Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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53 views

How can one relate in vitro studies of caffeine (dose expressed as concentration) to dietary intake of caffeine (dose in mass)?

Having difficulty making the data in the below charts to apply to daily life. What is the right interpretation and implementation? How are the “in vitro” results of the below charts relevant to levels ...
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32 views

What is the difference between Molecular and Cellular tolerance?

Although I've read that there are three types of tolerance, molecular cellular and behavioural, I cannot seem to find any mechanism of cellular other than desensitization of receptors. If someone can ...
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How does wall pressure oppose osmotic pressure?

This question is based on the equation: Diffusion Pressure Deficit= Osmotic Pressure - Wall pressure I know that wall pressure is directed towards the protoplasm. I need to make sure if osmotic ...
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What will be the function of a cell if it contained large numbers of Golgi Bodies? [closed]

I was just doing my holiday homework and I found this question which confused me. I feel like the answer is in front of my eyes but I can't find it so I hope you guys can help
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How to animate biological processes for an online video course on high-school biology

I want to state beforehand, that I was unsure if this was the most appropriate community to post on. Therefore, kindly recommend a more appropriate community, if there is one. I will then either cross-...
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What makes iodine an effective antiseptic?

I'm thinking about tincture of iodine, potassium iodide (Lugol's), and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) specifically, which, as is my understanding, work by solubilizing elemental iodine in an aqueous solution....
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Does a low yield of RNA effect the results of subsequent experiments?

I am extracting RNA from brain tissue and I am getting a concentration of 500 ng/µL when measured with a nanodrop. I dilute the pellet in 20 µL of water. When my colleague does the same protocol ...
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What are the methods of prophylaxis against exposure to radioactive isotopes?

Potassium iodide is used as prophylaxis to prevent illness when one is likely to be exposed to Iodine-131 and other radioactive isotopes of iodine. Are there any other prophylactic treatments for ...
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How does salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) break down desmosomal proteins to exfoliate skin?

I've been searching for an explanation to salicylic acid's property of being able to break down desmosomal proteins, such as desmogleins in order to disrupt the outer layer of skin. Can someone ...
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1answer
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KRAS gene and K-Ras Mutations

This question pertains to the KRAS wikipedia page, and I just want to double check and clarify my own understanding of how this mutation works in cancer. It states: K-Ras protein acts like a ...
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Will our skin absorb salt from salt water? [duplicate]

Will our skin absorb salt from salt water?
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A question about cancer antigens and their mechanism [closed]

Can you name the most common antigen that cancer cells in general can't live without?
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1answer
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Could biofilms float and survive in the sulfuric acid clouds of Venus?

The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide. The main cloud deck is located in the 48-70 km altitude range and is ...
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Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
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Photolysis in the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis [duplicate]

I'm a bit confused concerning photolysis. During the light reactions, photons are used to excite the chlorophyll molecules so they are passed to the primary electron acceptor. The electrons initially ...
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1answer
27 views

Nuclear vs Cytoplasmic Fluorescence [closed]

When staining transciption factor proteins with fluorescent antibodies (Alexa, etc.), why are the fluorescence signals stronger in the nucleus as compared to fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm (in ...
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Increasing Eumelanin Production In Body

Is there any way on how to increase the eumelanin production in your body for a longer period of time without improving pheomelanin? Thanks for your answers.
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Are (muscle) satellite cells the same as muscle stem cells?

In terms of muscle: are the terms 'satellite cell' and 'muscle stem cell' interchangeable? That is, are there muscle stem cells that are not satellite cells, or vice versa?
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Could tumor cells have normal genomic profiles?

I have thawed primary tumor cells and performed FACS. They were EpCAM positive cells. Then, I expanded them as organoids in 3D and did another FACS analysis. Again, they were EpCAM positive. I also ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic genomes - Horizontal gene transfers

On page 21 of his book on cellular biology, Alberts writes that horizontal gene transfers are rare between different eukaryotic species, but fairly common between prokaryotic species. Why is this? ...
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How do microtubules bend around the nucleus?

From reading I've done microtubules tend to had a persistence length around a milimeter. If the centrosomes are next to the nucleus and the microtubules grow from there how do they connect to the side ...
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How are filopodia and membrane lengths related

I wonder how cell protrusions, in particular filopodia, form and how much of the cell membrane do they use. Is new membrane formed whenever a filopodium is created, or is the membrane simply deformed ...
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2answers
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Why is sedimentation rate significant for a ribsome

When we take a look at biology textbooks (Campbell, Pearson etc), they will only mention the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosome sedimentation rates. Why is sedimentation rate ...
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Do carrier proteins constantly open and close or do they only work when a substance binds to them?

