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Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Can cells show negative growth?

I know that growth is an irreversible increase in mass or overall size of a cell, organ or whole organism. I also found that growth occurs due to the net result of anabolism and catabolism. My teacher ...
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21 views

How to estimate MOI for a complex cell type

I am currently confused about the estimation of multiplicity of infection (MOI), here is an example in a scientific article in figure 3b, they tested the virus, and get estimated MOI based on this: ...
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How does gram-negative bacteria use high molecular weight starch if the membrane is only permeable to small molecular weights?

So one of my question is: The outer membrane of a gram negative bacterium contains pores that allow only molecules with a molecular weight less than 1,000 to cross. What does this bacterium need in ...
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47 views

eosinophil question

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect? A. All cells of the immune system originate in the Bone Marrow B. Lymphoid progenitor cells originate from a pluripotent stem cell C. B cells ...
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What is the difference between a protein and a factor?

In terms of nomenclature/semantics, why are some proteins named proteins, and some named factors? I've been revising on eukaryotic DNA, and I've come across some proteins that seem to serve roughly ...
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57 views

Can we investigate the cell biology of extinct microorganisms?

I know that there are microfossils, but not if we can we know about the organelles, genetics or macromolecules of the cells that left them behind.
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3answers
161 views

Knockout and knockdown of gene

Out of curiosity, I got this question whether knocking out (deletion) of a gene on one side and knocking down (RNAi) of the same gene on the other side will affect the cell in a similar manner or not. ...
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2answers
200 views

Why is cholera toxin added to certain culture media?

I was reading an article [1] where they cultured SEB-1 human sebocytes in DMEM F12 + FBS + EGF + adenine + hydrocortisone + insuline as well as cholera toxin. Why is cholera toxin added to the media? ...
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248 views

Chromosomal pair possible in metaphase - I

There is this question which was asked in my exam. A diploid cell contain 6 chromosomes. How many possible random arrangement of homologous chromosomes could occur during metaphase-I? (consider ...
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575 views

ATP Hydrolysis to AMP in the Urea Cycle. What is the Free Energy Change?

How is the hydrolysis of ATP into AMP and PPi in making arginosuccinate equivalent to the hydrolysis of 2 ATP?
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1answer
31 views

Do sea sponge cells transfer nutrients to each other?

Does a sea sponge cell transfer nutrients or energy to their neighboring cells or is their only symbiotic relationship that they are connected to each other forming a structure? The sea sponges that ...
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1answer
194 views

Will the N- or the C- terminal soluble domain be on the extracellular side?

Here is a homework question A single-pass transmembrane protein is destined to be transported to the plasma membrane. In the wild-type protein, a lysine flanks the transmembrane domain on the N- ...
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61 views

What is the meaning of “leukemic cell recovery” in an abstract?

An article abstract: Significant predictors of treatment outcome are poorly defined for patients with T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). A high WBC at diagnosis, which has ...
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1answer
46 views

How does cell detect if a RNA polymerase II is stalled during transcription and in turn deploy the proper transcription-coupled repair factors?

When a segment of the template strand of DNA is damaged due to factors such as UV radiation, a lesion is created that would effectively block the passage of RNA polymerase II during transcription. ...
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2answers
81 views

why prokaryotic ribosomes have 30s and40s subunits and eukaryotic ribosomes have 40sand 60s subunits? [duplicate]

Ribosomes are protein factories of cell and are composed of two subunits; one smaller and other larger unit I want to know that why ,ribosomes of eukaryotes have a 40s and 60s subunit and prokaryotic ...
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45 views

What are some potential consequences for attempting to cure Type one Diabetes?

Type one diabetes has been in my family for a few generations. As a carrier and having a mother with the disorder, I've done a lot of research on it. As I am completing my High school Biology course, ...
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39 views

Building microtubules [closed]

I have some questions regarding building microtubules: Do alpha and beta monomers always exist as dimers when they are bonding to form tubulin? When tubulin structure is destroyed, do alpha and beta ...
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0answers
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Does a cell deprived of growth factor undergoes apoptosis or G0 stasis?

I can't seem to find a decisive answer on this topic on any of my textbooks. If a cell is deprived of growth factors does it: Activate apoptosis Go in G0 phase but keeps living? Thanks.
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30 views

Help understanding cell replication animations

I often come across these animations about molecular biology showing for example how cell replication works, how virus infection works etc. Take this video as an example https://www.youtube.com/watch?...
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Need to learn about basics of eukaryotic cell culture and transfection

Can someone please suggest books/ online courses/ other resources to learn about cell culture and transfection theory as well as techniques? I've been reading research papers and everyone uses methods ...
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2answers
138 views

What is the purpose of co-transport?

My current understanding of co-transport is that, first, a substance is actively transported across a membrane, establishing a concentration gradient across said membrane. This same substance then ...
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0answers
44 views

What is the effect of expired vectaSHIELD on GFP/DAPI coloring?

First of all, I don't really know if this is the right place to ask, but I have no idea where to ask elsewhere. For my bachelor I'm doing a calciumphosphate transfection of hGR in HEK293 cells. After ...
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0answers
86 views

Is a spore 'alive'? [closed]

Referencing this article: What are spores? 'A spore is typically a single cell surrounded by a thick cell wall for protection.' So a spore is a 'cell'? This implies that a spore is a living thing; ...
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21 views

Cell growth and lactic acid

I'm new on this forum so I apologize if I do anything wrong. I'm currently reading a book named Bioreaction engineering principles (3rd Ed.) to understand the more mathematical aspect in cell ...
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2answers
93 views

Are molecular machines encoded in the DNA?

