I'm curious as to why evolution favored the use of ...
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Solubility of Amylopectin and Glycogen in water

The only difference between the structures of Amylopectin and Glycogen is that Glycogen is more highly branched than Amylopectin. How this difference between their structures makes difference between ...
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Synthetic carbon fixation pathways

Have there been carbon fixation pathways of, in particular, oxygen-producing bacteria, that have been replicated in the lab or at least the enzymes for the pathways have been successfully produced in ...
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If red blood cells have no mitochondria how are they able to metabolize glucose?

I have read that red blood cells (RBCs) metabolize glucose. However they don't have any mitochondria because there is just so much hemoglobin that there is no room for mitochondria without expanding ...
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Why do plants produce so much more sugar than they use?

I recently asked the question, "Do plants need O2 to consume energy they've stored via sugar?" to which @canadianer responded, "Yes, plants require oxygen to generate ATP from sugar. However, they ...
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Do plants need O₂ to consume energy they've stored via sugar?

This question came up as I work my way through the answers to another question I just asked. My understanding is that plant photosynthesis looks something like this (though with lots more going on ...
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How does it make thermodynamic sense for photosynthesizers to turn CO₂ into O₂?

My understanding is that animal metabolism consists of exothermic reactions like $$\ce{C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ->6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy}$$ This makes thermodynamic sense to me. Animals need an exothermic ...
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Metabolism of different saccharides

Learning about carbohydrates, I wonder what the differences there are in terms of metabolism, and overall health between the different types of saccharides. In other words, does the body use ...
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Why don't McDonald's fries decompose?

So I was cleaning out my car and found a McDonalds French fry. as I don't eat anything in my car I know exactly who and when this fry is a result of. The when is + 10 months old and it could pass off ...
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Where do lost membrane proteins go after exocytosis?

Exocytotic vesicles take away membrane proteins and glycocalyx on the cell's plasma membrane surface. When those vesicles are released into the interstitial fluid and wherever else, where do they go? ...
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Why are we carbon-based?

Is that because of evolution? Does it have something to do with its amount in the universe? Carbon compounds form the basis of all known life on Earth, and the carbon-nitrogen cycle provides some of ...
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Error in textbook

This must be an error Just as proteins have a polarity defined by the amino and carboxyl termini, oligosaccharides have a polarity defined by their reducing and nonreducing ends. The ...
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What can cause the bloating in high protein diet of Whey proteins?

I am thinking what can cause the swelling of gastrointestinal system i.e. bloating after high protein diet of Whey proteins. Liver does breaks those proteins to branched chain amino acids (BCAA), ...