Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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How does a (stem) cell keep track of its own 'specialization'?

If I understand correctly, as stem cells divide, they become more and more specialized. The very first (fertilized) cell still can divide into every other cell in the body, but as they divide further, ...
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2 votes
1 answer
80 views

How does non-cell autonomous work - how can a mutant cell make other non-mutant cells exhibit a mutant phenotype?

I am reading a journal paper, and I have coming across the following statement: Furthermore, although late-born neurons that take up exogenous Dcc fail to settle in the superficial layer of the ...
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T-Cell Receptor Receptor-Associated Immune Receptor Activation Motifs (ITAMs) Inconsistency

In reading the information associated with the cytoplasmic machinery of the T-Cell Receptor (TCR), the one tyrosine motif that is consistently mentioned is the receptor-associated immune receptor ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Are there human genes that make a cell die when they undergo copy-number alterations?

I am trying to understand if there are known genes in the human genome where copy-number should be stable at a diploid level for the carrier cell to live. I.e., are there lethal deletions or ...
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4 votes
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How to reduce PPi concentration in blood samples by PPase

I have some samples of whole blood that are a little bit expensive and I want to significantly reduce the concentration of PPi in the samples by causing a reaction. I don't have any experience in ...
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-2 votes
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144 views

When would the maternal mtRNA, rRNA, and telomere RNA be no longer expressed in the fetus or baby? [closed]

Motivation: I learned that mtDNA is passed from mother to the offspring and stay there for life-time. Maternal RNA plays an important role in early embryo development before the embryo's own DNA is ...
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Is anyone familiar with Microbubbles & Cell separation?

I came across a website that claims to separate cells via microbubbles (https://www.akadeum.com/technology/the-physics-of-how-microbubbles-sort-cells). Would this really have any upside in separating ...
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1 vote
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The numbers of chromosomes during Meiosis [duplicate]

There is something about the numbers of chromosomes that doesn't make sense to me: Let's take this illustration: So a gamete has 23 chromosomes, which are haploid (have only one chromatid), is that ...
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How do refractive index (RI) matching solutions reverse tissue expansion in CLARITY tissue clearing?

I am learning about the CLARITY tissue clearing technique. I am researching this technique to understand how it works better. I know that this technique can make tissues transparent without severe ...
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What is meant by “global RNA polymerase occupancy”?

I read the following in a paper It provides base-pair resolution and strand-specific information of **global RNA polymerase** occupancy. CDK13 cooperates with CDK12 to control global RNA polymerase ...
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11 votes
1 answer
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How could microplastics accumulate in the bodies of marine mammals?

I have read several literature reviews and studies on the effects of microplastic particles on fish and invertebrates (one example includes the review by Franzellitti et al. (2019)) and there are ...
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biofilm model scales

I have a question about the meaning of biofilm modelling scales: Are they microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic. Microscopic means individual bacteria macroscopic means large number of concentration ...
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Why do some people accumulate more diglycerides in their muscle cells?

The scientist Gerald Shulman has experimentally found that young lean adults in their early twenties that are children to people with type 2 diabetes often show muscle insulin resistance. He found ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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How much does each rotation coarse adjustment move the stage in a microscope?

I've been working with microscopes lately and have been trying to think of a way to somehow find out a way to some how find out a way to relate the rotaions of fine adjustment to coarse adjustment. ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why do the phosphatidylserine and Phosphatidylethanolamine favor one side of the cell membrane?

Thie picture below shows that the phospholipids phosphatidylserine (PS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) are more likely to be found on the inside of cell membranes than on their exterior. Why is ...
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Why do larger neurons have less cytoplasmic resistance?

I'm studying neuron electrochemistry rn and my book basically says that the more the cytoplasm impedes the flow of ions, the slower conduction will be, therefore larger neurons will have lower ...
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28 views

If RBCs don't have MHC I, why don't NK cells kill them?

