Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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How does temperature impact protein synthesis in E Coli? [closed]

A student wants to study the effect of temperature on protein synthesis in E. Coli. How would you design an experiment to test this out and what results would you expect?
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mitochondria has more activity or the numbers of them are more?

If a cell is needing energy more than the other cells, does it mean that it has more mitochondria or the activity of them is more?
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Can the brain alter how our genes expressed?

I have been wondering something , in theory , if there was a way to infulence the brain / subconsious mind to alter genes, expression , would it be able to? There is a biologist, bruce litpon that ...
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Are there any companies that sell Totalseq antibodies that can bind fluorophores conjugated on another antibody?

Are does anyone know of any company which sells Totalseq antibodies that are capable of binding to fluorophores conjugated to another antibody? In this context, I plan to use the Totalseq antibody as ...
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Can Cells Be Trained?

A long time ago, I heard (from what source? I do not remember clearly) that there were studies of the effects of the mind on cellular activities. Vaguely, I remember that it concerned an increase in ...
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Do SARS-CoV-2 virus particles really travel through filopodia and “emerge from the tips”?

Watching the new University of California San Francisco video Coronavirus forces cells to produce tentacle-like structures that infect neighboring cells I saw The growths spread out, and ...
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Can twins that develop in separate sacs but share the same placenta be identical?

I have two younger non identical twin sisters. When my mum was pregnant she was told they were both in different sacs when developing but shared the same placenta. We have done hours of research on ...
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Is there such a thing as an autotroph that doesn't use photosynthesis?

I've heard of photoautotrophs, which are just autotrophs that use photosynthesis. What I'm wondering is if there's any other way for an organism to make its own food that doesn't involve it using ...
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What is the exact definition of mitochondrial depolarization?

Proton gradient := the gradient created when hydrogen ions moves to the intermembrane space from the mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondrial membrane potential := the potential energy created by the ...
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What are the differences between how latewood and earlywood forms and how does this effect it's properties?

In trees the earlywood forms a somewhat abrupt transitions to the darker latewoods that happen during the summer months. What are the chemical differences that arise in this wood at the cellular and ...
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Molarity of phosphate in intracellular phosphate buffer system

Phosphate buffer system keeps intracellular pH near the pKa of the $\ce{H2PO4^- <=> HPO4^2-}$ equilibrium, pH 7.2. Most intracellular phosphate is bound up in larger molecules like phospholipids,...
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What solution do you add to shrunken blood cells to swell them to make them normal size? [closed]

What type of solution do you add to shrunken blood cells to swell them to normal size?
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What is the pH of cytosol? And plastids?

My teacher ask this question, and I answered 7 to 7.4, but she said it's wrong. I read a lot and found the same answer (wikipedia) I'm here asking for confirmation of this and the pH inside & ...
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Why Eukaryotes doesn`t have CRISPR Cas?

Why Eukaryotes doesn`t have CRISPR Cas? Even Asgard archaea quite near to eukaryotes and they have CRISPR Cas systems. Modern eukaryotes have a lot of mobile genetic elements in their genomes. About ...
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Does hypokalemia increase sodium concentration in cells?

In hypokalemia, when intracellular potassium is low, does intracellular sodium increase?
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Nucleolus organizer region

I have read that Nucleolus is attached to NORs. But I could'nt find any diagram clearly explaining it. Could you help me visualise how it is attached to the nucleolus? Also what are its functions?
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Why does the cell initially swell, then return to original volume rather than shrink first in a hyperosmotic solution of NaCl and urea?

When a cell is placed in a hyperosmotic solution of NaCl (0.15M) and urea (0.05M), why does the cell initially swell, then return to original volume rather than initially shrink? Firstly, my ...
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Origins of transcription factors and RNA Polymerase

I was learning about transcription factors and RNA polymerase from Khan Academy to supplement Dr. Robert Sapolsky's lectures on Human Behavioral Biology. As I understand: RNA Polymerase transcribes ...
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Is there a proton gradient across the cell membrane, just like for the mitochondrial membrane?

Mitochondria have a proton gradient, is there also a proton gradient between cells and the extracellular medium?
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how to culture mc38 cells

I work at a start up company in a vivarium. My boss would like me to start working with MC38 Cells. I bought all of the equipment (recommended by a colleague) and should be ready for the cells. Could ...
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Cell division in primordial eucaryotes

The evolution of eucaryotic cells is usually described as an event wherein one procaryote engulfed another probably smaller procaryote and rather than the engulfed procaryote being taken apart the two ...
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Are meiotic recombinases originated from transposons, like the VDJ recombination genes?

VDJ recombination RAG1 and RAG2 recombinases and recombination sites, evolved from transposons. So, is there any researchs that tells, that the meiotic recombinases RAD51 and DMC1 have evolved from ...
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Can intracellular protein initiate strong immune response?

Some autoantibodies escape immune tolerance and can cause autoimmune disease. In order to cause harm to the tissues by these autoantibodies, do the antigen need to be extracellular or membrane bound, ...
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Can hand sanitizer kill a fertilized human egg cell?

If you took a human egg cell that was fertilized in vitro and sprayed some hand sanitizer on it would it die?
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If there is such known “Mitochondrial Eve”, does it means that all the mitochondrial dna in everyone's body is same?

