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Questions tagged [carbohydrates]

A carbohydrate is a diverse group of biological molecules that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms. They are commonly used in biological metabolism and catabolism.

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If insulin secretion is ATP-induced, why don't fatty acids trigger insulin secretion?

I learned in my university physiology course that insulin is released by pancreatic beta-cells in response to glucose that is metabolized and thus increase cellular ATP levels, which in turn close ...
dispatchh's user avatar
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Why can't the fructose monomer in sucrose be α-fructose?

In all academic sources, sucrose is identified as α−glucose (1-->2) β−fructose. However, I cannot find any explanation anywhere as to why the fructose monomer has to be in the β configuration. ...
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If protein is mostly used by the body for purposes other than extraction of energy, why are calories from protein relevant?

Non-biologist speaking here. As you can probably see from the title, I'm having trouble wrapping my head around concepts related to the body's energy balance amd the role of macronutrients. Let me ...
ilovemaths's user avatar
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Why is glucose so common in disaccharides, as opposed to a different monosaccharide?

The three most common disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, and lactose) all contain at least one glucose monomer (sucrose=glucose+fructose, maltose=glucose+glucose, lactose=glucose+galactose), and the ...
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Human Body's rate of conversion of carbs, protein and fat into energy?

I understanding there are some complicated processes, but I'm interested in generally how fast the body converts certain chemicals into energy and the period of time this conversion occurs. I'm ...
Nick's user avatar
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Does centrifuging the bacteria culture removes bacteria leftovers?

Usually, we centrifuge bacteria culture to either replace the media, control its density (OD), ..etc. I know that when centrifuging the cells are pushed to the bottom while the media (solution) ...
Anwer Ak's user avatar
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which carbohydrates are produced in the Calvin Cycle?

I understand the structure of simple carbohydrates (di- and monosaccharides, etc.,) but I'm encountering inconsistent/confusing nomenclature while trying to understand the Calvin Cycle. One source ...
charlie_sar's user avatar
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474 views

Why is fructolysis independent of glycolysis?

In glycolysis, glucose is converted to fructose-6-phosphate before further breakdown. However fructose, instead of being phosphoryated to fructose-6-phosphate by glucokinase (and thereafter to ...
chematwork's user avatar
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Why are disaccharides less reducing than monosaccharides?

My teacher told me the statement, but if both monosaccharide and disaccharides have a single free active group, how is this possible?
Newton's Apple's user avatar
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Does hydrolysis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats occur in the small intestine?

Does the hydrolysis of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats occur in the small intestine? I have researched this and just cannot seem to get a clear-cut answer. Perhaps I am misunderstanding something? ...
ASA MATTHEWS's user avatar
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How can cane sugar sucrose be different from beet sugar in regard to carbon-13 content?

According to an article in SCIENZA IN CUCINA, by Dario Bressanini, le Scienze Blog content of $^{13}C$ differs in sucrose in beet sugar compared to cane sugar. What is this due to? Are there any ...
David Jonsson's user avatar
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A balanced diet with the minimum carbon footprint [closed]

Many studies shows that 1 kg of non-vegetarian food as 3-4 times more carbon footprint than 1 kg of vegetarian food. I think that does not represent the complete picture food from animal sources are ...
Nilotpal Kanti Sinha's user avatar
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Proteoglycans vs Glycoproteins

On the left, is my histology book, on the right there's qoura (the internet). My histology textbook says that "unlike glycoproteins, proteoglycans have attached GAGs which often comprise a greater ...
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Does animal based food contain molecules that behave like dietary fiber for humans?

I have read that dietary fiber is beneficial to human health in many ways, for example that it can help to reduce risk of colorectal cancer. However, when I look at nutrition labels on food it seems ...
David Ruffner's user avatar
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What happens when a human ingests a large meal, and after a short time follows it up with a large amount of indigestible carbs?

A human eats a large meal and indigestible carbs (IC) with such a timing that the IC arrive to the small intestine when it is already full and busy breaking down and absorbing the meal. What would ...
budgiebeaks's user avatar
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How can we digest lactose even though it has Beta glycosidic linkages?

