Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Can G protein-coupled receptors mediate cell adhesion?

I am reading about G protein-coupled receptors, and I know that they are the largest group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes and are 7-pass transmembrane proteins. I am also learning about cell ...
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What are the small white dots in an onion cell seen under an electron microscope?

We had to use an electron microscope in class for an assignment and used onion cells. On the 40x and 100x magnification there are tiny white dots and I was wondering if someone could tell me what they ...
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Help with observations in an experiment [closed]

Let's say I have an experiment where I want to find the effects of going into space on various single celled organisms. What are some observations I could make or data points I could collect that: (I ...
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Number of membrane proteins of a particular type per cell

Is it possible (or meaningful) to count how many proteins (protein copy number?) of a certain type a given cell has on its surface? For instance, say there is some membrane integral protein ...
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Do chemotherapy drugs target particular cells, and, if so, how?

I would like to know how a chemotherapy drug is able to target specific cells. I've read the chemotherapy entry on Wikipedia, but the only information I've got was: As chemotherapy affects cell ...
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How RNA content is distributed in daughter cells during cell division?

During cell division, DNA gets equally distributed in the daughter cells. But how RNA content is distributed in daughter cells?
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Contradiction between random molecular collisions and regulated cellular processes

A cell is a chemical system, consisting of billions of molecules, ions, and atoms. These chemical species are constantly engaged in chemical reactions. Physics gives the impression that chemical ...
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Studying Cell Biology Time

I started studying biology for my undergraduate. I study at Department of Computer Science and Applications in Biomedicine. I didn't attend much on the early semesters and I don't have a many ...
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"No two cells in an organism have an identical genome sequence"

In Applications of Single-cell DNA Sequencing there is a claim Indeed, it can be safely assumed that no two cells in an organism have an identical genome sequence, in particular, organisms whose ...
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How many MAOA alleles are there?

The question is about the human gene MAOA. I've seen MAOA-H and MAOA-L mentioned in papers. The page https://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Gene/Summary?db=core;g=ENSG00000189221;r=X:43654907-43746824 ...
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Are living cells electrically neutral?

I found random scientific table which had a comment attached: the cells must be electrically neutral. Per my knowledge whole intracellular solution contains more electrons than protons (definition ...
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Why does the body lose enzymes over time?

I recently started my GCSE Biology course where I spend the next two years learning and preparing for my GCSE. One of the questions I have is that I was told that enzymes are recycled every time they ...
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Where is the location of cutin or cuticle in the plant leaf [closed]

Cutin's main role is to prevent the the plant leaf from water loss, cutin is thick in shape , but I need to know where is the location of it ,for example is it in the lower epidermis or in the upper ...
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How is chicken egg a single cell

It is unexpected for ostrich or chicken egg to be single cell yet so large. How could it happen, I thought egg is made up of several single cells. If not, how is yolk a single cell http://www.alearned....
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Can tissue flow apart instead of being tightly attached?

Every tissue of our human body consists on cells and cells are not like static "LEGO bricks". They are highly dynamic and can actively move around, due to myosin-actin networks inside the ...
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Does the generative cell have centrioles?

I have read that most plant cells lack centrioles, though it may be seen in some lower plants. But what about the gametophyte of higher plants, angiosperms specifically? As this diagram shows- The ...
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How to measure the pH of a bacterial species?

I would like to calculate the pH of a certain bacteria species before after an experiment. I was reading about the pH cell of bacteria and I found out about Bacterial Intracellular pH which I ...
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Does the cytoplasm include the organelles?

I am a student in middle school. My textbook says that Cytoplasm is the gelatinous liquid part of the cell excluding organelles. However my teacher said this is wrong. According to her, the correct ...
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Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

I am a mechatronics engineer who stopped learning biology after high school - but this is bothering me. mRNA is, if I recall correctly, created in the nucleus of the cells and migrates out of the ...
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At what calcium concentration does the Sodium-Calcium Exchanger (NCX) "turn on"?

I am interested in the comparison between the Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase (PMCA) and the Sodium-Calcium Exchanger (NCX) which are two pumps on the plasma membrane of cells that serve to move ...
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Is lignification within plants a reversible process? If so which factors can reverse lignification?

Lignification is an important process in plants such as trees to allow for structural rigidity. Is this process reversible by the plant and if so which factors influence this reversibility?
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Cell Theory- does the first cell not contradict cell theory [closed]

In cell theory, we have cells arise from other existing cell. But the first cell did not arise from existing cell, and that means there are some other condition which allows cell to be formed. I ...
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How many cells are there in C. elegans in each hour of its life?

I'm a high school student planning to write a math essay to model changes in the number of cells in a living organism over time. C. elegans is the only organism that I know with a known number and ...
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How do NK cells survive its own components?

I've just read that NK cells have perforins and granzymes that create holes and then activate suicide of other cells. How do they 'store' those proteins to keep them from destroying themselves? ...
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Why is ACE 2 located on the Alveolar side of Pulmonary Epithelium?

Location and Purpose of ACE 2. Given that the primary purpose of the transmembrane enzyme ACE 2 is ostensibly to bind Angiotensin 1 and 2 in order to convert these to derivatives such as Angiotensin [...
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How do I cover Cellstrainers?