P.S. I know not that much, just some basics, but this question really interested me :)
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effect of amino acid limitation in CHO cells

I would like to know the effect of individual amino acid and their role in CHO cell growth and their effects on their metabolic pathway if any. And also if there is an amino acid which has an effect ...
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Biological Calculations

(a) At the moment of fertilization a female egg is about 100μm in diameter. Assuming that each lipid molecule in the plasma membrane has a surface area of 10-14 cm2 , how many lipid molecules are ...
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Why does hypocalcaemia cause increased muscle contraction?

Calcium is needed for muscle contraction, so how does hypocalcaemia cause increased sustained contraction?
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Mechanism in which HSCs regain stemness in the niche

I'm reading this review: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854531/ which cited Schofield, 1978 (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/747780/). In the review, it was described in figure 1 that ...
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What is the relation between “classes” (stem cell, proliferative and differentiating) and the types (Ad, Ap, B) of the spermatogonium?

Describing the question in the title further, The section, Systems Toxicologic Pathology, Dianne M. Creasy, Robert E. Chapin, in Haschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology (Third ...
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Adding potassium outside of neuron: Hyper- or De- polarization?

At rest, the equilibrium potential for potassium given by the Nernst equation is ~ -80mV. Since the cell is mainly permeable to potassium, this is the reason for the cell membrane's rest potential to ...
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What is the mass of a single erythrocyte?

I really have been searching through internet on different languages, but can’t find any article that answers on the question what is the single erythrocyte mass. I don’t know, I think it’s pretty ...
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Why does insertion of transmembrane domains occur in the rough ER?

To elaborate on that question, why in the secretory pathway does the insertion of transmembrane domains into the membrane occur in the rough ER as the protein is translated and threaded across the ER ...
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How is energy stored in the cotransport of molecules down to its electrochemical gradient?

I am talking about symporters and antiporters, that transport usually an amino acid against its concentration gradient while at the same time transport another molecule down its electrochemical or ...
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Removing DNA from a cell

Stupid question perhaps but what does happen if one completely removes DNA from a single cell organism? As far as I know DNA is only needed for propagating information to descendants doing it's ...
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Is it possible to make synthetic olfactory receptors?

Are there any electronic engineering technologies that allow people to make synthetic olfactory receptor that generate electrical impulses when exposed to certain proteins or molecules? If not, what ...
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Does the brain absorb heme and non-heme iron differently?

I know that for the brain to absorb iron, the iron must first pass through the blood brain barrier. Is this absorption different for heme and nonheme iron?
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How does lactic acid cause muscle twitching?

It is well-known that lactic acid buildup (often caused by workouts) causes muscle twitching. Does anyone know HOW lactic acid achieves that effect?
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Can DNA be used directly to determine the age of a mutation?

I've studied that proteins found in a sample as biochemical evidences for evolution. Its variation in structure and configuration can be used to date the age when that mutation occured, effectively ...
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How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting? [closed]

I'm writing an experimental proposal as my final paper for my single molecule biophysics class. Part of the procedure I wrote involves intentionally infecting a culture of HeLa cells with SARS-CoV-2 ...
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Protein half-life regulating gene expression

Are there any instances in real life of protein half-life regulating gene expression? For example, in a cell, Gene A produces a starting population of protein P, after which the expression of the gene ...
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Can a macrophage differentiate back into a monocyte?

I know that monocytes differentiate into macrophages when they enter the tissues, but do macrophages stay in those same tissues for the remainder of their lifespan, or do they differentiate back into ...
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Hydrostatic pressure gradient

If hydrostatic pressure increases the water potential of a solution, causing it to move via osmosis, than would it be correct to state that the named substance is moving "Down a hydrostatic pressure ...
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Edema and hydrostatic pressure

I'm currently studying Robbins basic pathology, and I'm confused about a specific statement: It states in the book that when hydrostatic pressure is low due to a lack of albumin synthesis, it leads ...
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Why do meristematic cells have prominent nuclei and dense cytoplasm?

I've been reading about meristematic cells having prominent nuclei and dense cytoplasm. However, I could not understand why it is that way. Could somebody please explain?
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Markers of lung microvascular endothelial sub-populations and lung smooth muscles?

Can someone please help me with information where I can find a publication on the distribution of various markers on lung endothelial cell sub-populations and lung smooth muscle cells? Particularly ...
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What are the short/long term effects of chloroquine on fundamental cell processes?

Does chloroquine, which affects the endosomal membrane traffic pathway (by affecting the acid environment used for fundamental endosomal reactions), have short/long-term effects on cell growth/...
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Do larger unicellular eukaryotic organisms have larger organelles?

It seems that many of the giant unicellular eukaryotic organisms (size 1mm and above) are multinucleate but there are some with a single nucleus as well (the genus of Acetabularia). My question is: do ...
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Can single-cell organisms have through-holes? (Are donut-cells a thing?)

I've watched a YouTube video about microorganisms, which featured a shot (below) of a single-cell organism, that looked like it had several through-holes in its body. Somehow I have a pretty steady ...
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Does Remdesivir interfere with human transcription?

Remdesivir is metabolized into a nucleotide analogue. It is incorporated in the viral genomes causing either termination of transcription or a dysfunctional genome. Thus, the new viral particles ...

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