Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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M phase is divided into two main stages, mitosis and cytokinesis [closed]

Why M phase is divided into two main stages, mitosis and Cytokinesis? please help me
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Can a Gi GPCR receptor be equivalent to a Gs one?

Doesn't a Gi receptor agonist produce the same effects as a Gs receptor inverse agonist thus making them opposite and usable to achieve the same effects? I speculate this considering that one inhibits ...
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What's the RAS pathway in Cancer cells? [closed]

Can anybody help me and answer my question; What's the RAS pathway in Cancer cells?
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Isolated mitochondria in glucose rich solution, what happens to ATP generation?

I'm taking intro to biology course this year, and I was thinking about this question. Isolated mitochondria were placed in a glucose rich solution. (With ADP and Pi). How would this affect the ATP ...
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Hayflick Limits for common/model animals? [closed]

Where to find Hayflick Limits for common/model animals ?
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How do transmembrane proteins bind to specific locations on the membrane?

Taking a specific case, how do some GPCRs only bind to dendrites and others only to the axon terminals (reuptake receptors)?
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How fast do ions move in body when they go in and out of the cell membrane?

Do we have any measurement tools to measure the speed of ions moving in a human body, specifically going in and out of the cell membrane? Do we have any tools to know where an ion is at a specific ...
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Safety in Liposomal Amphotericin B

From reading about Amphotericin B antifungal, I understand it is quite a toxic medicine for kidney, but I am not able to find any details as to how Liposomal version of same medication is so safe, in ...
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How can you increase the activity of a specific protein in a cell?

I know that many drugs function by inhibiting a certain protein in our cells. However, I was wondering how you could do the opposite of this: to increase the activity of a certain protein. Building ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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Why can't H3O+ ions pass through aquaporins?

Aquaporins are proteins that facilitate the movement of water (and related molecules) through cell membranes. (Also, these transport proteins are very specific about what they transport.) ...
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Are IgE antibodies capable of binding water molecules?

I learned in med school, that they are too small to trigger the IgE reaction that causes the release of histamine. However, I came across reports of this condition; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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Is it possible to teach your body to produce higher amounts of phenomelanin on its own through long term supplementing cysteine/glutathione [closed]

So after a fair amount of research I found out skintone can be altered to some extent using cysteine and other sulfur compounds. This can be done temporarily but is not permanent as a result of the ...
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In plasmid-based transient transfection of mesenchymal stem cells, do I have to select for transfected cells and verify GOI expression via a reporter?

I am transiently transfecting mesenchymal stem cells with a mammalian plasmid-based expression vector that does not contain any mammalian selection marker and also the gene of interest will be cloned ...
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Why are microtubules absent in and around the nucleus?

I was going through fluorescence microscopy and found these four images. The top left corner shows the actin cytoskeleton (rhodamin phalloidin) and the bottom left image shows the microtubule ...
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colocalization by IFA?

I have done IFA (immunofluorescence assay) previously but i targeted only one protein or i tagged my endogenous protein with GFP/RFP then i performed IFA. I want to do the IFA in parental cell line (...
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In phospho/pan analysis in Western blots, what is best way to normalise to an internal loading control?

I am analysing the expression of a protein kinase X that is a phosphoprotein through Western blots. I have labelled the membrane for both the phosphorylated form of the protein and also for the total ...
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When analysing phosphoproteins via Western blot, why is total protein level of the target protein recommended as an internal loading control?

I am analysing the expression of a protein kinase via Western blots, and it is a phosphoprotein. I have labelled my membrane with antibodies against the phosphorylated form of the protein (using ...
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Which domains or motifs are capable of attaching to both DNA and RNA?

Domains or motifs of transcription factors are catalytically active to attach to the nucleic acid of any type. Where could I find a list of domains or motifs which are able to attach to both DNA and ...
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Can you use images taken at different exposure times in western blot image analysis?

I am doing Western blot data analysis where I have images from a number of experiments (where the samples in the experiments are biological/technical replicates). For each experiment, I labelled the ...
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How arteries split into smaller blood vessels?

I am not sure if I am asking question that is hard to answer precisely. I just have begun learning about anatomy and physiology and have watched bunch of human dissection videos online. I feel like ...
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

In recent scientific articles, it has been discovered how the spike protein not only is a respiratory disease but also damages blood vessels cells directly, and is connected with higher risk of ...
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Atom or Cell? Which is the basic unit of life? [closed]

As it is said that everything in this universe is made up of atom and molecules and atoms is called the building block of matter. But then why the cell is called the basic unit of life, why not atoms?
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How to select a microscope for deep microscopy? Specifically for Deep Learning/ML model development

I am new to biology and microscopy. I am a data scientist. I am faced with a question on selecting a good microscope that enables automation of scanning the slides. And cellular object detection using ...
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What actually kills a plant that requires winter dormancy if it is kept indoors all year?

In bonsai practice, beginners will commonly purchase a juniper (often Juniperus procumbens 'Nana'), which is an outdoor tree, and keep it inside all year. The tree invariably dies. It is commonly ...
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Does cell culturing contribute to dangerous antibiotic resistance to the same degree as livestock?