I‘m doing some experiments for my bachelors thesis and I‘m using some Cell strainers by Roth for it (https://www.carlroth.com/com/en/accessories/cell-strainer-easystrainer™/p/cly9.1). My problem is ...
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How does medicine work? [closed]

Take aromatase inhibitors for example. In order for a molecule to stop the enzyme aromatase from converting androgens into estrogens, it must meet 6 criteria: Not get broken down by the acidity or ...
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Basic clarification on definition of "unicellular"

Biology noob here, trying to expand his basic scientific knowledge. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicellular_organism A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism ...
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can a cell evolve into a different species in the lab?

A friend of mine does not believe in evolution. He claimed that we can not as humans observe a single cell evolving into a different cell. Is that possible to be observed in the lab? Thanks in advance....
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Difference between live and dead body from atomic perspective?

Sorry if this is a dumb question, recently I have been interested in the question of how "life" should be defined and got a specific question: If we compare a live body of a person and a ...
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What does it mean to quantitatively describe a cell?

To begin this question, I will quote Molecular Biology of the Cell (page 38): ... Biological systems are, ..., full of feedback loops, and the behavior of even the simplest of systems with feedback ...
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Should fat calories' numerical values be increased to better reflect the new scientific findings?

According to a study discussed on this website, people lose more weight on a calorie restricted fat reduced diet than on a similar calorie restricted carb reduced diet. Is this study a fair dinkum, ...
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How many nucleolus a Human cell can in have (theoretically)?

As Nucleolar Organising region On Satellite Chromosome 13, 14, 15, 21, 22 have genes for the rRNA synthesis ( 5.8 S, 18S, 28S) in human, so my question has two parts- 1 Does one NOR region ( for ...
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What is role of centriole in the formation of microtubule during cell divison?

I was learning about the centriole from different sources , and a common misconception I had was that centriole forms spindle fibres but the reality is very different. Gamma Tubulin protein found in ...
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Do same DNA sequences lead to the same proteins in all organisms? [duplicate]

I'm not a biologist, but I am curious about a particular question about DNA. As I understand DNA encodes proteins using special sequences of nucleotides and cells decode these proteins from DNA during ...
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Why is it possible to render fat if it's in cells?

To the casual onlooker, fat seems like a mass of yellow-white material, composed of lipids. Biologically speaking however, rather than being a large mass, it's actually divided among countless cells, ...
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Is Thylakoid membrane continuous with the Inner membrane of Choloroplast?

This article mentions that thylakoid membrane is continuous with the inner membrane of cholorplast Thylakoid membrane encloses the innermost compartment or thylakoid lumen. The inner membrane of ...
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How easy is it for quantum dots to enter the intracellular portions of cells?

As quantum dots have better quantum yield than organic dyes, many are being developed as a substitute for them. Nonetheless, could these substitutes be small enough to enter inside cells as current ...
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Thermodynamically, how did the first cell arise?

Living cells are biochemical systems that constantly perform chemical reactions. One of the important consequences of these chemical reactions is the capacity of a living cell to replicate itself. The ...
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Question about using primary neuronal cultures from mice to support findings from in vivo models

I am analysing synapse formation during early postnatal development using the brains of postnatal day 2 (P2) and postnatal day 10 (P10) wild-type and knockout mice. Through Western blot analysis, I ...
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Should a red blood cell in hypertonic solution be drawn with a nucleus or not?

I'm a student at 6th stage in High school from Iraq. I need to draw a red blood cell when it is put in a hypertonic solution; "high concentration of solute and low concentration of solvent". ...
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Apply Shannon-Weiner index to evaluate single-cell sample balance?

I would like to identify single-cell clusters where each sample is evenly represented in it. Is it OK to calculate the Shannon-Weiner index from the sample counting data of each cluster? I am worrying ...
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In fluorescence microscopy images what is meant by the term "puncta"?

I am reading papers where confocal fluorescence microscopy images were analysed. In many of the papers I see the term "puncta" being used when researchers analyse the colocalisation between ...
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Does it make sense to say that microtubules are arranged in a ring around the cell periphery?

I am reading a journal paper and it is about how the organisation of microtubules are altered in CHO cells that overexpress microtubule-associated protein Tau. In the paper, the authors found that ...
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What controls the growth of a body?

Everything in our bodies is made of cells - bones, muscles, brain, blood. How do cells know how to build a body? Granted, each cell has a blueprint of the whole body in its nuleus, the genome. Does ...
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Why/How can Hydrophobic things pass the lipid bilayer? [duplicate]

I’m just looking for a simple answer for this question. I’m in Bio 10, and don’t know the in depth stuff. So the lipid bilayer is hydrophilic and the ends, but hydrophobic in the middle; so how can ...
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Is centrosome one of the structures that red blood cells lose during maturation process?

Centrosomes are microtubule organising centres- their function is to facilitate cell division. RBCs don't undergo division. They are produced via hematopoeisis in the bone marrow. It doesn't even have ...
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What is the difference between apoptosis caused by the release of enzymes from the electron transport chain vs that from the lysosome?

I know that the mitochondria is responsible for regulating apoptosis via release of enzymes from the electron transport chain. I believe that the release of hydrolytic enzymes from a lysosome is how ...
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Why are heterologous expression systems such as mammalian cell lines commonly used for studying interactions between neuronal proteins?

I am reading papers about heterologous expression systems and I have seen that they are used a lot in neuroscience to studying interactions between proteins that are normally expressed in the brain. I ...
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Will plant cells absorb "atypical" chemicals dissolved in water, by diffusion or otherwise?

I want to know what determines whether a chemical dissolved in water, will or will not be absorbed into a plant. I imagine this can happen at a few different levels -- through roots, or at a cellular ...

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