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Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Pectinase and Apple

I did an experiment on the effect concentration of pectinase of volume of apple juice produced (rate) and theoretically, as concentration increases,volume produced will increase. However, in my ...
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Is it possible to remove cyanobacteria from rainwater without killing it?

My collected rainwater has a pronounced blue-green tint. I presume that this is due to the presence of Microcystis or another planktonic cyanobacterium. Is there a way to remove the cyanobacteria from ...
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Does sex-chromosomes exist in all the cells in a human body? [on hold]

Each cell of a human body contains 46 chromosomes. So every cell must contain a pair of sex-chromosome. Is it true? Then a cell of a male and a cell of a female are always different and never be the ...
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Diffusion to center of the cell

I have been researching about the ratio between cell membrane surface area and volume. Obviously, when the volume increases faster than the surface area, and up to a certain point, there is ...
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How do scientists determine the nature of ions passing through a channel/carrier/pump?

The NCE (Sodium Calcium Exchanger) transports 3 Na+ inside the cell for 1 Ca2+ outside. How did we figure this out, and other mechanisms of this sort? If it were a protein, we could tag it with GFP. ...
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How would you use PGAl to select for mutants of beta galcodosidase gene (z-) and permease (y-)?

How would you use PGAl to select mutants of beta galcodosidase gene (z-) and permease (y-)? Or do you just use PGAL to grow these mutants after you've isolated the mutant gene and inserted it into a ...
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Do all cells of a plant contain chloroplasts? [on hold]

If the answer is no, then how do plant cells tell whether they need to keep chloroplasts or not? What kind of signals are used, and how are chloroplasts eliminated?
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Can PCR detect phosphorylated protein? [closed]

I'm trying to detect the level transcriptional protein inside cells. However, the cells contained both of this protein that is phosphorylated and not phosphorylated. Can RT-PCR detected the level of ...
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How to prevent hyponatremia? [closed]

I am not really sure if this is the correct place to ask, so forgive me in case it isn't. So, I am being challenged by a group of friends to a water drinking race, whoever drinks more water wins, ...
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Biology question [closed]

Given that the percentages of the phospholipids on the RBC plasma membrane would be similar to the liver plasma membrane, would you expect the phospholipids themselves to be all the same concentration/...
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What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
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Chemical composition of human nucleoplasm?

I'm working on a computer visualisation of the inside of a human cell nucleus (embryonic stem cell for now if it makes a difference) and want a good approximation of the chemical composition of the ...
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Histone binding [on hold]

As they don’t need access to sequence info Histones should usually bind DNAs minor groove, correct? Additionally, transcription factors ought to bind the major groove for he same reason?
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Lobed Nuclei still count as One nucleus?

Do the Lobed Nuclei of immune cells (such as Megakaryocytes) still count as one nucleus?
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Evolution question on speciation? Really confusing!

Okay, my teacher assigned this homework question, but nothing like this was ever given in our textbook. Suppose that a type of tree tends to speciate over 10 million years and a species of fly tends ...
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Megakaryocyte Multichoice Question

A megakaryocyte: is characterised by a single, large nucleus. gives rise to trabecular bone. is a type of haematopoietic cell. is typically found in yellow bone marrow. I believe it is (1), although ...
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Effect of the same caloric intake of different macronutrients on body weight

To gain weight, caloric intake > caloric expenditure. To lose weight, caloric intake < caloric expenditure. But what is the effect of the type of macronutrient ? That is to say : does the same ...
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Volvox Cellular Reintegration

A couple of days ago, I answered this question over on worldbuilding.SE with some information about volvoxes, and commenter Liam Proven pointed out that one of the claims I made was dubious. I had ...
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DIYbio - CRISPR injection sites for targeting the ABCC11 gene [closed]

I've been researching into the biohacking world where people most notable Josiah Zayner and Tristan Roberts have used a CRISPR solution developed in their backyard for gene therapy. There is even a ...
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Beyond anabolism, what are factors that restrict growth rate?

Beyond obvious constraints in the case of nutrient limitation, what can explain the relatively slow growth rate of cells in rich media? Lab strains of E. coli grow really, really fast. The cell ...
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Data base or computational tool to help predict if two predicted interacting surface proteins are located on separate cells or on the same cell?

Is there any computational method or database with the help of which one could predict if two interacting cell surface proteins are located on separate cells or are located on the same cell surface?
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Is there a practical upper limit to ploidy?

In my AP Biology class, we were discussing polyploidy, specifically, its deleterious nature in mammals and its prevalence in plants. We also learned that commercial crops, especially fruit, are often ...
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plant uptake of large molecules

I have read several studies concluding that plants can indeed take up molecules with a molecular weight largar than 390 g/mol. Does this mean plants do also take up large molecules like hormones if ...
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1answer
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How does a decrease in free Ca2+ result in nerve/muscle overexcitability?

I have in my notes that a decrease in free Ca2+ increases membrane permeability to Na+ so that it is brought closer to threshold, but no further details. So how does this work?
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Given a list of cell surface genes, is there a computational possibility to predict their interaction partners on the surface of another cell?

