Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Can I use a basic compound microscope to analyze the ploidy of plant chromosomes?

So, I'm not really any kind of trained botanist. But I do have two things: some dandelion seeds from France, and, collecting dust in my garage along with related accessories, this thing. Normally, ...
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How to troubleshoot in vitro formaldehyde fixation for nucleosomes?

For an experiment, I am trying to fix the mononucleosomes (100ng) using formaldehyde as crosslinking agent in HEPES buffer. I have been using 2% formaldehyde in a reaction buffer containing 1mM EDTA, ...
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Are there gaps in what our ears can hear?

I know about the hair cells in our Cochlea and it is the movement of the fluid that makes them vibrate. And it is this that activates the transmission of electrical signals to the brain that become ...
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How do receptors lose their sensitivity?

Recently, I learned that one of the causes of Type II diabetes is that insulin receptors on cell surfaces lose their sensitivity due to long-term high exposure to insulin (which occurs as a result of ...
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What is the difference between protein translated by a free ribosome and protien translated by a ribosome attached to endoplasmic reticulem? [on hold]

There are protiens translated by free ribosomes and proteins translated by attached ribosomes. But how do these two types of protein differ from each other? I am just talking about a eukaryotic cell. ...
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What is the correct answer? C or D [closed]

Protein synthesis from amino acids by which structural component? Ribosomes or endoplasmic reticulum
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What was the cause of some egg-laying animals evolution to animal-laying?

Is there a specific reason for this evolution? Are no egg-laying animals more complex beings so their embryonic development requires more time and better nutrition conditions?
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35 views

Are formerly endosymbiotic organelles necessary for eukaryotes? If so, why? [closed]

It is widely known that the vast majority of eukaryotes have mitochondria, which are believed to have evolved from endosymbionts. The exceptions use related structures like hydrogenosomes which are ...
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Haemoglobinic acid

I’ve tried searching for the structure of haemoglobinic acid but it isn’t anywhere. I was trying to find out whether H+ ions bind onto the same site as carbon monoxide and oxygen on haemoglobin or not,...
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Why does K+ going out of the cell cause hyperpolarization?

I'm really confused by how the terms Hyperpolarization and Depolarization are used in Cell biology and hope somebody can enlighten me hopefully. Here's what they mean for me so far: Depolarization ...
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35 views

Number of dopaminergic neurons in VTA

Do you know an authoritative source for the approximate number of dopaminergc cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)? Ideally I would like to know this for mice, rats, as well as humans, but one ...
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1answer
58 views

Why do many cells together survive better than one cell alone?

I know that one cell with no ECM is subject to anoikis. That's why in general one cell alone not in its environment is dying. But are there advantages for a cell to live close to other cells even of ...
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Signals triggering ECM formation

What signaling triggers the formation by the cells of extracellular matrix ? I assume the mechanism is connected to autocrine signaling or paracrine signaling. Or maybe also stiffness sensing. Could ...
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10 views

Salt Bridge for Microbial Fuel Cell: Full or Partly Full?

I'm making a microbial fuel cell out of benthic mud and salt water in containers. My salt bridge will be made of agar and table salt solidified in PVC pipes. Does the salt bridge connecting the anode (...
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1answer
58 views

Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
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Why did nature decide to make plasma membrane of animal cell hydrophobic?

I am taking Introductory Human physiology course on Coursera. The teacher said and I quote " the membrane of the cell is a hydrophobic barrier that prevents any charged ions or molecules from moving ...
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Can a lentivirus expressed protein that is undetectable by western blot be detected by BioID?

Cloned a single herpesviral gene into pCDH-EF!-GFP and see phenotypic effect on cells of interest and viral gene transcripts BUT unable to detect ANY protein using HRP boosted western blot. Even with ...
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What does it mean for a gametocyte to “reprogram” the genes inside of it?

I am aware that frequently clones have genetic defects not present in the donor organism, even though the two are genetically identical. The reason for this is that apparently the enclosing gametocyte ...
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Are epigenetic modifications the most stable mechanisms for cell differentiation?

Wondering what the general take is on what are the molecular mechanisms that are mostly responsible for cell type differentiation stability; ie, for a cell's identity to actually become 'locked in' ...
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Can radiation exposure cause cancer later in life even if no traces of radioactive material are present in the body anymore?

I had a long-lasting debate with a friend of mine about the Fukushima incident. The question that we tried to solve was if radiation or toxin exposure can cause cancer later in life even if no ...
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Are cells guaranteed to get at least one mitochondrion when they divide?

If mitochondria exist at random within a cell, isn't there a possibility that cell division will result in a daughter cell with no mitochondria? If not, what is the process for guaranteeing at least ...
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Insight on HPV vaccine to prevent/control reactivation of latent infections in those already infected

Some women experience reactivation of HPV infection in their 50's due to weakened immune system and weakened immune memory. Is it outside the realm of possibility that giving the HPV vaccine to those ...
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46 views

Protein misfolding [closed]

Protein misfolding is usually prevented by molecular chaperons. Rarely, the chaperons are not able to prevent the misfolding as a result of which the infectous molecules called prions will form. My ...
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How are codocytes or target cells formed?

How are codocytes or target cells formed in conditions like Thalassemia? And why do they appear like a target(as in why is there a central red surrounded by pallor surrounded by red?)
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What does substrate mean?

