Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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31 views

Amount of carbon captured in photosynthesis by a plant

Is it more proportional to the mass or the volume of the plant? I thought it might be helpful to think on the cellular level here. Even a reference to an external explanation would be useful.
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Does the term 'protein expression' refer to the production of proteins only or also their regulation?

I am learning about molecular biology and I have come across the term 'protein expression' in a research paper. I have searched the definition of this term online and on the Thermo Fisher Scientific ...
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What are the uses of centrioles and matrix of centrosomes?

In centrosomes, the gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC) located on the surface are essential as the nucleation site for the growing (with polarity) of microtubules. However, I see that there is ...
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Clustal Percent Identity Matrix results [closed]

I'm looking at percent identity matrix output from Clustal (also see Clustal 2) How do I interpret this in order to understand what is more and what is less related to the SARS-Cov 2?
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Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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Autophagy - Questions on phagophore

In the first step of autophagy (macro-autophagy), the 2 membranes of phagosome lipid bi-layer expand to enclose the proteins and organelles that need to be degraded at the lysosome, which seems to be ...
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Difference between tissue compression and compaction

I often see these two terms used when studying models of cell dynamics. Is there a technical difference between the terms "compression" and "compaction" of a cell tissue?
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Do we know how gravity may impact cells?

Do we know how gravity may impact cells? Do we know every different ways the force of gravity may impact biological processes, or are there certain things we don't know yet, and what are they?
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When transmembrane proteins destined for the plasma membrane are in the ER membrane are they in their final folded form?

I am studying how transmembrane proteins are made and I have read that proteins that are destined for the plasma membrane are initially in the ER membrane and do not get translocated into the ER lumen ...
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What is special about Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (PAM) fluorometry?

I know that PAM fluorometry is used to measure chlorophyll fluorescence and understand the principle of those measurements. It is in principle clear to me from prior research in the literature, that ...
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What is meant by 'topologically continuous' in the context of cell compartmentalisation?

I am reading the textbook 'Molecular Biology of the Cell', and I am reading the chapter about the compartmentalisation of cells. I have come across the following statement: The nucleus and the ...
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How to incerase the efficiency of co-immunoprecipitation?

immunoprecipitation recently. My main problem is i am getting very clean and my target protein only (as you see in the lane 3,4,5,6) but when i reduced the NP40 concentration to 0.05 percentage i ...
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Why do cells in meristematic tissues lack vacuoles?

Cells located in meristematic cells in plants lack vacuoles. However, this contradicts with the fact that plant cells have large vacuoles to store water and keep the plant in an upright position. I ...
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Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in the endosome

I am learning vesicular transport of LDL endocytosis. I understand as pH of the endosome is lower (around 6.0) than cytosol (around 7.2) due to the H+ pump, so LDL disassembles from the LDL receptor ...
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How broad are the conclusions that one can make from a heterologous expression experiment?

I am studying whether a neural protein regulates the activity of the protein GSK3. I am using heterologous expression systems where I am overexpressing the neural protein in CHO cells (via ...
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What are the advantages of heterologous expression systems?

I am doing research in a lab and I am relatively new to wet lab work. Many experiments that people are doing in my lab include overexpressing a protein of interest from another species (e.g. mouse) ...
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Which terminology is better: Heterologous expression system or heterologous cell model?

I am reading a journal paper and I have read that the authors expressed the extracellular domain of the protein NCAM2 which is normally found in the brain in CHO cells. I know that this is an example ...
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Can proteins be located on the surface of the mitochondria?

I am learning about the mitochondria and I know there are proteins present in the mitochondrial matrix such as SOD2, but I was wondering for a protein to be located on the surface of the mitochondria ...
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Is it necessary to calculate lane normalisation factor when doing western blot data analysis?

I have recently done my first western blot and I am doing data analysis to quantify my blot. I have labelled my membrane against inactive GSK3 and active GSK3 which are phosphoproteins so I am using ...
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How does the Endoplasmic Reticulum scale with Cell Volume in Epithelial Cells?

I am working on a mathematical model of a biological tissue (drosophila pupal notum; an epithelial tissue) where the tissue is built up from cells all described by the same cellular-model. The tissue ...
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Why am I finding peculiar B cell population when pbmcs are cultured for 3 days with CD40L?

While performing intracellular cytokine assay on B cells, I am finding a peculiar population. I use 2*10^6 cells for studying each functional marker. The pbmcs are cultured for 72 hours, with CD40L ...
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Is the phrase “transmembrane segment” equivalent to the transmembrane domain of a protein?

I am reading the Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology and I am learning about the cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 and I have come across the following: The overall structure of NCAM2 ...
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1answer
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What is meant by “opposing plasma membrane” with respect to cell adhesion molecules?

I am reading the Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology and I am learning about cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and I have come across the following: CAMs are involved in homo‐ or ...
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Do HEK293T cells express sufficient endogenous G-Proteins for calcium imaging?

