Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Why is prophase the longest stage of M phase in mitosis? Also why is anaphase the shortest stage [closed]

In a bio experiment, we had to observe the onion root tip cells undergoing mitosis. By counting the total no. of cells and the cells in different stages, we had to calculate the approximate time of ...
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
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ATP Synthase and athletic performance [closed]

Is anyone using ATP Synthase output measurements to produce an improved athletic performance?
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Can Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfer multiple T-DNA segments at once?

Is it possible for Agrobacterium to transfer two T-DNA segments to a plant from two different binary vectors within the cell?
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Are gametes diploid or haploid?

Some sources say that gametes are haploid, some say that they are diploid. I'm confused.
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What is the current scientific consensus regarding the relationship between Eukaryotes and Archaea?

In the traditional 3-domain system, the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota are all distinct from one another, with the latter 2 usually being sister-groups in a clade. However recent evidence ...
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Anyone Know What This Is?

So I don't know much about plant structure or biology in general but I found this little guy while on X10 and x40 lenses on our school microscope while looking at a leaf. I'm not sure if it's part of ...
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RBCs and blood group [closed]

RBCs of humans do not have a nucleus present in them. But I have seen that parents ( atleast one of the parent) and their offspring have the same blood group. How do people determine the blood group ...
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What is the purpose of interkinetic nuclear migration during neurogenesis?

I am reading about neurogenesis and I am learning about the different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells and basal progenitors). I have read that ...
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What is bacterial (prokaryotic) cell division called?

Eukaryotic asexual cell division is sometimes referred to as mitosis, although this is more strictly used to refer to the specific stage at which “the replicated chromosomes separate into two new ...
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Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

I am a mechatronics engineer who stopped learning biology after high school - but this is bothering me. mRNA is, if I recall correctly, created in the nucleus of the cells and migrates out of the ...
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85 views

What are the uses of centrioles and matrix of centrosomes?

In centrosomes, the gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC) located on the surface are essential as the nucleation site for the growing (with polarity) of microtubules. However, I see that there is ...
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What metabolically happens when an egg fuses with the nucleus of a somatic cell

In stem cell biology, it is recognized that embryonic stem cells are transcriptionally inactive for the first 3 days of development. However, during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus is ...
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Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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Why do plants need a continuous source of energy even though they already have cell walls that protect them from lysis? [closed]

I understand why animals including humans need continuous stream of energy to survive, without it our cells would not be able to pump water out and our cell membrane would explode, leaving ...
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Jurkat single cell clonal expansion

I'm hoping to do a clonal expansion of Jurkat, expressing my construct which is currently transduced virally. From the FACS data I currently have roughly 30-40% expression in my culture but I need it ...
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1answer
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Is Signal Transduction Unidirectional from the Stimuli to the Final Receptor?

I wonder if signal transduction in biological systems including visual, olfactory, tactile or any other biological system, is unidirectional. Suppose that $X_i$ is the $ith$ cell in the signal ...
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What are the differences between Anastral Centriole and Amphiastral centrosome?

Differences that I am able to draw out of the terms is the (1) astral rays and (2) presence of one or two centriole during division, what will be the key difference between the two? Since astral ...
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How much MPa of pressure can human cells survive?

Is there any research on this topic with concrete numbers? I found some papers of high pressure tests on microbes, but not on human/mammal cells. What I want to find is true "crush depth" ...
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Do the cadherins involved in adherens junctions and the cadherins in desmosomes "communicate" at all?

I think I have a basic understanding about the function of these cytoskeleton-linked junctions, and they can link one cell to another and the interaction of cadherins of adjacent cells give the ...
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Multicellular but uninucleate?

The "standard" biological setup is one cell-one nucleus (with one or more chromosomes and zero or more plasmids). Multinucleate cells are a thing (e.g., in fungi)--a situation wherein a ...
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How does oxygen help break down food? [duplicate]

I'm familiar with cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the set intracellular chemical reactions that utilize oxygen. One example reaction is this: ...
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1answer
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Do plants originate from a single cell

I read the generalization that life originates from a cell, and from my understanding animals, they originate from a single cell, produced as a result of sexual reproduction. And then life begins to ...
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Attaching suspension cells to coverslip during mycoplasma contamination detection

I am planing to screen my cell cultures for mycoplasma contamination using the Hoechst 33258 DNA staining method. This method is suitable for adherent cultures. Is this method suitable for ...
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254 views

What is the difference between fragmentation and true regeneration?

I read in my book that Planaria (flat worms) undergo true regeneration. Fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses multiply by fragmentation. What is the exact difference between fragmentation ...
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How is RNA content distributed in daughter cells during cell division?