What causes carrier proteins to change shape ? Do they need energy to change shape? If that is true, how are they involved in Facilitated diffusion ? By changing shape, do we always mean opens from ...
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1answer
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Changes in dna from dioxin poisoning

A person sprayed with a dioxin, how long would it take for a dna change? Instant or over time? Would that person having children afterwards pass on any(if any) dna changes?
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Analytical expression for negatively modulated protein expression levels

In a paper by Bashor et al., protein expression is modulated using a negative signal feedback (http://limlab.ucsf.edu/papers/pdfs/cjb_2008.pdf). I'm trying to find an analytical expression for this ...
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1answer
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Is p53 a cyclin dependent kinase? [closed]

I've been reading some research papers about p53 and associated tumour suppressor proteins, such as p21. I see them referred to and associated with cyclin-dependent kinases. Is p53,p63 et cetera part ...
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Cell communication [closed]

In some organism we observe that different individual cells organize and form structures. How are these individual cells attaining the information for the grouping? How does these cells communicate?
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1answer
45 views

What are cells not affected by hormones called?

Cells that are affected by hormones are called target cells which have their own receptors that listen to signals. I'm unsure of the actual name of cells that are not affected by hormones, I tried ...
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0answers
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Contrast Media for Plant cells

I currently have a waterweed (elodea) preparation for my optical microscope but i can only see some of the structures (membrane, wall, chloroplasts and the nucleus). Now I want to see more (Like the ...
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Which culture media is suitable for cheek epithelial cells?

A month ago, I tried isolating cheek cells from saliva and the experiment was a success, however, I was wondering if it is possible to cultivate these cells in vitro. I'd say it's possible, but I wasn'...
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What is the relationship between cell size and metabolism?

What effect does a bigger cell have on its metabolic activity? I understand that bigger cells need more energy, but surely smaller cells may have high metabolic rates too due to their efficiency?
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Protein rafts over the Phospholipidic bi-layer

Does any of you know the specific name of the protein rafts that allow proteins to float over a double layer of phospholipids, (cell membrane)? I just feel there should be another name rather than ...
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Are human cells tetraploid during cell division?

If human cells are diploid, and DNA replicates before cell division, does it mean that our cells are tetrapolid for a short period of time (DNA replication - cell division). Photos of chromosomes are ...
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Can damage from stress hormones/distress be reversed?

Emotional distress is said and scientifically even validated that it could contribute to earlier aging, even aside from chronological age. Stresses also can have millions of pathways in which they can ...
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Do cells of the same type fuse together with suturing?

I am reading this site: http://sciencenetlinks.com/student-teacher-sheets/cells-your-body/ "Cells that do the same job combine together to form body tissue, such as muscle, skin, or bone tissue." ...
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1answer
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What are “feeder cells”?

What exactly are "feeder cells"? A paper I'm reading says they harvested the cells and then plated them onto feeder cells. What is the purpose? Is in order to promote growth?
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Why the Cell differs the structure? [duplicate]

I learned that almost every cell in an organism has the same set of DNA which is the instruction set of making protein. The protein does some function in the cell. The question is why the cells, for ...
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Is it possible to grow a part of a plant independent of the rest?

Is it possible, using modern knowledge of biochemistry and synthetic biology, to grow a tomato without growing the rest of the tomato plant? As an academic exercise, with full knowledge of the fact ...
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2answers
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Name/term for mechanisms by wich the relative size/number of cells of some tissue/organ are preserved

The cells of some organ or tissue are dividing and also dies (apoptosis). But this happens in somehow controlled manner so that the total size of the organ is approximately preserved or the total ...
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1answer
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Source for 'EVERY living organism uses ATP as energy carrier', and can we make a synthetic one that doesn't?

I have read it repeatedly that 'all living organisms use ATP as an energy currency etc' and 'some use GTP in addition'. However I am yet to find a reliable resource, rather than just quora/reddit/...
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1answer
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“Spontaneous Immortalization”

HaCaT keratinocytes are described as "spontaneously immortalized "(see paper below) due to aneuploidy or chromosomal alteration. From the paper I get that this is a literal term, that the cells just ...
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Where is catalase produced?

I am doing a research project on the peroxisomes, and in it I referenced the enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. However, the assignment asks me to specify the ...
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Glycosidation and glycosilation

I read somewhere that the function of golgi bodies is glycosylation and glycosidation. What is the difference between the two? I searched google but it gives complex answers.
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During the cleavage cycle of a zygote what determines where the blastula starts folding?

If all of the cells divide from the same zygote it seems like they should all be the same. What causes one part of the clump of cells in a blastula to start folding over to form the mesoderm and ...
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How does the glycocalyx of cells attach together if they are negatively charged?

Context Thus, the entire outside surface of the cell has a loose carbohydrate called the glycocalyx. The carbohydrate moieties attached to the outer surface of the cell has several important ...
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What is the difference between filopodia and lamellipodia?

I'm rather new to biology (I'm an applied mathematician) and I'm currently studying models of Notch-Delta dynamics between cells with filopodia and lamellipodia. What is exactly the difference ...
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what is minimal promoter and what is basal promoter?

what is minimal and basal promoter and what are their elements and what is the difference between the two?I'm confused. searched a lot, but didn't found any satisfactory answer. please help
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2answers
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Does the Rayleigh formula apply to electron microscopes or only light microscopes?

I am asked to determine the resolving power of both a TEM (transmission electron microscope) and a SEM (scanning electron microscope) and given the Rayleigh formula below. $$Resolution=\frac{0.61\...