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Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Contact Inhibition of Cell Division: Signaling Pathway

The following article refers to contact inhibition of cell division in epithelial cells, specifically MDCK cells: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. In their review ...
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Is there a karyotype database for human cell lines?

I'm looking for the karyotype of a specific cell line. Some karyotypes are well known, such as HeLa or some carcinomas, but some are very hard to find, such as LG2 (B cells). Is there a database ...
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What metabolically happens when an egg fuses with the nucleus of a somatic cell

In stem cell biology, it is recognized that embryonic stem cells are transcriptionally inactive for the first 3 days of development. However, during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus is ...
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What are these balls in meshopyll cells? [Plant biology]

Anybody knows what are these small balls? The picture was collected with a confocal fluorescence microscope. These balls have a green epifluorescence and they are in mesophyll cells of rice leaves.
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Do leaves grow larger by adding cells at the centre or at the edge?

I'm writing a paper on wrinkling of plant leaves. For biological and physical background information, I would like to know whether leaves grow by adding cells at the edge, at the center or in a ...
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176 views

What's the difference between proliferation and diffusion when talking about changes in tumor density?

Cell proliferation and cell diffusion seem to be important quantities to estimate when trying to understand or measure tumor growth, but I don't really understand a) the difference between them or b) ...
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805 views

Which are the last cells of the human body to die?

When somebody dies, which are the last surviving cells of his/her body? Those of hair, nails, or some other obscure but resilient cells? Shedding light on why and how they are so vital might boost ...
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161 views

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue?

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... , I would tend to think that there are few hundreds cells in the meristem tissue. But I guess this is a picture ...
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What's inside the perinuclear space?

The cell proper contains the cytoplasm in general and the cytosol in particular when referring to the fluid/gel without notable organelle. Once we move inside the nucleus there is the nucleoplasm and ...
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Is there a practical upper limit to ploidy?

In my AP Biology class, we were discussing polyploidy, specifically, its deleterious nature in mammals and its prevalence in plants. We also learned that commercial crops, especially fruit, are often ...
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Excess proteins in cells

Damaged proteins are broken down in cells by ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Do cells experience excess of proteins? If yes, how excess proteins are taken care of?
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Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
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A hypothetical nerve damage question

If a 100 pound bucket is dropped on someone's hand, what will this do to the nerves, will they get crushed, will they die? And how will this affect that person's ability to feel or move their hand?
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How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
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394 views

Do plants have cellulases?

I can't seem to find the answer to this. Not even Wikipedia could help- it mentioned bacteria and fungi that have cellulases but not plants. Using my own reasoning, I would think that On the one ...
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What are the sizes of the cells that make up human hair?

The question is in the title, but I'll explain why the question arose. I'm curious about the rates that various cells in the body divide, and have found various information relating to this, but ...
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What is the essence of difference of how different chemicals affect the same receptor?

It is known that various chemicals can bind to the same receptor type, producing different effects. Be these chemicals agonists or antagonists, there are more variations in how they influence the ...
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How do scientists determine the nature of ions passing through a channel/carrier/pump?

The NCE (Sodium Calcium Exchanger) transports 3 Na+ inside the cell for 1 Ca2+ outside. How did we figure this out, and other mechanisms of this sort? If it were a protein, we could tag it with GFP. ...
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What change would you expect in phospholipid orientation of the membrane if the enviornment were mostly heptane?

The external and internal environment of the cell is basically water, thus phospholipids organize themselves the way they do (bilayer). If the environment were to magically become mostly heptane, how ...
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Antibody staining

I am staining tissue sections and I did a mistake, I was supposed to have mixed 3 primary antibodies but I stained only with one of them. After the 1h incubation I washed 10 min with PBS and then I ...
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What is the purpose of Prostaglandin F2-alpha and the Prostaglandin F receptor in the melatonin cell signaling pathway?

I've been doing a lot of research recently on the melatonin cell signaling pathway for an extra credit project at school. I've included an image in this post, which is a diagram of the MT1 pathway. It ...
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Why do erythrocytes have no MHC1 but platelets do?

Red blood cells do not have a considerable number of MHC1 through their membranes, and that's explained by them not having a nucleus. But why do platelets have MHC1s if they have no nucleus either? I ...
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Why there is replication of DNA before meiosis?

It seems to me that, even without replication of DNA before meiosis, the homologous pairs can still do crossover, and then be pulled to opposite poles, directly forming 2 haploid gametes.
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Can photorespiration do any good?

When CO2-levels are to low plants start to photorespirate instead of photosynthesise. This cost them losses in energy, and adds CO2 to the atmosphere instead of O2. I wonder if the photorespiration ...
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245 views

How long can one go with necrosis?

In general, when a limb dies, how long does it take before it falls off? Can you go years with a black and useless limb, or does it just.. fall off right away?
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Why is competence useful for a starving cell?