During cell division, DNA becomes equally distributed between the daughter cells. But how is RNA content distributed in the daughter cells?
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Skin (epithelial) stem cells: unipotent or multipotent?

In a video on the Khan platform on stem cells, epithelial stem cells are described as unipotent stem cells, i.e. only producing one kind of specialised cell: epithelialor skin cells. However, on a ...
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Biomechanics of cells (stress, strain, tension..)

I am confused about the difference between stress, strain, tension, pre-strain and prestress in cells (especially in in-vitro experiments, like cell spreading on a substrate, cell doublets, cell ...
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Fixing the cell with 4%PFA and staining with PI to observe cell cycle?

I am wondering whether we can replace 70% ethanol to fix and perm the cells with 4% PFA to observe the cell cycle. Do I understand correctly that 4% PFA can permeate the cells, thus the PI will ...
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Is lysozyme present in the lysosome? [closed]

Is lysozyme present in the lysosome? I cannot find anything about this in the literature.
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Number of membrane proteins of a particular type per cell

Is it possible (or meaningful) to count how many proteins (protein copy number?) of a certain type a given cell has on its surface? For instance, say there is some membrane integral protein ...
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322 views

DNA or enzymes — which came first?

Considering that the DNA needs enzymes, to be formed, however enzymes need DNA to be formed too. What biomolecule was created first?
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Which agar block can have the highest diffusion rate, the smallest cube or the thinnest cuboid

I was determining which will have the highest diffusion rate is it the smallest agar cube like (6×6×6)mm or thinnest agar block(3×30×30)mm because I did not exactly know it the surface area to volume ...
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RNA or ribosome, which one moves during translation?

During translation ribosomes decode the genetic information present in the mRNA and protein synthesis takes place. During this process which of those two does move, the ribosome or the mRNA?
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Does a cell suspend or exit cell cycle at G0?

In an exam, there was one question which asked whether the cell exits or suspends cell cycle at G0 phase. I answered that it exits cell cycle but the official answer key says it suspends cell cycle. ...
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why does translation occur more frequently than transcription?

In our textbook it says that translation occurs more in a cell than transcription but I couldn't find anything that explains why it happens
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Can tissue flow apart instead of being tightly attached?

Every tissue of our human body consists on cells and cells are not like static "LEGO bricks". They are highly dynamic and can actively move around, due to myosin-actin networks inside the ...
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2answers
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Are (muscle) satellite cells the same as muscle stem cells?

In terms of muscle: are the terms 'satellite cell' and 'muscle stem cell' interchangeable? That is, are there muscle stem cells that are not satellite cells, or vice versa?
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How do the maximum rates of calcium pumping compare between the calcium ATPases SERCA and PMCA

Two important Calcium ATPases found within cells are the Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) and the Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA). Both use ATP to help maintain resting calcium ...
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

In recent scientific articles, it has been discovered how the spike protein not only is a respiratory disease but also damages blood vessels cells directly, and is connected with higher risk of ...
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Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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What causes cells to inactivate one X-chromosome?

Normally, when a cell has two X-chromosomes (female genome), one is randomly inactivated. How does the cell detect that there are two X-chromosomes in the first place? Is there some kind of protein ...
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51 views

What are the small white dots in an onion cell seen under an electron microscope?

We had to use an electron microscope in class for an assignment and used onion cells. On the 40x and 100x magnification there are tiny white dots and I was wondering if someone could tell me what they ...
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What are the differences in ultrastructure of cilia and flagella?

Cilia and flagella are aimed for similar perpose, motion. And both of them show the (9+2) microtubule arrangement. They are nearly identical in structure. But to be more specific , where exactly does ...
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Do all human cells have all the same organelles?

I know that not all human cells have nuclei (erythrocytes eject theirs before they are fully matured), but do all human cells have all the other organelles? The two I'm particularly concerned with are ...
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Contradiction between random molecular collisions and regulated cellular processes [closed]

A cell is a chemical system, consisting of billions of molecules, ions, and atoms. These chemical species are constantly engaged in chemical reactions. Physics gives the impression that chemical ...
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25k views

What is the number of DNA strands per cell?

I wonder if each cell possess only one strand of DNA which according to my book is more than "7 feet" long(if uncoiled), then why does human has 46 chromosomes which are actually coiled chromatin (DNA ...
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4k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
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Do animal cells have vacuoles?

I overheard a rather heated argument about whether or not animal cells have vacuoles. One person said that they do, but they're much smaller than vacuoles in plant cells. The other person said they ...
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Aerobic vs anaerobic respiration comparison

The following graphs compare glucose decomposition in yeasts (in anaerobic vs aerobic conditions respectively) My question is, why doesn't the first one look like a straight line as the second one ...

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