Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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23 views

Protein rafts over the Phospholipidic bi-layer

Does any of you know the specific name of the protein rafts that allow proteins to float over a double layer of phospholipids, (cell membrane)? I just feel there should be another name rather than ...
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Grade 10th Course topics [on hold]

Could somebody please point out to me the main Biology topics that students in grade 10th and 11th need to study throughout the term, (for what concerns the UK school system, IGCSE exc.)?
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Are human cells tetraploid during cell division?

If human cells are diploid, and DNA replicates before cell division, does it mean that our cells are tetrapolid for a short period of time (DNA replication - cell division). Photos of chromosomes are ...
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Can damage from stress hormones/distress be reversed?

Emotional distress is said and scientifically even validated that it could contribute to earlier aging, even aside from chronological age. Stresses also can have millions of pathways in which they can ...
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Do cells of the same type fuse together with suturing?

I am reading this site: http://sciencenetlinks.com/student-teacher-sheets/cells-your-body/ "Cells that do the same job combine together to form body tissue, such as muscle, skin, or bone tissue." ...
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What are “feeder cells”?

What exactly are "feeder cells"? A paper I'm reading says they harvested the cells and then plated them onto feeder cells. What is the purpose? Is in order to promote growth?
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Why the Cell differs the structure? [duplicate]

I learned that almost every cell in an organism has the same set of DNA which is the instruction set of making protein. The protein does some function in the cell. The question is why the cells, for ...
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Is it possible to grow a part of a plant independent of the rest?

Is it possible, using modern knowledge of biochemistry and synthetic biology, to grow a tomato without growing the rest of the tomato plant? As an academic exercise, with full knowledge of the fact ...
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Name/term for mechanisms by wich the relative size/number of cells of some tissue/organ are preserved

The cells of some organ or tissue are dividing and also dies (apoptosis). But this happens in somehow controlled manner so that the total size of the organ is approximately preserved or the total ...
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A question about a prompt

All eukaryotic cells have similar organelles, but not all cells behave the same way (lung cells, heart cells, brains cells, etc). Explain how this is possible if cells reproduce by making a copy of ...
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Source for 'EVERY living organism uses ATP as energy carrier', and can we make a synthetic one that doesn't?

I have read it repeatedly that 'all living organisms use ATP as an energy currency etc' and 'some use GTP in addition'. However I am yet to find a reliable resource, rather than just quora/reddit/...
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“Spontaneous Immortalization”

HaCaT keratinocytes are described as "spontaneously immortalized "(see paper below) due to aneuploidy or chromosomal alteration. From the paper I get that this is a literal term, that the cells just ...
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Where is catalase produced?

I am doing a research project on the peroxisomes, and in it I referenced the enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. However, the assignment asks me to specify the ...
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Glycosidation and glycosilation

I read somewhere that the function of golgi bodies is glycosylation and glycosidation. What is the difference between the two? I searched google but it gives complex answers.
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During the cleavage cycle of a zygote what determines where the blastula starts folding?

If all of the cells divide from the same zygote it seems like they should all be the same. What causes one part of the clump of cells in a blastula to start folding over to form the mesoderm and ...
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How does the glycocalyx of cells attach together if they are negatively charged?

Context Thus, the entire outside surface of the cell has a loose carbohydrate called the glycocalyx. The carbohydrate moieties attached to the outer surface of the cell has several important ...
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What is the difference between filopodia and lamellipodia?

I'm rather new to biology (I'm an applied mathematician) and I'm currently studying models of Notch-Delta dynamics between cells with filopodia and lamellipodia. What is exactly the difference ...
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what is minimal promoter and what is basal promoter?

what is minimal and basal promoter and what are their elements and what is the difference between the two?I'm confused. searched a lot, but didn't found any satisfactory answer. please help
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Does the Rayleigh formula apply to electron microscopes or only light microscopes?

I am asked to determine the resolving power of both a TEM (transmission electron microscope) and a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and given the Rayleigh formula below. $$Resolution=\frac{0.61\...
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Adipose Cellularity and Energy Intake

Is it plausible to consider increasing adipocyte size as a causal factor predicting less energy intake in humans in conditions of energy balance. It is well known that higher fat mass (FM) predicts ...
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Relation between tetrads and diploid chromosome

If diploid no is 12 In a cell , how many tetrads would be present? Please explain with diagram if possible , I am just a high school student.
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Can cell mediated immune response be transferred via blood transfusion

I read that human body can develop cell mediated immunity to viral infections and subsequently clear the virus. For example, people clear warts through cell mediated immune response against the wart ...
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What are the marker enzymes for Nucleus, Ribosomes and cell membrane?

Are there any marker enzymes present for ribosomes, nucleus and cell membrane. For mitochondria there are many, for lysosome it's cathepsin. I read about the marker enzymes of most of the other ...
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Pharmacokinetics and cell-membrane permeability of Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate

【My Question】 (1) Please tell me the pharmacokinetics of this ATP (or Adenosine triphosphate disodium hydrate) when it is administered orally or intravenously. In particular, Does this material has ...
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E. coli & aspartate

I am familiar with the linkage between aspartate/ligand binding, receptor methylation, and flagellar behavior re. style of locamotion, but I do not know what the bacterium does with the aspartate it ...
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Did the first cell self-replicate or was it multiple first cells? [closed]

We're almost sure by now that the first cell was born in a some kind of underwater vents environment which harvested all the necessary conditions for it to exist. However, did the first cell self-...
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Why don’t plant cells need centrioles? [duplicate]

I’ve just learned about cell division and I noted that plant cells don’t have centrioles but still undergo cell division. I’ve read a few documents about it and wondered why plant cells don't have ...
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What will happen if mitochondria had a structure like lysosomes?