I know that some bacteria become competent when there is not much food available in their environment. I don't really understand why this is useful for the cell. I've seen some other organisms form ...
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371 views

Motile egg cells

According to the Wikipedia article on anisogamy, some types of this form of sexual reproduction involve motile egg cells, i.e. they're capable of movement under their own power, just like sperm cells. ...
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Would canines that consume the stomach of ruminant prey animals benefit from any of the bacteria and enzymes present in the rumen?

This question is inspired by the growth in popularity of raw diets for pet dogs. Green tripe is a common addition to these diets, with many claims of probiotic benefits. Here's an example from a ...
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262 views

What is the lifespan of Skeletal Muscle Cells?

I have read that skeletal muscle cells cannot multiply and are generally not created after early development. However, I have also read that they have a "lifespan" of 10-15 years. Could this lifespan ...
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151 views

Question about genetic recombination

I am having some difficulty understanding a few things about genetic recombination, in part because of confusion from different diagrams in books. First of all, I wanted to verify whether I have ...
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75 views

Is it possible to isolate cells harboring a specific DNA sequence?

Suppose on cell subpopulation harbours within its genome a specific DNA sequence that do not exist in other cell subpopulations. Is it technically possible to isolate such subpopulation ? and if yes, ...
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Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
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434 views

L-tryptophan in mammalian cell culture

Why must the concentration of L-tryptophan be kept to a relatively low level when culturing mammalian cells? It's an essential amino acid, so I cannot fathom why low concentrations as opposed to ...
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What Chemical Trigger Causes Ectomycorrhiza To Change From Asexual To Sexual?

I want to know the trigger behind the change of asexual to sexual ectomycorrhiza when symbiosis with a tree root is formed. As ectomycorrhiza attaches itself to a root, it forms a relationship wherein ...
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Can I leave BL21(DE3) cells in room temperature?

I am preparing competent cells, and I finished inoculating a single colony in SOB. It has been incubating at 37 degrees Celsius for almost 16 hours since, and it's getting very late where I live. I ...
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497 views

How to prevent e coli from clumping (for FACS)?

I'm performing FACS on e coli, but the cells are clumping together so each event is multiple cells. I ran a control where I had one flask of e coli expressing GFP, and one flask expressing RFP. Run ...
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657 views

Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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112 views

Microscopy Book Suggestions

I've learned programming through great book recommendations; many from the Stack Exchange series of sites. I'm hoping to take this approach in order to gain a fundamental understanding of how ...
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What regulates cyclic AMP?

After reading a textbook chapter on GPCRs I am still confused by what regulates cAMP. I took in my notes that cAMP is made by adenylyl cyclase and destroyed by cAMP phosphodiesterases (also another ...
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Is homocysteine converted to glutathione during oxidative stress?

From the paper titled "The basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders" by Ramaekers et al., 2016: On the left side of the figure, the purine metabolite GTP serves as the ...
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Volvox Cellular Reintegration

A couple of days ago, I answered this question over on worldbuilding.SE with some information about volvoxes, and commenter Liam Proven pointed out that one of the claims I made was dubious. I had ...
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Why does pyruvate from lactate and pyruvate from other sources follow different pathways in gluconeogenesis?

My teacher taught me in a lecture that PEP forms from Pyruvate by two ways, based on their sources, that is - 1. If the Pyruvate was from lactate (by lactate dehydrogenase action), it gets shuttled ...
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Looking for realistic representation of angiosperm sperm cells during pollination

I've scoured Youtube, google, and a handful of my botany textbooks for a cellular-scale photo, animation, or video illustrating an angiosperm sperm cell during pollination/fertilization. ...
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How do molecular biologists determine biochemical pathways?

I'm new to this community, so hopefully this is the right place to ask this question. I know my question is really general, but in all of my biology courses we are merely taught the chemical pathways ...
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How did genome replication first synchronise with cell division?

It is obvious that cell division in living organisms is now synchronised almost perfectly with DNA replication and, furthermore, the line of division has to intersect exactly the space between the two ...
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34 views

how can I get stronger staining for my lymph node sections

I am using the same protocol and same antibodies that the literature says but still I cannot get good staining for my lymph node sections, I tried to change the fixation method and I am using now ...
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63 views

eosinophil question

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect? A. All cells of the immune system originate in the Bone Marrow B. Lymphoid progenitor cells originate from a pluripotent stem cell C. B cells ...
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59 views

Can we investigate the cell biology of extinct microorganisms?

I know that there are microfossils, but not if we can we know about the organelles, genetics or macromolecules of the cells that left them behind.
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Rapid polymerization inside cells

I am interested in (rapid) polymerization or (rapid) long mollecule synthesishappening in the intracellular space. Clearly protein synthesis or DNA/RNA synthesis are examples of elongation of ...
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Are there special pairs present in the RC of both photosystem I and photosystem II?

I am confused regarding the existence of special pair (primarily regarding PS2). Do both, P680 and P700 have special pair? I have checked various sources online and have come across conflicting ...