Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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2answers
30 views

Do plant viruses attack animals? examples?

Do plant viruses attack animals, if yes please give an example of the virus. I feel both plant and animal viruses are different, and they cannot attack each other hosts.
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What blocks transfer of potassium to muscle cells?

What would prevent potassium, with all normal blood values, from being transferred into muscle cells? And if this happens, how to correct it?
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Why is the number of cells virtually a constant?

Going back to highschool, I learnt about mitosis: in order to renew their cells, eucaryots' cells divide themselves into two copies. But my course didn't cover what moderate the replication. By ...
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The difference between fetal hemoglobin and myoglobin with respect to oxygen affinity

The notes that I have on this topic only compare fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin and myoglobin to adult hemoglobin. I know that fetal hemoglobin and myoglobin both have a higher oxygen affinity ...
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1answer
242 views

How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

In prokaryotes, if there is an mRNA with a good (almost the consensus sequence) Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, ribosome proteins will bind to it. In eukaryotes, ribosome binds to the 5' cap, then start ...
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Why is phagocytosis not included as a type of receptor-mediated endocytosis?

A common classification of endocytotic processes groups them into Phagocytosis, Pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis (1) & (2). But Phagocytosis involves the use of specific receptors ...
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What is Lysoferrin?

I was going though my Guyton and Hall Medical Physiology when I came across the name of an antibacterial lysosomal enzyme - Lysoferrin. It said that Lysoferrin "binds to iron and other metals ...
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Why don't the cell organelles settle down in the cell under the influence of gravity? [closed]

In cuboidal or columnar cells or cells of any other shape the nucleus and the other organelles and inclusions remain suspended in the cytoplasm. Why doesn't gravity affect them ? Could this be because ...
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Potential obstacles to growing nanoelectronics within living cells? [closed]

Say there was a nanotechnology allowing to "grow" and wire up electronic components/sensors measured only a few nanometers in cross-section, though spanning in length across microns. Say ...
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1answer
55 views

Osmotic pressure and turgor pressure details

I am a high school student and I am very confused in how we define osmotic pressure? Osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure required to stop the diffusion of solvent into a solution by applying ...
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1answer
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How could I make my fish gold?

I'm doing research on how the pigmentation of fish. I want to know how could you change it with the help of genetic modification. I have some Silver Dollar fish (Metynnis argenteus) and I want to make ...
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Thermodynamic noise determining gene expression?

I'm wondering if and how thermal noise may randomly determine gene expression? Looking for cellular and 'transcriptional noise' one finds hints to diffusive cellular dynamics which rely on collisions ...
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cell proliferation assays for research proposal

I'm an undergrad Biology student and I'm working on a research proposal for a certain course. I need help or guide on cell proliferation assays. I have a target gene , recent papers show that this ...
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2answers
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Are animal cells animals themselves?

If all life can be divided into several kingdoms, and if the cells that make up organisms are the smallest units of life, does that mean that cells are part of those kingdoms as well? E.g. are animal ...
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1answer
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When was peptidoglycan discovered?

I've searched for some time now, but I can't find a definitive answer. The closest I have gotten is "knowledge about peptidoglycan structures dates back to the 1970s–80s" from this paper.
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2answers
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What is the significance of the phospholipid bilayer being two-dimensional?

I'm wondering about the significance of the phospholipid bilayer being a two-dimensional fluid. I found this powerpoint: I also found that thetwo-dimensional fluids have limited degrees of freedom. ...
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How does blood reach skin cells and other closely packed cells?

When I see diagrams of cellular structures such as the layers of the skin, these diagrams show the cells as being closely packed together. For example here is a typical such diagram: So, it shows the ...
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Did my cellculture develop an immunity against toxins/virulence factors?

at the moment I'm working with an assay which detects cell death by measuring calcium influx. Unfortunately, the results are not like I wish them to be. The signals that I measure, decrease from day ...
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1answer
67 views

Decreasing signals in assay measurements

I'm working with a calcium assay to study the effects of different virulence factors. The assay works, but from day to day the signals of cell lysis go down. Unfortunately, I haven't found an ...
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2answers
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What does the term 'glycogen mobilisation' mean?

I read that glycogen is a mobilised store of glucose: Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be ...
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1answer
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Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
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1answer
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How do organelles divide?

I'm sure by the nature of this question you will come to know my amateurish knowledge in biology. During mitosis, they simply state that the organelles just replicate...while we are provided somewhat ...
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1answer
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How does glucose uptake happen in the various tissues of the body?

I know that the GLUT4 transporter allows for insulin-dependent uptake of glucose in skeletal muscle, liver and adipocytes. I also know that GLUT2 transporters are present in the liver and allow it to ...
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1answer
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Is the cell cycle applicable to meiosis as well, or just mitosis?

All the diagrams I can find, show the cell cycle as having G1 phase (growth 1), S phase (DNA replication), G2 (growth 2) before the Mitotic phase (mitosis + cytokinesis). Is there an equivalent "...
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combustion vs biological oxidation of glucose [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in cellular respiration, To represent respiration many biology text books just writes, C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O But in actual ...
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1answer
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Why don't weak detergents lyse the nuclear membrane?

A low concentration of a non-ionic detergent lyses the cell membrane, but leaves the nuclear membrane intact. Both are phospholipid bilayers, so why is only the cell membrane lysed? Under these ...
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Which condition is most likely to cause a buildup of materials in the lysosome?