After performing differential expression analyses with the Seurat package on my single cell RNA sequencing data from ILC2s of mouse origin, I generated a list of differentially genes. I afterwards ...
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Why do -ssRNA viruses need to do intermediate positive strand (antigenome) instead of just replicate it negative strands?

I was reading about RSV replication here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3185921/, but i cannot understand what is the reason for making a antigenome instead of just replicate it negative ...
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How does hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic components of polysaccharides influence their 3 dimensional conformation?

It is my understanding that polysaccharides are insoluble in water. Does this mean they are hydrophobic? Beyond being insoluble in water how does this affect their 3D structure? Thanks!
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do platelets cytoplasm contains DNA?

I'm a 12th-grade student and I have an entrance exam this year. I have a question in biology. I would appreciate you if you help me <3 as we thoroughly know platelets are multiple pieces of a big ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms into one sperm?

Is it possible to fuse the DNA of two genetically different sperms into one singular sperm? In theory, half of the number of chromosomes in a normal sperm would come from one sperm and the other half ...
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Why sperms don't forms follicles

As all of us know that in meiosis oocyte forms follicles and egg cells, so my question is that if an oocyte can form follicles then why sperm cells do not forms the follicles? And in evolutionary ...
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stem cells divisions and normal cells division

I'm a beginner in biology, but I've read that stem cells replace the "worn out" cells or the dead cells. Well, I'm a bit confused - why do they do this? Aren't there any cells nearby which are the ...
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1answer
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How many cells should be seeded for passaging?

Do you count cells when you passage them? I found that many people will according to a ratio (maybe 1:2 or 1:3,etc.) to subpackage. It is so indistinct! What is the optimal seedling density or ...
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Is callus totipotent or pluripotent?

Is callus (in the context of plant tissue culture) totipotent or pluripotent? As I understand, the difference between totipotency and pluripotency is an ability to differentiate into extraembryonic ...
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What does “PDPN+ cells” means?

Are they podoplanin positive cells (cells that tested positive for podoplanin)? "...though it has been shown that podoplanin (PDPN+) cells analogous to mouse FRCs are found in human secondary ...
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Why biologic systems tends to become more complex?

From elements, chemical compounds, cells, multicellular organisms, society evolves and with each step possibilities increase and things get complex. We are builing structures like ribosome builds ...
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1answer
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Do epigenetics determine the proteins a cell produces and therefore it's function?

I'm having trouble understanding what epigenetics is in a simple sense. How I imagine it is that if we had 2 twins with identical DNA and we let them live we will see that they'll develop differently....
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1answer
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Osmotic Pressure Clarification

My textbook states that the higher concentration of solutes, the greater the osmotic pressure will be and the greater the pull of water in will be. However, osmotic pressure is defined "as the ...
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1answer
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James Allison's T-cell discovery technique

The excerpt on Wired magazine of The Breakthrough by Charles Graeber has the following description of how James Allison found the T-cell receptor. Suddenly it seemed so obvious: If Allision could ...
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1answer
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When muscles contract is the process similar to how non-newtonian fluids react?

I'm trying to understand how muscles contraction/tension works but getting loss in on the cellular level. From my understanding, when muscle tissue need to contract, the cells are flooded with calcium?...
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How to take precise/low number of cells from cell lysate? [closed]

I would like to know that how can we take low or precise number of cells from a cell lysate? (without using any protein quantification assay). Let say, If I have a cell line having cell density 5x10^...
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33 views

can magnesium bicarbonate be absorbed in the mouth?

Can Magnesium Bicarbonate be absorbed in the mouth?" Magnesium Bicarbonate occurs naturally in some mineral waters.
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1answer
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What is the meaning of the following: “ completion of open rounds of DNA replication”?

I am studying a paper about the relation between polyP granule and cell cycle exit. As the author explained the four general steps for cell cycle exit, the second step is" the completion of open ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between a signal peptide and a transit peptide?

From what I know, the two names are used interchangeably and I haven't found any resource which says otherwise either. Is there at all any difference, is there a transit peptide that is not a signal ...
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1answer
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Univocal identifying of a plant cell

We yesterday got our biology-exams back and there's one exercise where I don't agree with my teacher. However, since he is the expert and not me, I need the support of external sources, i.e. experts ...
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1answer
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Why don't the heads of phospholipid bilayers repel hydrophobic molecules?

What I Think I Know: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic things repel each other. Since the cell membrane contains hydrophobic tails, it is difficult for hydrophilic molecules to pass through the cell ...
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1answer
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Do all animal cells have lysosomes?

I know that white blood cells have lysosomes but what about other body cells? I mean, any other cell such as cells in the respiratory system.
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1answer
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Are cell biology and cytology the same science?

According to Wikipedia, the terms can be used interchangeably, but according to my college professors, cytology is exclusively the study of chromosomes and identification of their abnormalities.
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1answer
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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Where is ethanol detoxified? peroxisomes or smooth ER? Or both?

I am reading the textbook Biology (Campbell et al, 2005), and I am confused. In Chapter 6.4, on page 104, it says that "In the smooth ER, other enzymes help detoxify drugs <...>", and alcohol is ...