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Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Why is a Na-K pump necessary if the neural membrane is impermeable to Na+ ions during the resting phase? [duplicate]

If the neural membrane is impermeable to Na+ ions during the resting phase, why does it require a Na-K pump to expel sodium ions? What causes the accumulation of Na+ ions inside the membrane if it is ...
JAYANT SINGH GBPP's user avatar
11 votes
4 answers
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Why are heavy metals toxic? Lead and Carbon are in the same group. One is toxic, the other is not

I have read the different answers on the toxicity of heavy metals but I am still confused about the topic. Why does the mass of the nuclei matter when chemical reactions only involve the electrons. ...
Shaktyai's user avatar
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Cell Signaling: What is meant by "sustained tonal induction"?

I am reading a journal paper about the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. I have a question about the following statement in the paper: IGF/IGF-IR stimulates the PI3K-Akt pathway in a ...
ceno980's user avatar
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Why do receptor tyrosine kinases undergo constitutive endocytosis?

I am reading a journal paper about the endocytosis of receptor tyrosine kinases. I have a question about the following statement: At the cell surface RTKs undergo constitutive endocytosis (...
ceno980's user avatar
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Which functions of skin cells have scientists been able to revert 30 years?

According to this article Scientists discover new method to reverse ageing in human skill cells by 30 years (and several others from 2022-2024) "Researchers said they have been able to partly ...
Pablo's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is there one second messenger molecule for each hormone?

I have learnt about a number of different types of second messenger molecules including cAMP, IP$_3$, Ca$^{2+}$ and DAGs. Hormones interact with signal proteins in the cell membrane which transduces a ...
Jojo's user avatar
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Is inner membrane of mitochondria less permeable than outer membrane?

Given below are two statements: Statement I: Mitochondria and chloroplasts both double membranes bound organelles. Statement II: Inner membrane of mitochondria is relatively less permeable, as ...
Ridip's user avatar
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1 answer
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How can I be more accurate in my cell counting?

For some reason, when I use my hemocytometer, my counts and calculations always come out really small. My equation is: (cell count / # of boxes) * dilution factor * 10,000 = cells/ml. (I usually only ...
MakM's user avatar
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Any tips to reduce cell death (from thawed fibroblast cell cultures)?

I have been doing cell culture for about a year now. When I thawed my fibroblast cell line, everything went to plan. When I checked them a day later, they were all dead (<3-5% confluent). I'm not ...
MakM's user avatar
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Desplasmolysis while maintaining hypertonicity

I prepared a sample of an onion cell by putting it in a hypertonic solution and was able to observe plasmolysis. However, when I observed it few hours later using a microscope, I found that ...
Stockfish's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Why does increased age cause degradation?

(I'm not super familiar with biology just curious, so bear with me!) My understanding: As people get older (or are very unhealthy) they have accumulated more "bad habits" than others who are ...
Rookynote's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
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Cell viability assay: Problems with MTT assay in the solubilization step

I am testing two compounds against 3 cell lines to determine cell viability. Two lines grow in Eagle media, one in DMEM (+10 Percent bovine serum) which contain phenyl red indicator. I prepared 3 ...
raptorlane's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
134 views

What is H-activation vs. O-activation in the context of cellular respiration?

I was reading this article on Albert Szent-Gyorgyi and on page 7 there's this statement: Now, I thought myself capable of tackling a biochemical problem. I embarked on biological oxidations. At that ...
imrobert's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Cynobacteria vs. BGA

I am really confused. On google and other places(though very old) it is mentioned that Cynobacteria are the same as BGA(Blue-Green Algae) and are technically bacteria and are places under the kingdom ...
S.A's user avatar
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Why does my cell subculture have these black dots like appearance?

I tried to subculture cells(hek293 cells) for the first time for a Cell Biology experiment, and here are the steps I followed:- Cell subculture (*the media is a mix of 10:1:0.1 of DMEM:FBS:Pen/Strep) ...
Khushi Parashar's user avatar
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For Cytotox studies of anticancer compounds: What cell line can I use to check if my compounds will also damage healthy cells?

I am about to perform cytotox studies on cells with my synthesized compounds. I want to test my structures against MCF7 cells (breast cancer) as well as a melanoma cell line. MCF7 should be vunerable ...
raptorlane's user avatar
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What's the difference between a mitogen and a cell cycle stimulant substance?