I have Read that we cannot digest cellulose because we do not have enzymes to digest Beta glycosidic linkages in Cellulose Then how is it that we have an enzyme called Lactase to digest the Beta ...
Sudhanshu Bharadwaj's user avatar
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Can fructose take multiple forms ? Which of these structures of fructose is correct?

When I look up the structure of fructose I get various different structures Which of them is correct ? Are these all just isomers of fructose ?
Jaca's user avatar
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Meaning of a negative value for non-fiber, non-sugar carbohydrate based on a nutrition label

One of the questions for my lab is to find the non-fiber, non-sugar carbohydrate per serving of an onion. Now the total carbohydrate for this onion is 11 g, the total sugars for the onion is 9 g, and ...
user55078's user avatar
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Why is it possible to make yoghourt with lactose-free milk?

The function of the Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus cultures is to ferment lactose to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid decreases pH and causes the milk to clot,...
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Why is beta- D fructofuranose two different structures when in free form and as part of sucrose?

This is the structure of fructose in free form: The right moiety is the fructose as part of sucrose. The left one being glucose: Both of the fructose are beta-D fructofuranose. But as it can be ...
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What allows grass eaters to digest cellulose?

Scientists are saying that it was a small step for the Panda to move from a meat diet to a grass diet. The article only refers to differences in the Panda's skull, presumably for better chewing. I've ...
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What is the role of lactic acid bacteria (such as L. acidophilus and L. bulgaricus) in glycolysis during yogurt fermentation?

I am trying to prove that an increase in monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) that have been added to milk during fermentation will result in a decreased pH. My current argument is: "The ...
Ivan's user avatar
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Is it possible for human body to convert carbohydrates to protein? [closed]

Is it possible for human body to convert carbohydrates to protein to build muscle for example? EDIT: I read in many articles that you should eat more than 1.5 gram protein for each 1 kg weight of ...
user3486308's user avatar
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Statistical Analysis for Blood Sugar Measurements

I've conducted a lab aimed towards finding the impact of soluble fiber intake on the change in blood sugar levels. Following an 8 hour fast, I had test subjects consume a fixed amount of carbohydrates,...
John Toff's user avatar
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What is the source of the fat in adipose tissue?

I have heard the opinion that all of it comes from de novo lipogenesis of carbohydrates, but I'm skeptical. Is there evidence either way - either that dietary fat definitely gets stored in the adipose ...
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What is the carbohydrate found in almonds, cashews, pecans, hazlenuts and pistachios? [closed]

What is the carbohydrate found in almonds, cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, and pistachios? I first thought they probably have starch but I am not sure. Can someone verify this for me, and/or send a link ...
Brian Blumberg's user avatar
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1 answer
219 views

Glycosidic bonds

For the glycosidic bond in maltose, why is the glycosidic bond formed between hydroxyl group on C1 in 1 glucose molecule and hydroxyl group on C4 of the other glucose molecule? Why not between, say, ...
John's user avatar
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Carbohydrate diet and dental health

I read that human started carbohydrates rich diet after adopting agriculture before that meat was main energy source which has comparatively less carbohydrate. High carbohydrate started destroying ...
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Why does enteral carbohydrate yield higher energy than parenteral?

The following is written in a well-known textbook of surgery: Each gram of enteric carbohydrate provides 4.0 kilocalories (kcal) of energy. Parenterally administered carbohydrates (eg, ...
playreader's user avatar
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Difference between feral and domesticated honey?

Is there any significant differences in composition (and/or taste) between the honey of wild ("feral") honeybees versus that of domesticated ones used in beekeeping?
ManRow's user avatar
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Why do animals use glycogen for their polysaccharide storage whereas plants use starch?

The polysaccharide storage form of glucose in animals is glycogen, whereas in plants it is starch. Both of these are polymers of α-glucose with α-l,4 glycosidic linkages and α-l,6 glycosidic branch ...
Kenny Kim's user avatar
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Why is the chemical of an hexose not sufficient to ID the molecule? [closed]

Here is the homework question I have to answer to The Chemical formula C6H12O6 can mean any number of different hexose sugars that share the same chemical formula. To tell the hexoses apart, you ...
Justin's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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If humans had cellulase would they be able to digest grass?