I don't know much, if anything, about molecular biology. I watched the "inner life of the cell" on Youtube which triggered my curiosity about how these molecular machines came to be. My simple ...
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0answers
45 views

water loss from mesophyll cell wall (A-level)

I need help with understanding water loss by mesophyll. My AQA A-level textbook lacks a lot of detail, it says that during transpiration water evaporates from mesophyll cell wall. My question is ...
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2answers
52 views

Why is the separation of biochemical synthesis pathways safer and more economical?

During our first lecture of plant physiology, our teacher told us that the separation of biochemical synthesis pathways was advantageous because it was safer and more economical. The problem I got, ...
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1answer
65 views

why is LPL (lipoprotein-lipase) down-regulated during fasting?

During fasting our body needs additional sources of energy and that's why triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. where fatty acids can be used to generate acetyl-coA and ...
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0answers
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Do cells store information other than permanent (chromosome) information

The brain stores information in neurons (i.e. neural networks), and cells store information in DNA. But with DNA, this is permanent information. There is a lot of potential temporary information in ...
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22 views

What could inhibit root growth in plants?

I am thinking of the practicality of "prosthetic roots", but they would be no use if the root kept growing back around the prosthetic root.
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2answers
820 views

What is the meaning of multicellularity?

I can't understand what multicellularity is. Wikipedia states that any organism having many cells is multicellular. By this definition bacteria can also be multicellular. For example, cyanobacteria ...
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1answer
65 views

Is there any mechanism that prevents DNA of an eaten entity's cell from affecting that of own?

When we eat food I heard that our digestive enzymes disassemble the DNA of the eaten cells so that the DNA cannot affect us. Then, is there any mechanism (that prevents the eaten cell's DNA from ...
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1answer
45 views

Is prokaryotic chromosome really a chromosome?

As far as i know, chromosome is a highly compacted version of chromatin during mitosis. And chromatin is a complex consisting of DNA strand and histones for more effective storage of DNA. And I'm ...
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1answer
42 views

Hayflick's limit and cell division

Suppose the Hayflick's limit of a cell is 10 and it divides 10 times. At this point, it undergoes differentiation. Is it possible for it to undergo dedifferentiation at this point?
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1answer
59 views

Minimum hardware and knowledge to study effects on live cells [closed]

I'm very interested to study the effects (or reactions) of different forces (magnetic fields, electric fields, etc) on living tissues/cells. I know I have to have a living cell, the force applied and ...
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15 views

Constitutive and regulated secretion

while ı was studying for exocytosis, I came up with the two terms constitutive and regulated secretion. could someone let me know what the difference between the two is? thanks
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1answer
601 views

Endomembrane system

I learned that the endomembrane system includes the nuclear membrane, ER, the golgi, lysosome, endosomes etc. But why doesn't it include the mitochondria and the chloroplast?
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Adenosine receptor affinity states

Adenosine receptors have two different affinity states. Can an antagonist action like 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine change the affinity state as a fast form of adaption, before new adenosine receptors are ...
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0answers
21 views

Caffeine metabolism

Can you tell me the physiological difference between the following two cases: 80mg caffeine is taken 201.6mg caffeine is taken 6 hours ago by a half life of 4.5h for caffeine (equals 80mg caffeine ...
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1answer
49 views

Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

Is cell cycle arrest needed for apoptosis to occur? I note that some of the factors that mediate cell cycle arrest induction (e.g. DNA damage) happen to be responsible for initiating apoptosis as well....
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1answer
110 views

Is synesthesia caused by crossing the circuitry of different sensory inputs?

I have a question about human perception. After reading the book "Sensory Perceptual Issues in Autism and Asperger Syndrome" and knowing about synesthesia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synesthesia) ...
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2answers
110 views

Can the human body utilize electricity? [closed]

In any way could the body store electricity supplied externally?
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2answers
25 views

Do PC-12 cells have to be stored in nitrogen?

My lab has been storing their PC 12 cells in the -80 freezer... upon arriving here and investigating a new project I see that it specifically stated to be stored in nitrogen vapor? Is this the ...
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1answer
29 views

How a particular composition of molecules result into life in form of cell? [closed]

I had read biology in childhood only, but as far as I can remember every living thing/being is made up of cells in the lowest level. Cells again are made up of some particular composition of molecules....
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0answers
9 views

Does order matter with background subtraction and summed intensity projections?

I have some 60 frame fluorescence microscopy movies of cells that have been dedrifted. It's a 60X magnification image, and I'm interested in bringing out the contrast of some organelles above ...
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0answers
26 views

Rapid polymerization inside cells

I am interested in (rapid) polymerization or (rapid) long mollecule synthesishappening in the intracellular space. Clearly protein synthesis or DNA/RNA synthesis are examples of elongation of ...
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0answers
352 views

What is the weight of a single human sperm (spermatozoon) compared to a single human egg

While the difference in dimension is well covered, I have been unable to find the mass measurements of each.
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2answers
50 views

Do different people have the same number of mitochondria in comparable cell types?

e.g. will a lymphocyte in one person have roughly the same number of mitochondria as a lymphocyte in another person.
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3answers
333 views

For how long can animal body cells survive outside the body? [closed]

I'm researching on the topic that if bacteria have souls then animal cells and plant cells also do for an article. 1) Is there a way to make any of the body cells survive outside the body for a ...
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2answers
118 views

How do cells relocate transmembrane proteins from one side of the cell to the other? Is it possible?

Is there a process by which cells can relocate proteins residing on the cell membrane in areas of low demand to that of a high demand location somewhere else in on the cell? What's that process called?...