As mentioned in textbooks, All nucleated cells have MHC class I molecules on the cell surface. RBCs have no nucleus, therefore no MHC I NK cells kill cells with deficiency in MHC I presentation Then ...
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4 votes
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Which single substance among Potassium and Phosphate has the greatest osmotic activity in the Intracellular fluid?

My physiology textbook mentions that potassium has the greatest concentration ( 155 mEq/L ) in the Intracellular fluid and that I thought would make it the most osmotically active but the answer given ...
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1 vote
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Why does a respiring mitochondrion have less cristae?

I read the following- Number of cristae is more in resting-state of mitochondrion, but decreases with activity, hence less in the respiring state. cited: GK Pal, Textbook of Medical Physiology ...
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Sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+) time limit, endless without action potential?

As written in Wikipedia: The sodium–potassium pump mechanism moves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus, in total, removing one positive charge carrier from the intracellular space. ...
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1 vote
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Actin-myosin cortex stiffness VS elasticity

I have two questions on the mechanics of actin-myosin network: 1- Actomyosin cortex as an elastic material is defined by its elastic modulus $E$. But I know that elasticity would be described by the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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How do viral envelopes contain molecules coded for by viral genes when they are derived from the host cell's plasma membrane?

I have been studying viruses from " Biology: A Global Approach " by Campbell, Urry, et al. Regarding viral envelopes in animal viruses, the textbook writes, " ..the viral envelope is ...
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Do homologous chromosomes have same rates of gene expression in a cell?

I was googling around and found only articles related to XY differences in expression. Can you please clarify if homologous genes/chromosomes have about the same levels of expression in a cell or one ...
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0 votes
0 answers
72 views

Distinguishing between yeast and bacteria

Can hematoxylin stain be used to tell apart yeast and bacteria cells Are there any other method to tell apart yeast and bacterial cells? I know hematoxylin stains histone protein but I am not sure how ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Are antibodies labelled with fluorescence that have not attached to an antigen visible under light microsocopes?

I came across this thought while studying histology, what happens to fluorescence labelled antibodies that do not bind with an antigen, can we see them? or are antibodies activated upon antigen ...
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1 vote
1 answer
60 views

What is a gain-of-function assay in neuroscience?

I am reading this paper and I have come across the following statement: "We sought to test whether exogenous Kirrel3 expression induces synapse formation via a gain-of-function assay... Because ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Does technology exist to represent cell biology in a bona fide fashion?

I have been teaching life sciences for nearly a decade now. Still something keeps giving me mental distress each time I think of it. I feel no representations of cell biology can convey information in ...
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Surface Area to Volume Ratio and Ice Baths

Hi I was taking a practice test and stumbled across this question. I couldn't find information about this on the internet. Does anyone know why B is the answer? Thanks
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3 votes
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Ventral View VS Dorsal View in cell experiments

I am trying to understand the difference between ventral and dorsal view of "cell spreading on a substrate" experiment in this article https://rupress.org/jcb/article/205/1/83/37623/A-...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Has anyone who has ever isolated synaptosomes using subcellular fractionation before know what the 'crude/heavy membrane fraction P2' is?

I am reading a journal paper where they analyse the proteome of synaptosomes. In this paper, they isolate synaptosomes from the hippocampi of mice. I know that synaptosomes contain the complete ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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If I want to study protein translocation with RFP as a reporter should I fuse it to the C or N terminus?

I want to identify the whereabouts of the signal sequence (signal peptide) on a coding gene and I want to infer this by using RFP or GFP fusion and visualising the location of the fluorescence. Can ...
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4 votes
1 answer
116 views

Does the biofilm formation hinder photosythesis?

In photosynthetic bacteria such as Cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The bacteria need access to both light, CO2, and water to perform photosynthesis. However, in thick biofilm structures (e....
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What is the difference between BSA fraction V and the initial fraction?