Cellulase is an enzyme capable of breaking cellulose. If humans were able to produce cellulase in our stomach would we be able to digest grass? If not, what more things would we need in order to ...
Ender Look's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
312 views

Why do food items expire?

Why do food items and medicines expire after sometime?
Ram Keswani's user avatar
8 votes
1 answer
12k views

Why is carbon dioxide produced in alcohol fermentation but not in lactic acid fermentation?

From my understanding, alcohol fermentation takes place in yeast and lactate production takes place in humans. These two pathways take place only when there is insufficient oxygen, because the other ...
user307640's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
911 views

Carbohydrates- D-Glucose & L-glucose , alpha and beta [closed]

What's the difference between D-glucose & L-glucose ? Yes , I know that L-glucose is an isomer of D-glucose . But what differences do they have ? They are the same , they are glucose . ...
user307640's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
653 views

Carbohydrates in acidic stomach

How does the acidic environment in the stomach affect carbohydrate and fast digestion? Does it aid, impede or remain neutral in their digestive process? Or do the carbohydrates, fats and proteins ...
user32340's user avatar
1 vote
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Does hunger necessarily mean that we should eat?

People feel hunger sooner after they eat food that consists mostly of carbohydrates. For example, if someone eats a good portion of rice then most likely they will be hungry after a couple of hours. ...
R S's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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How is the rate of gluconeogenesis controlled in the cell?

As far as I am aware, all steps in glycolysis are readily reversible except the phosphorylation of glucose, the phosphorylation of fructose6 phosphate, and the phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate ...
Meep's user avatar
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7 votes
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Is aquafaba readily digestible?

I have always drained and tossed the water from canned beans. My understanding has been that the water that canned beans are soaked and cooked in contains raffinose, the gas-causing sugars that humans ...
verbose's user avatar
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Digestion Enzymes in Carbohydrate Metabolism?

Digestion of carbohydrates is ending in small intestine with mainly disaccharidases. Isomaltose is broken down to 2 molecules of glucose by the enzyme called alpha dextrinase(oligo-1,6 glucosidase or ...
Ahmet Öz's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
371 views

Carbohydrate in egg white

I looked up online to find which type of carbohydrate is found in egg white, but the only information I found is the quantity of sugar. I would like to know the exact name of the carbohydrate found in ...
Matt's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
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Sugars which are Carbohydrates and vice-versa?

Is it right that are all sugars are carbohydrates but not all carbohydrates are sugars? If so, which carbohydrates are sugars and which aren't and why all sugars are carbohydrates? If I had to ...
user12821's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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Why do Proteins store energy when the body already contains Carbohydrates and Lipids?

We already know that lipids are a source of long term energy and carbohydrates are much faster energy releasing sources. So why do we need specific proteins within the body to store energy? Are ...
nosyminotaur's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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anabolism in plants

The question is as following: Which substance has the greatest contribution to the anabolism of glucose in plants. A- Oxygen (O2). B- Water (H2O). C- carbon dioxide (CO2). The official answer given ...
Jay's user avatar
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1 answer
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Can a human being live without any carbohydrates? [duplicate]

Nowadays low-carb is in fashion, but what I recently wondered is whether a human can live without any carbohydrates at all? Of course this would be hard to do in reality, as most food will contain ...
hgiesel's user avatar
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1 answer
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Living on pure glycogen?

I was recently fascinated when I learned about polysaccharides (I am a biology newbie) and was wondering about some of their properties. After doing some googling I was unable to find any information ...
DivideByZero's user avatar
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1 answer
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How does consumption of vinegar affect food chemistry?

For example: does consumption of vinegar somehow change digestion of flour (bread, cakes, pasta, puffs) ? May be there are some benefits to eat flour meal with vinegar ?
R S's user avatar
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Lifeforms concentrations of the categories of macromolecules, and Lipids

Lifeforms are formed of large, modular, organic molecules called macromolecules, large organic molecules called Lipids, and simpler molecules such as H2O. Macromolecules are commonly grouped into the ...
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Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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