Stated below, I must answer a question related to lysosomes. I am unsure of the answer, and have explained my reasoning after the question. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that derive from the ...
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Location of genes encoding ribosomal proteins

I have cited two sources below: the first, a textbook, says ribosomal proteins are imported into the nucleolus (from the cytoplasm) where initial ribosome assembly occurs. The second is a journal ...
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4answers
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Are there any organisms that are made of more than one (~5-12) cell?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are unicellular, made of one cell. Great. Eukaryotes are unicellular or multicellular. But the typical examples of multicellular eukaryotes we have are made of, often, ...
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1answer
81 views

Primary function of cell wall is [closed]

A. Controlling volume B. Providing shape C. It's selective permeability D. Protection against bursting To me, all the given options seem correct except C. A and D are correct when the cell is placed ...
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1answer
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metaphors for explaining the role of DNA in the cell [closed]

Various metaphors are used to explain the central role of DNA in a cell to laypersons. These include blueprint, recipe, catalogue, instruction manual etc. I even heard someone describing DNA as a '...
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1answer
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How do viruses provide selective advantage

I've heard in many talks as a passing, well-known fact that viruses(e.g. pathogenic HPV strains) offer selective advantage for the infected cell to multiply. But I'm not able to quite wrap my head ...
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What are the interaction energies/chemical potential values for the cytoplasm - protein interactions within the cytoplasm?

I'm trying to simulate phase separation in a biological based system using a Cahn Hilliard model. I have 3 components, they are 2 theoretical enzymes and the cytoplasm. I have found plenty of sources ...
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Eukaryotic cell lysate-based protein expression efficiency

What is average efficiency of eukaryotic cell lysate-based protein expression systems in terms of (mg of protein expressed) / (mg of lysate) ?
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why does water go from high to low osmotic pressure to decrease the size of the nucleus?

I am reading this paper "Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus" (linked below) https://jcs.biologists.org/content/joces/128/18/3375.full.pdf I am confused by this ...
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1answer
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What is the significance of running an uncut plasmid on electrophoresis gel?

What is the significance of running an uncut plasmid on electrophoresis gel? In this case we are talking about inserting a gene into plasmid, which then goes under PCR and then electrophoresis.
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1answer
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Need help interpreting Western blot data

So the paper I am reading (here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094582/) uses densitometric units to quantify the western blots. The authors mentioned that the unphosphorylated proteins ...
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1answer
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What is mitochondrial run length?

I am reading the following journal paper and I have come across the following statement: Overexpression of GSK-3β significantly increases motile mitochondria in a Tau protein-dependent manner. ...
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1answer
33 views

Would there be more amino acid residues in the extracellular or intercellular space?

I am working on a bioinformatics project with HMMs and want to write some initiation probabilities for the location of amino acid residues. I know for different transmembrane proteins there will be ...
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0answers
98 views

What property of water explains how sweating helps the runner continue running?

My question I have to answer is: A runner picks up pace on a warm day and starts sweating profusely. What property of water explains how sweating helps the runner continue running? The following are ...
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0answers
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Why do most negatively charged phospholipids concentrate in the inner leaftlet?

Due to the asymmetry of the lipid membrane, negatively charged phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol are concentrated in the inner leaflet, creating a different charge ...
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2answers
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How do mRNAs find ribosomes?

After mRNA is released from the nucleus, the next process is its translation by ribosomes. By what physical, chemical or biochemical process does the mRNA reach the ribosome in the cytoplasm?
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1answer
80 views

confusion in types and kingdom system of classification

I am a high school student and I want to ask: is the 'kingdom system' of classification (two-kingdom, three-kingdom etc.) different from artificial or natural classification? I am asking this because ...
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1answer
107 views

Why doesnt the SARS-Cov-2 affect other animals?

Why doesn't the coronavirus affect animals like dogs and cows? I know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus i.e. it can affect both humans and other animals. I also know that the DNA composition ...
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2answers
126 views

What is the purpose of co-translational transport?

During intracellular proteins synthesis, all proteins are made by free ribosomes in the cytoplasm and some, but not all ribosomes (those which make membrane or secretory proteins) move to the ...
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1answer
35 views

AMPK, PAN-AMPK, western blot

What does it mean by adding PAN before the AMPK. I am trying to do a western blot assay on AMPK and I am confused by PAN-AMPK, AMPK. does it mean pancreases? Is pan-ampk the total ampk?
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1answer
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Does ATP production increase with oxygen availability?

I'm not a biologist so pardon any ignorance on my part. I'm working on a speculative evolution project and I'm looking to understand how the partial pressure of oxygen effects the maximum aerobic ...
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2answers
134 views

Single cell organism's brain [closed]

Multi cellular organisms have brain.But what about single celled organisms do they have brain to control the cell's work?If they have something what that part called?You can say that the nucleolus do ...
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1answer
88 views

Question About Molecular Weight [closed]

In Lehninger's Principle of Biochemistry Pg. $14$, this is the definition for molecular weight (relative molecular mass): The molecular weight of a substance is defined as the ratio of the mass of a ...
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1answer
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How can Chronic myeloid Leukaemic drugs reduce the production of the Philadelphia genotype?

How can Chronic Myeloid Leukaemic drugs (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g. imatinib, etc.) that act by inhibiting bind of ATP to the active site of the BCR-ABL1 protein actually reduce the prevalence ...

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