Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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How well does “basal rate of amino acid catabolism” correlate with dietary requirements for amino acids?

To what extent does the basal rate of amino acid catabolism account for the dietary requirements for amino acids (and, the resulting need to evolve organs to dispose of excess nitrogen)? The ...
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Does cellular respiration use amino acids even if it has other substrates like glucose?

Thinking about the "nitrogen budget" in animals (ranging from protists to Porifera, Radiata, invertebrates and vertebrates), I had the idea that cellular respiration might not be able to selectively ...
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Protein content in chemical composition of different phyla?

The protein content in the human body is roughly 15%, what are the percentages for other organisms? Bacteria, plants, fungi, protozoa, etc.
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Can someone help me fill this table out involving the Cell cycle stages?PPPLLLLEEEEEAAAAASSSSSEEEEE [closed]

Please fill out this table its the end of term for me today. I have tried watching videos emailing my teacher and it doesn't make sense
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What causes the overactivity of collagen production and expression in the cells of the nail bed/ nail matrix after some traumata?

What is the cellular mechanism of traumatic(sterile) onychodystrophy(hypertrophy)? I.e one hits his toenail and has it removed twice( once after the first trauma and then 3 years after the first ...
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Can an Audio be sent into object inside Electron Microscopy Unit?

I just wondering about this technology inside a special lab called Electron Microscopy Unit. Can we send a live (sound) to the object (cell/electron) inside that device? I mean for not a recorded ...
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Is there software simulating virology experiments like LTspice XVII simulating electronic circuits? [closed]

I want a software if existed to simulate what happens when a virus attacks a bacteria or other organisms. It can change a parameter of the viruses.
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Does Rough ER (RER) produce phospholipids?

I have found out that rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) produces membranes. Therefore it has to produce phospholipids, but I thought that the smooth ER was where the synthesis of lipids occurs. What ...
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What gene targets associated with the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified so far?

One hypothesis for which we have some supporting evidence is that the new virus (SARS-CoV-2) "enters human cells through an interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2" see here. Although it is ...
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Tools for modelling and visualizing growth of cells

I am looking for a program/GUI app/package that would help me do simulations for cell growth. I have a microscopic mathematical model, and the scenario is basically the following: I start with a rod-...
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What causes cells to inactivate one X-chromosome?

Normally, when a cell has two X-chromosomes (female genome), one is randomly inactivated. How does the cell detect that there are two X-chromosomes in the first place? Is there some kind of protein ...
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Relationship between bacteria size and temperature?

I'm, doing a research in a TOC (total organic carbon) degradation in a BAC (biologically active carbon) filter for the grey-water treatment. Recently, I started to wonder if there is a relation ...
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Osmotic gradient across cell membranes

In a typical cell in the human body, is the intracellular fluid typically hyper- or hypoosmotic to the extracellular fluid, e.g., is the osmolality of cytoplasm higher or lower than that on the ...
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How does the shape of guard cells and xylem cells (in plants) help it carry out its function?

I was wondering how the shape of guard cells and xylem cells (in plants) help it carry out its function? As far as I know, the guard cell opens and closes to let in and out substances/objects, and ...
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How many cells per germ layer are there in the adult human body?

Assuming that all cells in the adult human body derive from stem cells of one of four types (endodermal, mesodermal, ectodermal, and neural), I wonder what the approximate numbers of cells in the ...
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From stem cells to fully differentiated cells

I'd like to understand better how stem cells produce fully differentiated cells via progenitor cells. I assume the following: Only cells that are not fully differentiated do divide at all. When a ...
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Cell type = gene expression spectrum?

I wonder if it is correct to say that the type of a cell is essentially its spectrum of expressed genes, i.e. the rates at which it produces specific proteins. As these rates may change (e.g. during ...
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How and when does the regeneration of cells that have died start?

I assume that the replacement of cells that have died (or been removed by any means) doesn't work on a single cell level but starts only when some critical number of cells have died. My question is: ...
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How are cells that have died replaced by new ones?

I'd like to have a clearer picture how cells that have died are replaced by new ones. I assume the following: Normally, when a cell dies it will be replaced by a new one of the same type. It will be ...
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Average Nucleus size of human skeletal muscle cell

I’ve been struggling the last couple of days to find reliable data on the average nucleus size of a human skeletal muscle cell. If I deduce it from pictures it should be in the range of 20 micrometers ...
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Circulating Tumor Cell vs Circulating Tumor DNA

I'm a little confused about the wording of these two phrases and under which context the epithelial-mesenchymal transition occurs. For example: Is it the circulating tumor cell that releases the ...
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How to measure DNA concentration from Acetonitrile Cell Lysis of plant cells?

I'm currently trying to normalise my data to the number of cells present in each sample. Currently, I lyse the cells with cold ACN and centrifuge. The supernatant contains what I'm interested in, and ...
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Is it safe to work with HeLa cells?

Hela cells are infected with HPV. So is it safe to work with them? What are the safety precautions?
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Outlining cell edges of an epithelium

Is there any free software (for Windows, preferably) to detect cell edges in pictures of an epithelium, for example? I know Packing Analyzer does this, any other suggestions? Ideally, I would like ...
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How much does one stem cell cost?