I have been reading some literature on measurements related to biofilms. In some articles the word "substrate" seems to stand for the material on which a biofilm is growing. In other articles, it ...
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51 views

Stopping all intracellular activity in a reversible fashion

I have never studied biology but the following question seems meaningful to me. Suppose I take a cell, not that of a unicellular organism, but a human cell. Normally, there are some intracellular ...
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Endocytic pathway: Macropinocytosis

So I'm trying to understand this phrase: Unlike other endocytic pathways, macropinocytosis is acutely induced by growth factors From the following paper The 4 endocytic pathways I know of are ...
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Chargaff Rules (confusion) [closed]

A professor of mine wrote that: $\frac{A+T}{G+C}$ is constant in double stranded DNA of different origin. However The Chargaff rules state that due to base pairing in the DNA it holds that : $A=T$ ...
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Do histones constitute the largest proportion of the protein in chromosomes at mitosis?

Do histones contribute more (by mass) than non-histone proteins in the chromosomes formed during mitosis?
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62 views

Is all of the DNA used by genes (encoding DNA)?

My intuition tells me no, since only 1.5-2% consists of exons, so this statement would be wrong. The correct statement would have to be: only about 1.5-2% of the whole DNA is used by genes (encoding ...
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41 views

When do the first neurons appear in humans?

According to this Neural Plate The neural plate appears in day 18 in humans (very specific). and according to this Neural Plate (wiki) The progenitor cells that make up the precursors to neural ...
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1answer
39 views

Classes of Graphs used in Biology

I am a student of Mathematics.Since I found no better place to ask my question I post it here. I was looking for some classes of graphs which are used in biology. I came across this particular class ...
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31 views

In cell division, are daughter cells “newer” than the parent cell?

I learned that cells go through cell division to generate new cells to replace dead or damaged cells. Are the daughter cells "newer" than the parent cells? For example, the parent cell has an "age" ...
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14 views

Length of cell cycle dependancy on nutrients, pressure, temperature or other factors

How is the duration of cell cycle influenced by the concentration in nutrients, mechanical constraint, temperature or other factors ? And can it change strongly ? Meaning there are 2 possibilities, ...
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Does the molecular composition of human body change after a period of time?

I was discussing change in human biology over time and my two in-laws charged in saying, "we're molecularly different after x". I didn't pay attention to what time period they exactly mentioned (hence ...
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Pits, symplastic or apoplastic pathway?

After water has moved through the endodermis through the Casparian Strip, water continues to move down the water potential gradient into the xylem vessels through the pits, is movement through the ...
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1answer
60 views

Does digestion require hydrochloric acid?

Would our digestion function any differently if we secreted something else, like sulfuric or nitric acid, instead? I'd assume an acidic environment may be required, but not sure if chloride is also ...
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1answer
49 views

How does the zygote divide much faster than other cells?

Normally a cell has a mechanism that controls its division. As far as I know, it checks surface area and stuff like that to decide to go for mitosis or not. However, this is not the case for a zygote....
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45 views

What are the (evolutionary) advantages of secondary transport?

Secondary active transport uses electrochemical gradients as a source of energy for the uphill transport of substrates (coupled to downhill transport of the ion). However except for in a few cases (e....
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1answer
20 views

Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles

I'm reading the following paper: http://jcs.biologists.org/content/123/6/819 The part I am really confused about is when they say: Exocytosis appears to use two alternative pathways: clathrin-...
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1answer
58 views

Spatially Encoded GPCRs?

I'm reading this paper, and I'm already lost in terms of what they mean by GPCR signaling is spatially encoded. The trafficking of G protein coupled‐receptors (GPCRs) is one of the most exciting ...
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2answers
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What is a “pan-specific” antibody?

I am new to biology. I searched a lot to find an article that explains what "pan-specific" antibody is but I could not find anything substantial that would help me understand what it is. An example ...
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Rhodamine 123 Staining Function

How does Rhodamine 123 act as a probe for Mitochondrial Staining? What is the Exact Biochemical Basis? and can it Stain Chloroplast as well? Thanks in Advance
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Lysosomal Storage Disease

In my biochemistry class today we did a problem detailing two lysosomal storage diseases. In the first scenario, a cell line for I-cell disease can synthesize lysosomal hydrolases that are perfectly ...
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What is the mechanism behind cells being arrested in G0 phase by serum starvation?

When Dolly was cloned, it was not from a totipotent cell in an early embryo but a G0 phase induced cell originating from the donor sheep's mammary glands. I have found sources stating that a fully ...
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Difference in timescale of tissue movement vs cellular differentiation

I would like to better understand the difference in the timescales that cells seem to function. For example, how is it that muscle cells can move within seconds or less under stimuli such as hormones ...
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36 views

How can I learn biology by myself? [duplicate]

I am only 15 years old,and my primary school education hasn't been that good,also I forgot a lot of things. I would like to start again,and I am asking for your advice. What are some of the good ...
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0answers
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Why are Barr Bodies usually seen along the edge of the nucleus under the light microscope?

We do a typical class exercise of aceto-orsein staining of buccal epithelial cells from female students to visualize Barr bodies under the light microscope. All the illustrations and pictures in the ...
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Examples of GDP (rather than GTP) activating cell signalling?

Is there any known example in a cell where a protein is activated by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, rather than the reverse in which a protein is activated when GTP binds to an inactive GDP-bound ...
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Are there only a few alleles or groups of many alleles impacting protein structure and function?

I'm in the first year of Medicine and I'm studying Genetics and Evolution. I have this doubt in the back of my mind and I'm not being able to move forward without someone explaining me what's wrong ...