I wanted to know an explanation how the structure of mitochondria affects its function. Therefore, how would it turn out if its structure is like the structure of lysosomes, what is going to happen?
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Immunological response to antibodies? Streptokinase?

Why is it not recommended to use streptokinase in the event of a second clot shortly after the first? In this graph below is an illustration on the amount of antibodies to streptokinase in the blood ...
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Is SCNT possible with only the nucleus of a somatic cell (rather than a whole somatic cell)?

The following figure from Life: The Science of Biology (11th edition) explains how SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer) was used in the cloning of Dolly: (The original paper about cloning Dolly - ...
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What renders a cytoplasm basophilic?

I know that being basophilic or acidophilic corresponds to affinity to certain dyes used in microscopy. What i want to know is what characteristics of the cytoplasm can we infer from its basophilic ...
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What Ultimately Controls DNA Transcription?

Transcription of DNA and further splicing of mRNA is regulated by various transcription factors, small nuclear RNAs and so on; similarly such related mechanisms as transposition of transposons. All ...
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Species specific White Blood Cells (WBC) composition

In our ongoing immunology undergrad course I learnt that neutrophil primarily fights off bacterial infection and lymphocyte is produced in response to viral infection. I also learnt that neutrophil ...
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How does a cell distinguish left from right?

Although the human body is mostly left-right symmetrical, it consistently has asymetries. The heart is consistently slightly to the left side of the body. The liver is consistently on the right side. ...
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What is the end-point of material from an apoptotic cell, after phagocytosis?

Apoptosis occurs. The organelles and interior material form apoptotic bodies that are packed in vesicles. The cell membrane breaks apart (cell no longer exists) and apoptotic bodies enter the ...
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Non-nucleated cell-like population with RNA

We're working on invertebrate hemolymph (blood) and we have found with flow cytometry (staining with DRAQ5) a cell-like population without nucleus but it has RNA production. Does anyone any ...
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Xylem vessels, lignin, wood

I learnt that lignin impregnates xylem cells, causing the cytoplasm to die due to the inability of water and nutrients to pass freely, hence creating hollow tubes adapted to transport materials. This ...
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semantic similarity measurement for cell line ontologies

I have a set of cell line pairs and I want to know to what extent the pairs are similar based on their ontologies. The problem I have is that I have found a Python library called Fastsemsim, but it ...
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Protein inhibitory process

I usually find substances that activates proteins, like ApoA-I, but I don't find substances that inhibit it. So in an experimental design, could I consider the absence of a drug that directly acts ...
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What would the ploidy of a multinucleate cell be?

If we have a haploid organism, and it undergoes karyokinesis without cytokinesis, would the organism be considered haploid or diploid?
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Why do people use J2 viruses for macrophage immortalization?

I've been trying to figure out how to go about immortalizing some primary alveolar macrophages harvested from mice. What I am seeing in the literature is that it seems like people have been using a ...
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Does anyone know a good pancreatic-cancer metastasis cell line?

Researching about pancreatic cancer. We have mostly "main-tumor" cell lines in our lab, and I´m currently looking for cell lines originating from metastases (liver, lung, etc.). Does anyone know a ...
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Can water travel through glycoprotein cell walls?

I'm a bit confused as to why the protist, Chlamydomonas, has contractile vacuoles if it has a cell wall like this. Is the glycoprotein still permeable to water?
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What is the subcellular location of synthesis of non-essential amino-acids?

What is location of non-essential amino acids synthesis in a cell? Is it some specific organelle? And what is the gene driver behind this? I thought the whole point of DNA is coding for how to ...
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Can I use a basic compound microscope to analyze the ploidy of plant chromosomes?

So, I'm not really any kind of trained botanist. But I do have two things: some dandelion seeds from France, and, collecting dust in my garage along with related accessories, this thing. Normally, ...
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How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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How do receptors lose their sensitivity?

Recently, I learned that one of the causes of Type II diabetes is that insulin receptors on cell surfaces lose their sensitivity due to long-term high exposure to insulin (which occurs as a result of ...
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What is the difference between protein translated by a free ribosome and protien translated by a ribosome attached to endoplasmic reticulem? [closed]

There are protiens translated by free ribosomes and proteins translated by attached ribosomes. But how do these two types of protein differ from each other? I am just talking about a eukaryotic cell. ...
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What was the cause of some egg-laying animals evolution to animal-laying?

Is there a specific reason for this evolution? Are no egg-laying animals more complex beings so their embryonic development requires more time and better nutrition conditions?
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Why does K+ going out of the cell cause hyperpolarization?

I'm really confused by how the terms Hyperpolarization and Depolarization are used in Cell biology and hope somebody can enlighten me hopefully. Here's what they mean for me so far: Depolarization ...