According to the CDC, antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. The largest incubator for antibiotic resistance is the factory farming of animals where ...
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Acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing capacity

how many cells can a CTL eliminate sequentially? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are a subset of the adaptive immune system which can target cells for apoptotic elimination. This elimination begins ...
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Why is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) less effective for interspecies?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), a process for replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with a nucleus containing genetic information of a different animal, seems to be very useful for cloning and ...
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Are there any “in vivo” DNA replication fidelity assays?

I haven't been able to find a way to assess the fidelity of DNA replication in vivo as opposed to in vitro. I was wondering, would it be possible to find this by sequencing the DNA of individual cells ...
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Amount of carbon captured in photosynthesis by a plant

Is it more proportional to the mass or the volume of the plant? I thought it might be helpful to think on the cellular level here. Even a reference to an external explanation would be useful.
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Does the term 'protein expression' refer to the production of proteins only or also their regulation?

I am learning about molecular biology and I have come across the term 'protein expression' in a research paper. I have searched the definition of this term online and on the Thermo Fisher Scientific ...
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What are the uses of centrioles and matrix of centrosomes?

In centrosomes, the gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC) located on the surface are essential as the nucleation site for the growing (with polarity) of microtubules. However, I see that there is ...
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Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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Difference between tissue compression and compaction

I often see these two terms used when studying models of cell dynamics. Is there a technical difference between the terms "compression" and "compaction" of a cell tissue?
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When transmembrane proteins destined for the plasma membrane are in the ER membrane are they in their final folded form?

I am studying how transmembrane proteins are made and I have read that proteins that are destined for the plasma membrane are initially in the ER membrane and do not get translocated into the ER lumen ...
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What is special about Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (PAM) fluorometry?

I know that PAM fluorometry is used to measure chlorophyll fluorescence and understand the principle of those measurements. It is in principle clear to me from prior research in the literature, that ...
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What is meant by 'topologically continuous' in the context of cell compartmentalisation? [closed]

I am reading the textbook 'Molecular Biology of the Cell', and I am reading the chapter about the compartmentalisation of cells. I have come across the following statement: The nucleus and the ...
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How to incerase the efficiency of co-immunoprecipitation?

immunoprecipitation recently. My main problem is i am getting very clean and my target protein only (as you see in the lane 3,4,5,6) but when i reduced the NP40 concentration to 0.05 percentage i ...
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Why do cells in meristematic tissues lack vacuoles?

Cells located in meristematic cells in plants lack vacuoles. However, this contradicts with the fact that plant cells have large vacuoles to store water and keep the plant in an upright position. I ...
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Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in the endosome

I am learning vesicular transport of LDL endocytosis. I understand as pH of the endosome is lower (around 6.0) than cytosol (around 7.2) due to the H+ pump, so LDL disassembles from the LDL receptor ...
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How broad are the conclusions that one can make from a heterologous expression experiment?

I am studying whether a neural protein regulates the activity of the protein GSK3. I am using heterologous expression systems where I am overexpressing the neural protein in CHO cells (via ...
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What are the advantages of heterologous expression systems?

I am doing research in a lab and I am relatively new to wet lab work. Many experiments that people are doing in my lab include overexpressing a protein of interest from another species (e.g. mouse) ...
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Which terminology is better: Heterologous expression system or heterologous cell model?

I am reading a journal paper and I have read that the authors expressed the extracellular domain of the protein NCAM2 which is normally found in the brain in CHO cells. I know that this is an example ...
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Can proteins be located on the surface of the mitochondria?

I am learning about the mitochondria and I know there are proteins present in the mitochondrial matrix such as SOD2, but I was wondering for a protein to be located on the surface of the mitochondria ...
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1answer
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Is it necessary to calculate lane normalisation factor when doing western blot data analysis?

I have recently done my first western blot and I am doing data analysis to quantify my blot. I have labelled my membrane against inactive GSK3 and active GSK3 which are phosphoproteins so I am using ...
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How does the Endoplasmic Reticulum scale with Cell Volume in Epithelial Cells?

I am working on a mathematical model of a biological tissue (drosophila pupal notum; an epithelial tissue) where the tissue is built up from cells all described by the same cellular-model. The tissue ...
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Why am I finding peculiar B cell population when pbmcs are cultured for 3 days with CD40L?

While performing intracellular cytokine assay on B cells, I am finding a peculiar population. I use 2*10^6 cells for studying each functional marker. The pbmcs are cultured for 72 hours, with CD40L ...
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Is the phrase “transmembrane segment” equivalent to the transmembrane domain of a protein?

I am reading the Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology and I am learning about the cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 and I have come across the following: The overall structure of NCAM2 ...
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What is meant by “opposing plasma membrane” with respect to cell adhesion molecules?

I am reading the Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology and I am learning about cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and I have come across the following: CAMs are involved in homo‐ or ...
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Do HEK293T cells express sufficient endogenous G-Proteins for calcium imaging?

I want to transfect different GPCRs to HEK cells and then do calcium imaging. I was wondering if the endogenous expression levels of Gq are high enough.

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