I am interested in scaled price on 1 stem cell, only for educational purposes. I couldn't find any information about pure price on stem cell, only whole procedure price. So if anyone know, I'll be ...
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What is Balbiani's vitelline body function?

I tried searching on Google Scholar but I found little to no information about this Balbiani's vitelline body. I don't even know why it is called vitelline...I've been taught that it can be seen ...
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Statistics: How are protein species distributed over cell types?

There are roughly 10,000 to 20,000 protein species in the human proteome (while I've seen also numbers of 500,000 to 1,000,000). Furthermore, there are roughly 200 different cell types in the human ...
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How can one relate in vitro studies of caffeine (dose expressed as concentration) to dietary intake of caffeine (dose in mass)?

Having difficulty making the data in the below charts to apply to daily life. What is the right interpretation and implementation? How are the “in vitro” results of the below charts relevant to levels ...
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What is the difference between Molecular and Cellular tolerance?

Although I've read that there are three types of tolerance, molecular cellular and behavioural, I cannot seem to find any mechanism of cellular other than desensitization of receptors. If someone can ...
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How does wall pressure oppose osmotic pressure?

This question is based on the equation: Diffusion Pressure Deficit= Osmotic Pressure - Wall pressure I know that wall pressure is directed towards the protoplasm. I need to make sure if osmotic ...
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What makes iodine an effective antiseptic?

I'm thinking about tincture of iodine, potassium iodide (Lugol's), and povidone-iodine (PVP-I) specifically, which, as is my understanding, work by solubilizing elemental iodine in an aqueous solution....
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What are the methods of prophylaxis against exposure to radioactive isotopes?

Potassium iodide is used as prophylaxis to prevent illness when one is likely to be exposed to Iodine-131 and other radioactive isotopes of iodine. Are there any other prophylactic treatments for ...
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How does salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid) break down desmosomal proteins to exfoliate skin?

I've been searching for an explanation to salicylic acid's property of being able to break down desmosomal proteins, such as desmogleins in order to disrupt the outer layer of skin. Can someone ...
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KRAS gene and K-Ras Mutations

This question pertains to the KRAS wikipedia page, and I just want to double check and clarify my own understanding of how this mutation works in cancer. It states: K-Ras protein acts like a ...
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A question about cancer antigens and their mechanism [closed]

Can you name the most common antigen that cancer cells in general can't live without?
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Could biofilms float and survive in the sulfuric acid clouds of Venus?

The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide. The main cloud deck is located in the 48-70 km altitude range and is ...
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Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
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Photolysis in the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis [duplicate]

I'm a bit confused concerning photolysis. During the light reactions, photons are used to excite the chlorophyll molecules so they are passed to the primary electron acceptor. The electrons initially ...
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Nuclear vs Cytoplasmic Fluorescence [closed]

When staining transciption factor proteins with fluorescent antibodies (Alexa, etc.), why are the fluorescence signals stronger in the nucleus as compared to fluorescence signals in the cytoplasm (in ...
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Increasing Eumelanin Production In Body

Is there any way on how to increase the eumelanin production in your body for a longer period of time without improving pheomelanin? Thanks for your answers.
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Are (muscle) satellite cells the same as muscle stem cells?

In terms of muscle: are the terms 'satellite cell' and 'muscle stem cell' interchangeable? That is, are there muscle stem cells that are not satellite cells, or vice versa?
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Could tumor cells have normal genomic profiles?

I have thawed primary tumor cells and performed FACS. They were EpCAM positive cells. Then, I expanded them as organoids in 3D and did another FACS analysis. Again, they were EpCAM positive. I also ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic genomes - Horizontal gene transfers

On page 21 of his book on cellular biology, Alberts writes that horizontal gene transfers are rare between different eukaryotic species, but fairly common between prokaryotic species. Why is this? ...
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How do microtubules bend around the nucleus?

From reading I've done microtubules tend to had a persistence length around a milimeter. If the centrosomes are next to the nucleus and the microtubules grow from there how do they connect to the side ...
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How are filopodia and membrane lengths related

I wonder how cell protrusions, in particular filopodia, form and how much of the cell membrane do they use. Is new membrane formed whenever a filopodium is created, or is the membrane simply deformed ...
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Why is sedimentation rate significant for a ribsome

When we take a look at biology textbooks (Campbell, Pearson etc), they will only mention the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosome sedimentation rates. Why is sedimentation rate ...
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Do carrier proteins constantly open and close or do they only work when a substance binds to them?

What causes carrier proteins to change shape ? Do they need energy to change shape? If that is true, how are they involved in Facilitated diffusion ? By changing shape, do we always mean opens from ...
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Changes in dna from dioxin poisoning

A person sprayed with a dioxin, how long would it take for a dna change? Instant or over time? Would that person having children afterwards pass on any(if any) dna changes?
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Analytical expression for negatively modulated protein expression levels

In a paper by Bashor et al., protein expression is modulated using a negative signal feedback (http://limlab.ucsf.edu/papers/pdfs/cjb_2008.pdf). I'm trying to find an analytical expression for this ...

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