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Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Do we add cyclic AMP (c-AMP) to the control group while doing differentiation of Endometrium stromal cells?

I'm performing an experiment using Endometrium cell lines split in 5 wells of 6 wells plate. 1st well->control day 0->0 hours 2nd well->control day0, 6hours 3rd well-> day0, 6 hours->treatment with C-...
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cell proliferation and cell mass proliferation

How are the increase in cell number (by division) and increase in the total cell mass (the sum of all the mass of all the cells) related ? Meaning can cell divide without taking some mass from the ...
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GFP intensity after proliferation and life time

I'm interested in knowing : What is the life time of GFP in a cell ? After division, does each "daughter" cell express GFP like the "mother" ? Meaning is there any loss in the expression of each cell ...
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What are the mechanics behind cell division? [closed]

I understand the basics of mitosis. Or, at least, the Biology 101 stuff. But the other day it occurred to me that I have no idea how cells split. Like, the physical and mechanical part of it. Do the ...
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How efficient is direct cloning in budding yeast?

I am trying to make a clone using E.coli as host and use that clone later to transform budding yeast. But, I am not able to get clone somehow so I was wondering to perform lithium acetate ...
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What chapters from the Campbell Biology 11th edition textbook are covered in the AP Biology curriculum/exam? [closed]

I am currently taking College Biology in high school but I plan to take the AP exam in May. The syllabus for my class skips a lot of the chapters in the Campbell Biology textbook. I would like to know ...
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what happens to specific production of process if my IVCD remains the same [closed]

A bioreactor containing 3L NS0 cell culture produced 3.5g/L monoclonal antibody. inoculation was done on day 0 with a cell-density of 300000 cells/ml. Day 1- 300000 cells/ml. day2- 600000cells/ml, ...
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Terms related to nucleus [closed]

What is the difference between these terms listed below- Nucleolus Nucleosome Oligonucleotides Nucleoplasm Nucleoid Euchromatic nucleus Heterochromatic nucleus Thanks in advance for help.
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What is the difference between a signal peptide and a transit peptide?

From what I know, the two names are used interchangeably and I haven't found any resource which says otherwise either. Is there at all any difference, is there a transit peptide that is not a signal ...
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When does the activation of a VGCC result in neuronal activation?

There are studies showing EMFs acting via VGCCs. [Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects] Doesn't this necessarily mean ...
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During glycolysis, NADH is produced . This NADH is converted to 3 ATP in eukaryotes by ETS but how does this ATP is utilised in prokaryotes?

As i have learnes that the ETS occurs jn inner membrane of mitochondria. How can prokaryotes perform utilisation of NADH as it is an energy product formed during glycolysis.
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Can facial bones move under prolonged stress?

I heard that facial bones keep changing more unlike other bones in the body. If so, do face bones change/adjust to pressure? For example, palate expanders apparently can widen the maxilla bone through ...
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1answer
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Univocal identifying of a plant cell

We yesterday got our biology-exams back and there's one exercise where I don't agree with my teacher. However, since he is the expert and not me, I need the support of external sources, i.e. experts ...
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Why don't the heads of phospholipid bilayers repel hydrophobic molecules?

What I Think I Know: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic things repel each other. Since the cell membrane contains hydrophobic tails, it is difficult for hydrophilic molecules to pass through the cell ...
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Could animal cell membrane be made of glycolipids instead of phospholipids?

I know that cell membrane contains lots of molecules that are not phospholipids, like cholesterol, glycoproteins and glycolipids. I was woundering what would happen if we just take all of the ...
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(Reliable Source Needed): Why is the phospholipid membrane more permeable to hydrophobic molecules?

It is often said that it is difficult for hydrophilic molecules to pass through the phospholipid bilayer because of the hydrophobic core. However, it would seem logical to assume that it would also be ...
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Do all animal cells have lysosomes?

I know that white blood cells have lysosomes but what about other body cells? I mean, any other cell such as cells in the respiratory system.
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Are cell biology and cytology the same science?

According to Wikipedia, the terms can be used interchangeably, but according to my college professors, cytology is exclusively the study of chromosomes and identification of their abnormalities.
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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Where is ethanol detoxified? peroxisomes or smooth ER? Or both?

I am reading the textbook Biology (Campbell et al, 2005), and I am confused. In Chapter 6.4, on page 104, it says that "In the smooth ER, other enzymes help detoxify drugs <...>", and alcohol is ...
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RBCs should be prokaryotic by definition? [duplicate]

When we define a prokaryotic cell we say "A cell having no distinct nucleus & having no membrane bounded organelles". As RBCs are fulfilling the requirements so why we can't call it as prokaryotic?...
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1answer
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Centrifuge after sonication

I follow a protocol to get protein from E.coli cells after sonication. I used to grow 6 litres of large cultures and add IPTG to express the protein. I centrifuge for 10 mins at 8,000 rpm and get the ...
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Hydrophily and hydrophoby of cells [closed]

Given that organisms are have a good part of water in them, I would assume that cells are hydrophilic. Moreover, they have a bilipidic membrane, so the hydrophilic part of the lipids are outside. ...
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54 views

Protein electrophoresis

Three proteins A, B and C of equal molecular weight are being investigated in a study. They contain six, four and four cysteine residues respectively. Only Proteins A and B were treated with β-...
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Why does pyruvate from lactate and pyruvate from other sources follow different pathways in gluconeogenesis?

