Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Hemocytometer questions for a lab

Suppose you are working in a lab and have counted cells in 5 squares on your hemacytometer slide. If the numbers are 45, 55, 34, 66, 50, how many cells should you have per 1 mL of media? I am ...
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ATP Synthase and athletic performance [closed]

Is anyone using ATP Synthase output measurements to produce an improved athletic performance?
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Can Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer multiple T-DNA segments at once?

Is it possible for Agrobacterium to transfer two T-DNA segments to a plant from two different binary vectors within the cell?
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What is the current scientific consensus regarding the relationship between Eukaryotes and Archaea?

In the traditional 3-domain system, the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota are all distinct from one another, with the latter 2 usually being sister-groups in a clade. However recent evidence ...
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Anyone Know What This Is?

So I don't know much about plant structure or biology in general but I found this little guy while on X10 and x40 lenses on our school microscope while looking at a leaf. I'm not sure if it's part of ...
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What is the purpose of interkinetic nuclear migration during neurogenesis?

I am reading about neurogenesis and I am learning about the different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells and basal progenitors). I have read that ...
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What is bacterial (prokaryotic) cell division called?

Eukaryotic asexual cell division is sometimes referred to as mitosis, although this is more strictly used to refer to the specific stage at which “the replicated chromosomes separate into two new ...
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Is Signal Transduction Unidirectional from the Stimuli to the Final Receptor?

I wonder if signal transduction in biological systems including visual, olfactory, tactile or any other biological system, is unidirectional. Suppose that $X_i$ is the $ith$ cell in the signal ...
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What are the differences between Anastral Centriole and Amphiastral centrosome?

Differences that I am able to draw out of the terms is the (1) astral rays and (2) presence of one or two centriole during division, what will be the key difference between the two? Since astral ...
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Do the cadherins involved in adherens junctions and the cadherins in desmosomes "communicate" at all?

I think I have a basic understanding about the function of these cytoskeleton-linked junctions, and they can link one cell to another and the interaction of cadherins of adjacent cells give the ...
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Multicellular but uninucleate?

The "standard" biological setup is one cell-one nucleus (with one or more chromosomes and zero or more plasmids). Multinucleate cells are a thing (e.g., in fungi)--a situation wherein a ...
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How much MPa of pressure can human cells survive?

Is there any research on this topic with concrete numbers? I found some papers of high pressure tests on microbes, but not on human/mammal cells. What I want to find is true "crush depth" ...
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How does oxygen help break down food? [duplicate]

I'm familiar with cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the set intracellular chemical reactions that utilize oxygen. One example reaction is this: ...
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45 views

Biomechanics of cells (stress, strain, tension..)

I am confused about the difference between stress, strain, tension, pre-strain and prestress in cells (especially in in-vitro experiments, like cell spreading on a substrate, cell doublets, cell ...
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Fixing the cell with 4%PFA and staining with PI to observe cell cycle?

I am wondering whether we can replace 70% ethanol to fix and perm the cells with 4% PFA to observe the cell cycle. Do I understand correctly that 4% PFA can permeate the cells, thus the PI will ...
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Which agar block can have the highest diffusion rate, the smallest cube or the thinnest cuboid

I was determining which will have the highest diffusion rate is it the smallest agar cube like (6×6×6)mm or thinnest agar block(3×30×30)mm because I did not exactly know it the surface area to volume ...
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Do plants originate from a single cell

I read the generalization that life originates from a cell, and from my understanding animals, they originate from a single cell, produced as a result of sexual reproduction. And then life begins to ...
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Is lysozyme present in the lysosome? [closed]

Is lysozyme present in the lysosome? I cannot find anything about this in the literature.
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How do the maximum rates of calcium pumping compare between the calcium ATPases SERCA and PMCA

Two important Calcium ATPases found within cells are the Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) and the Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA). Both use ATP to help maintain resting calcium ...
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What are the small white dots in an onion cell seen under an electron microscope?

We had to use an electron microscope in class for an assignment and used onion cells. On the 40x and 100x magnification there are tiny white dots and I was wondering if someone could tell me what they ...
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56 views

Number of membrane proteins of a particular type per cell

Is it possible (or meaningful) to count how many proteins (protein copy number?) of a certain type a given cell has on its surface? For instance, say there is some membrane integral protein ...
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How is RNA content distributed in daughter cells during cell division?

During cell division, DNA becomes equally distributed between the daughter cells. But how is RNA content distributed in the daughter cells?
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1answer
58 views

Contradiction between random molecular collisions and regulated cellular processes [closed]

A cell is a chemical system, consisting of billions of molecules, ions, and atoms. These chemical species are constantly engaged in chemical reactions. Physics gives the impression that chemical ...
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How many MAOA alleles are there?

The question is about the human gene MAOA. I've seen MAOA-H and MAOA-L mentioned in papers. The page https://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Gene/Summary?db=core;g=ENSG00000189221;r=X:43654907-43746824 ...
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Are living cells electrically neutral?

I found random scientific table which had a comment attached: the cells must be electrically neutral. Per my knowledge whole intracellular solution contains more electrons than protons (definition ...
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Why does the body lose enzymes over time?