I am preparing a supplemented culture medium and I need to use BSA. There is fraction V of BSA that we normally use for immunocytochemistry and there is another type named the initial fraction that is ...
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2 votes
1 answer
54 views

Can cell adhesion molecules have intrinsic enzymatic activity?

I am learning about cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and I know that they mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion via homophilic and heterophilic interactions. I have read that CAMs ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Is the yolk of an egg a cell?

I am a little confused, I find sites on the internet that say that the yolk of an egg is a macrocell, and another says that it is not. So... is it a macrocell or not?
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Rationale for helper T cells?

If my understanding is correct, helper T cells have two main functions: stimulating macrophages at the site of infection activating B cells and helping them undergo somatic hypermutation What ...
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0 votes
0 answers
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Why do transcription factors have to be inserted genomically?

Instead of inserting the DNA to synthesize transcription factors into the genome in order to reprogram a cell into an induced pluripotent state, why can't you already synthesize the transcription ...
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2 votes
0 answers
49 views

What is the current scientific consensus regarding the relationship between Eukaryotes and Archaea?

In the traditional 3-domain system, the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota are all distinct from one another, with the latter 2 usually being sister-groups in a clade. However recent evidence ...
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3 votes
0 answers
92 views

Anyone Know What This Is?

So I don't know much about plant structure or biology in general but I found this little guy while on X10 and x40 lenses on our school microscope while looking at a leaf. I'm not sure if it's part of ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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What is the purpose of interkinetic nuclear migration during neurogenesis?

I am reading about neurogenesis and I am learning about the different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells and basal progenitors). I have read that ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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What is bacterial (prokaryotic) cell division called?

Eukaryotic asexual cell division is sometimes referred to as mitosis, although this is more strictly used to refer to the specific stage at which “the replicated chromosomes separate into two new ...
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1 answer
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Is Signal Transduction Unidirectional from the Stimuli to the Final Receptor?

I wonder if signal transduction in biological systems including visual, olfactory, tactile or any other biological system, is unidirectional. Suppose that $X_i$ is the $ith$ cell in the signal ...
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What are the differences between Anastral Centriole and Amphiastral centrosome?

Differences that I am able to draw out of the terms is the (1) astral rays and (2) presence of one or two centriole during division, what will be the key difference between the two? Since astral ...
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Do the cadherins involved in adherens junctions and the cadherins in desmosomes "communicate" at all?

I think I have a basic understanding about the function of these cytoskeleton-linked junctions, and they can link one cell to another and the interaction of cadherins of adjacent cells give the ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Multicellular but uninucleate?

The "standard" biological setup is one cell-one nucleus (with one or more chromosomes and zero or more plasmids). Multinucleate cells are a thing (e.g., in fungi)--a situation wherein a ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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How much MPa of pressure can human cells survive?

Is there any research on this topic with concrete numbers? I found some papers of high pressure tests on microbes, but not on human/mammal cells. What I want to find is true "crush depth" ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How does oxygen help break down food? [duplicate]

I'm familiar with cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the set intracellular chemical reactions that utilize oxygen. One example reaction is this: ...
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2 votes
1 answer
55 views

Biomechanics of cells (stress, strain, tension..)

I am confused about the difference between stress, strain, tension, pre-strain and prestress in cells (especially in in-vitro experiments, like cell spreading on a substrate, cell doublets, cell ...
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Fixing the cell with 4%PFA and staining with PI to observe cell cycle?

I am wondering whether we can replace 70% ethanol to fix and perm the cells with 4% PFA to observe the cell cycle. Do I understand correctly that 4% PFA can permeate the cells, thus the PI will ...
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0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Which agar block can have the highest diffusion rate, the smallest cube or the thinnest cuboid

I was determining which will have the highest diffusion rate is it the smallest agar cube like (6×6×6)mm or thinnest agar block(3×30×30)mm because I did not exactly know it the surface area to volume ...
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