My teacher taught me in a lecture that PEP forms from Pyruvate by two ways, based on their sources, that is - 1. If the Pyruvate was from lactate (by lactate dehydrogenase action), it gets shuttled ...
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Looking for realistic representation of angiosperm sperm cells during pollination

I've scoured Youtube, google, and a handful of my botany textbooks for a cellular-scale photo, animation, or video illustrating an angiosperm sperm cell during pollination/fertilization. ...
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type of antibody in human [duplicate]

How does any person have antibody against other blood type even though they are never exposed to the antigen?for example I have A group why we found B antibody in my blood when I never get any blood ...
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1answer
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Gluconeogenesis in the liver

Glycolysis yields 2 net ATPs. However, gluconeogenesis (lactate->pyruvate->glucose) costs 6 ATP, with a total net loss of 4 ATP. Does the body not care about the net loss because of the potential ...
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2answers
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When two amoeba cells form from one amoeba, does spindle fibers form?

When two amoeba cells form from one amoeba, does spindle fibers form? Some sources say that spindle fibers do not form while an amoeba cell is undergoing cell division. If spindle formation does not ...
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1answer
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Why do we have an immune system?

My daughter asked a question that I could not answer. If you have a cold, you have symptoms such as fever, cold and sore throat. These symptoms, however, are the reactions of the immune system to ...
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1answer
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What are the fibers and small droplets on the surface of dividing HeLa cells in the figure?

I did some literature searching but could not find any info probably because I did not know how people name them. The figure is from the wikipedia entry HeLa
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What are the effects of enzyme exposure to high temperatures? [duplicate]

Question: After enzymes are exposed to high temperatures and undergo denaturation, then returned to their optimal temperature and renatured, can the enzyme's active site return to it's original shape ...
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1answer
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Are androgenic-anabolic steroids a form of gene editing?

Is taking AAS a form of gene-editing? Steroids alter genes in some way since they allow people to build more muscle than what's naturally possible -- so they sort of "break" natural genetics somehow. ...
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1answer
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Why is inhibition of inhibition (reciprocal inhibition) such a common motif in cell signalling?

In transcriptional regulation, you often find that positive signals proceed by inhibiting or destroying a protein that is in turn inhibiting or destroying the effector protein. This can be seen in the ...
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What is the biological function of vacuoles?

In Biology, I am studying that one of the main differences between the animal cell and the plant cell is the presence of vacuoles. But I don't know what function vacuoles have in plants. I've searched ...
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1answer
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Rod and cone photoreceptors are neurons?

i mean the photoreceptors have axon and dendrite and body cell or it is not neuron any more . can we say outer segment of photoreceptor cell is dendrite ? of course these have body cells but i am ...
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1answer
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Comprehensive database of cell types

Wondering if there is a comprehensive list/database of cell types, similar to this wiki list of cell types in the human body. It lists probably 100+ different types, but this is just for a human. If ...
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Is there any evidence of homologous somatic pairing in taxa aside from Dipterans and budding yeasts?

Homologous somatic pairing is the physical colocation and pairing of the paternal and maternal chromosomes in a cell during growth phases of a cell. This is interesting as most taxa that we know about ...
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Secondary cell wall structure

This picture is given in my book describing cell walls. Now, is the hollow-like thing on the left picture a vacuole?
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3answers
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Why do soap molecules not break down your skin cells when you wash your hands?

Soap molecules are similar in structure to phospholipids and interact with the cell membrane. They can clearly cause damage to the cell membrane. If this is the case, why then, does soap not break ...
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Skin (histology)

Our instructor share this image with us. She didn't specify much. She only said it was a skin sample. Could you tell me what is the thing that was pointed at with the blue arrow? I believe that I ...
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3answers
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You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to come into existence at the same time?

A statement I recently read: 'Evolution is debunked and gives no basis for morality. Natural Selection throws away info, it does not add. You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to ...
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Why does a lightsource postpone the time it takes for the leaves falling from a birch?

It is autumn and the leaves have already left their trees on all birch and other trees that has leaves, except one. This birch has a spotlight pointed to the tree and it is on 24/7. I have recognized ...
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2answers
54 views

Tissue fluid water potential

just a quick question. Is the tissue fluid the same water potential as the cells it surrounds? I am a bit confused because if it was lower it would cause water to leave the cell and if it was higher ...
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2answers
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How are cell death like apoptosis and entropy related?

In Perspectives on Statistical Thermodynamics, Yoshitsugu Oono, it is written that Do not conclude, however, that since the second law is invincible, information thermodynamics is unimportant. It ...
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1answer
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Do plants experience the following feelings

I am not a student of biology,in other words I have not read biology much. But I read that plants have life and so my question is the following: Suppose I take two saplings of two different ...
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1answer
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How exactly are nucleoli made of NORs?

I read that nucleoli are made of DNA, RNA, and nucleolus organizer regions. I don't quite understand how that happens with NORs. Isn't there an envelope delimiting the nucleolus from the rest of the ...
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3answers
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can a bacterium cell become a cancer?

I don't mean if a bacterium can be the cause of cancer inside a human. But can actually a bacterium changes in the way as normal cells change into tumor cells? So gaining such characteristics of a ...
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2answers
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Where does reverse transcriptase come from?

I can't figure out whether the viruses provide reverse transcriptase, or their RNA has the code for it, or the host cell normally contains it. Multiple sources just introduce the enzyme without ...