I want to transfect different GPCRs to HEK cells and then do calcium imaging. I was wondering if the endogenous expression levels of Gq are high enough.
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Neanderthal minibrains vs human minibrains

Minibrains are lab-grown balls of neurons that have some (distant) semblance to a brain. One study showed that cells with the genome replaced with Neanderthal genes produced mini-brains that were &...
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Why are certain cells more likely to be attacked in autoimmune conditions?

For example, type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks and kills beta cells in the pancreas. This is relatively common. What makes beta cells more likely to be targeted than, say, alpha ...
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How to assemble three 60mer nts by pcr?

Good morning, I am new to molecular biology. The question might be silly but i would like to know the answer. I have three 60mer single strand synthetic oligonucleotide. Namely Tag 1 - 3. My goal is ...
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How does the inactivation process of vaccines work on a cellular level? e.g. how does an inactivated virus look really?

it's very easy to find information what is an inactivated or dead virus, more or less. But I want the full detail. If you heat treat a virus, what is left of it? like chopping the virus into pieces? ...
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Electrochemical and concentration gradient confusion [closed]

I am learning membrane transport and learnt that there are 2 gradients that determine passive and active transport. If the concentration of a cation is higher in the cytoplasm side (hence ions should ...
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102 views

Introns and miRNA

From this paper, it is stated that some introns may contain genes coding for miRNA, miRNA is essential in regulating gene expression by pairing with RNA, hence disrupting regular translation. From ...
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Dealing with heterochromatin during DNA replication

Heterochromatin are present along the chromosome (uncoiled state). With the highly-condensed structure relative to euchromatin, RNA polymerase cannot get into the DNA base pairs in heterochromatin and ...
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Flip-flopping in plasma membrane

Flip-flopping of lipids (and in proteins it is impossible) in plasma membrane is rare due to high energy barrier (video ref). However, it is an important mechanism since it allows asymmetric ...
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Skin (epithelial) stem cells: unipotent or multipotent?

In a video on the Khan platform on stem cells, epithelial stem cells are described as unipotent stem cells, i.e. only producing one kind of specialised cell: epithelialor skin cells. However, on a ...
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Western blotting: what common tweaks do you make to the protocol and why would you make membrane cuts?

I'm building an app which helps researchers plan out Western blots, record protocol tweaks and receive warnings in the app if: you're trying to multiplex antibodies of similar molecular weight on the ...
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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Are all fish that can live in either salt water or fresh water bigger than some critical size that is larger than the smallest of fish?

I cannot understand this answer. I don't know much about biology or have a lot of trouble recalling stuff from a university biology book I bought for a course I never took because it was so long ago ...
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1answer
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
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How many cells need to be damaged before a human can feel it as pain?

I'm guessing the answer to this question is rather large. Skin cells die all the time, it seems, and that never registers as painful. But suppose you rupture or otherwise destroy a group of cells, say ...
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Question on cellulose synthase

How does the rosette structure of synthase cause the cellulose synthesized to be aligned next to each other? I just cannot visualise how a rosette structure can be able to cause the celluose to be ...
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Question about : RNA interference - small-interference RNA AND about Rab-protein in vesicles

First Question : RNA interference - small-interference RNA in the textbook -Essential cell biology By Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Karen Hopkin this Figure is Shown my question is : if the foreign RNA ...
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Which feature better accounts for the strentgh of cellulose?

Cellulose is a fibrous molecule which is insoluble in water Cellulose has OH groups that form hydrogen bonds with adjacent cellulose molecules Which of these properties better account for the ...
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Gibson assembley for small fragments?

I am new to the Gibson assembly, I know how I need my plasmid but main problem is I don't have short tags and linker so I wanted to do Gibson assembly? 5'-...
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When the sister chromatids are joined in the centromere, why is it stated that the number of chromosomes is 46 and not 72?

Before the DNA is replicated in a human somatic cell, the cell has 46 chromosomes. Also, after the sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase, the chromosome number in the cell doubles to 72, so ...
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Is the number of nucleoli in a nucleus fixed?

A nucleus can have multiple nucleoli. But are there any constraints on the number of nucleoli in a nucleus? Can cells of individuals of different species have a different number of nucleoli? Can ...
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
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VDJ sequencing in mice, DNA or RNA?

I am wondering if anyone who is well versed with VDJ sequencing for TCR repertoire analysis (specifically CDR3) would know if DNA or RNA is a better starting material? We are looking at the effects of ...
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What type of epithelium are the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans?

The human pancreas contains exocrine acinus cells (simple cuboidal epithelium) and Islets of Langerhans. Despite looking online I cannot identify what type of epithelium the Islets of Langerhans ...
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Do plant viruses attack animals? examples? [duplicate]

Do plant viruses attack animals, if yes please give an example of the virus. I feel both plant and animal viruses are different, and they cannot attack each other hosts.
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Why is the number of cells virtually a constant?

Going back to highschool, I learnt about mitosis: in order to renew their cells, eucaryots' cells divide themselves into two copies. But my course didn't cover what moderate the replication. By ...
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How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

In prokaryotes, if there is an mRNA with a good (almost the consensus sequence) Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, ribosome proteins will bind to it. In eukaryotes, ribosome binds to the 5' cap, then start ...

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