I recently started my GCSE Biology course where I spend the next two years learning and preparing for my GCSE. One of the questions I have is that I was told that enzymes are recycled every time they ...
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Where is the location of cutin or cuticle in the plant leaf [closed]

Cutin's main role is to prevent the the plant leaf from water loss, cutin is thick in shape , but I need to know where is the location of it ,for example is it in the lower epidermis or in the upper ...
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602 views

How is chicken egg a single cell

It is unexpected for ostrich or chicken egg to be single cell yet so large. How could it happen, I thought egg is made up of several single cells. If not, how is yolk a single cell http://www.alearned....
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Can tissue flow apart instead of being tightly attached?

Every tissue of our human body consists on cells and cells are not like static "LEGO bricks". They are highly dynamic and can actively move around, due to myosin-actin networks inside the ...
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Does the generative cell have centrioles?

I have read that most plant cells lack centrioles, though it may be seen in some lower plants. But what about the gametophyte of higher plants, angiosperms specifically? As this diagram shows- The ...
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1answer
100 views

How to measure the pH of a bacterial species?

I would like to calculate the pH of a certain bacteria species before after an experiment. I was reading about the pH cell of bacteria and I found out about Bacterial Intracellular pH which I ...
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Does the cytoplasm include the organelles?

I am a student in middle school. My textbook says that Cytoplasm is the gelatinous liquid part of the cell excluding organelles. However my teacher said this is wrong. According to her, the correct ...
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633 views

Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

I am a mechatronics engineer who stopped learning biology after high school - but this is bothering me. mRNA is, if I recall correctly, created in the nucleus of the cells and migrates out of the ...
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At what calcium concentration does the Sodium-Calcium Exchanger (NCX) "turn on"?

I am interested in the comparison between the Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase (PMCA) and the Sodium-Calcium Exchanger (NCX) which are two pumps on the plasma membrane of cells that serve to move ...
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Is lignification within plants a reversible process? If so which factors can reverse lignification?

Lignification is an important process in plants such as trees to allow for structural rigidity. Is this process reversible by the plant and if so which factors influence this reversibility?
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Cell Theory- does the first cell not contradict cell theory [closed]

In cell theory, we have cells arise from other existing cell. But the first cell did not arise from existing cell, and that means there are some other condition which allows cell to be formed. I ...
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1answer
61 views

How many cells are there in C. elegans in each hour of its life?

I'm a high school student planning to write a math essay to model changes in the number of cells in a living organism over time. C. elegans is the only organism that I know with a known number and ...
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How do NK cells survive its own components?

I've just read that NK cells have perforins and granzymes that create holes and then activate suicide of other cells. How do they 'store' those proteins to keep them from destroying themselves? ...
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Why is ACE 2 located on the Alveolar side of Pulmonary Epithelium?

Location and Purpose of ACE 2. Given that the primary purpose of the transmembrane enzyme ACE 2 is ostensibly to bind Angiotensin 1 and 2 in order to convert these to derivatives such as Angiotensin [...
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How do I cover Cellstrainers?

I‘m doing some experiments for my bachelors thesis and I‘m using some Cell strainers by Roth for it (https://www.carlroth.com/com/en/accessories/cell-strainer-easystrainer™/p/cly9.1). My problem is ...
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How does medicine work? [closed]

Take aromatase inhibitors for example. In order for a molecule to stop the enzyme aromatase from converting androgens into estrogens, it must meet 6 criteria: Not get broken down by the acidity or ...
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Basic clarification on definition of "unicellular"

Biology noob here, trying to expand his basic scientific knowledge. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicellular_organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism ...
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1answer
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can a cell evolve into a different species in the lab?

A friend of mine does not believe in evolution. He claimed that we can not as humans observe a single cell evolving into a different cell. Is that possible to be observed in the lab? Thanks in advance....
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Difference between live and dead body from atomic perspective?

Sorry if this is a dumb question, recently I have been interested in the question of how "life" should be defined and got a specific question: If we compare a live body of a person and a ...
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What does it mean to quantitatively describe a cell?

To begin this question, I will quote Molecular Biology of the Cell (page 38): ... Biological systems are, ..., full of feedback loops, and the behavior of even the simplest of systems with feedback ...
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Should fat calories' numerical values be increased to better reflect the new scientific findings?

According to a study discussed on this website, people lose more weight on a calorie restricted fat reduced diet than on a similar calorie restricted carb reduced diet. Is this study a fair dinkum, ...
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How many nucleolus a Human cell can in have (theoretically)?

As Nucleolar Organising region On Satellite Chromosome 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 have genes for the rRNA synthesis ( 5.8 S, 18S, 28S) in human, so my question has two parts- 1 Does one NOR region ( for ...
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1answer
56 views

What is role of centriole in the formation of microtubule during cell divison?

I was learning about the centriole from different sources , and a common misconception I had was that centriole forms spindle fibres but the reality is very different. Gamma Tubulin protein found in ...
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Do same DNA sequences lead to the same proteins in all organisms? [duplicate]

I'm not a biologist, but I am curious about a particular question about DNA. As I understand DNA encodes proteins using special sequences of nucleotides and cells decode these proteins from DNA during ...
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Why is it possible to render fat if it's in cells?

To the casual onlooker, fat seems like a mass of yellow-white material, composed of lipids. Biologically speaking however, rather than being a large mass, it's actually divided among countless cells, ...

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