It's been a week since I got this question asked and I still have no clue. I have thought that the main difference would be that the mitogen induces mitosis, and the cell cycle stimulant substance ...
Lacketh's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
110 views

Why would decreased temperature be associated with increased cell size, in deep-sea crustaceans (or in general?)

I was reading Wikipedia regarding deep-sea gigantism -- the fact that deep-sea species are often much larger than their shallow-dwelling counterparts. The article said, Decreasing temperature is ...
Ryan's user avatar
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1 vote
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Mitochondrial shape and function

I was wondering how can mitochondria come in different shapes and sizes? And why are they always shown as ovals on textbooks? p.s. I would appreciate any suggestions for wider reading on mitochondria ...
learningsheep's user avatar
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Receptor tyrosine kinases: Clarification about what is meant by stabilization of the receptor

I am reading a journal paper. This paper focuses on how neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) interacts with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and promotes its stabilization. When FGF binds ...
ceno980's user avatar
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How can I introduce Na+ in cells?

If in a solution with living cells Na+ ions are included do the cells intake it only because of the concentration?
Mercury's user avatar
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Griffith's Experiment Conclusions

My teacher gave us these two questions on Griffith's experiment. How did Griffith's experiment rule out that the rough cells could have used the capsules of the smooth cells to become pathogenic? ...
Pain's user avatar
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0 answers
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Cell Size and Morphology of Microalgae under Wastewater

Hypothetical situation ahead, I am just curious whether the cell size and cell morphology of microalgae changes when it is under the influence of wastewater. For instance, mixing the microalgae ...
Kris's user avatar
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1 answer
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Is this contamination, debris?

I have been culturing SVG cell lines. This line was obtained as a live culture from another institute and was delivered by mail. After subculturing , I saw some particles, and I do not know what they ...
JEME's user avatar
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What distinguishes a colony from multicellular organism?

I would like to inquire what made biologists conclude that colonies such as the famous Volvox is an organism constituted by independent cells as opposed to a multicellular being. I read that it has ...
Jj Luntayan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
53 views

How much effort is it to establish a cytotox assay for cancer cell lines against a small number of possible compounds?

I am currently testing a series (5-10) of small molecule compounds against an enzyme that are intended as inhibitors. This enzyme is meaningful for cell proliferation. Until now, nothing was active ...
raptorlane's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
35 views

What determines whether a cell divides by Mitosis or Meiosis?

What I learn from biology class is that mitosis is for producing somatic cells in animals and the gametes of some plants. And meiosis is for production of animal's gametes. I am curious about what ...
Puppis Pawis's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
41 views

Autotrophy vs. Heterotrophy in Chemotrophs

What's the difference between chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs? They do both get their energy from high-energy inorganic particles, right?
Mark's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
60 views

What is meant by the stabilization of a receptor?

I am reading a journal paper, and have a question about the below statement: PSD-95 is involved in the recruitment, trafficking and stabilization of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) and α-...
ceno980's user avatar
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What happens if a lysosome is pierced and it's enzymes are made to get released

I am confused the results be same as it happens when lysosome gets damaged during some metabolic activity or different . If same the cell will die by the actions of those hydrolytic enzymes slowly or ...
Aishna Sharma's user avatar
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Was there a first biological cell on earth? or a similar cell originated simultaneously around the world?

It logically follows that if life began on earth and life is cellular, then either that life began singularly or began simultaneously around the world? What is the evidence or argument for either ...
8Mad0Manc8's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
56 views

Are all unicellular eukaryotic organisms protists?

I know that the Protists are in Domain Eukarya, and that some protists are unicellular. Are there any other eukaryotic group of creatures that are not protists that are unicellular?
Kunj Parikh's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
99 views

Storing bacteria in a dry, room temperature long-term storage whilst maintaining viability

I'm quite new to biology, but I'm wondering if there are any methods of storing bacteria in long-term, dry conditions with no climate control. Perhaps they could be dormant in a powder or granule-like ...
Lee's user avatar
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2 answers
161 views

Does recombination occur in both chromatid of a chromosome with homologous chromosome? Or only 1 chromatid participate in crossing over?

A chromosome has two chromatids. In meiosis weather both chromatid participate in crossing over or just only 1 chromatid does? So, I am asking whether 1 turquoise and 1 purple chromatid participate ...
Amit Kumar's user avatar
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0 answers
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AP2 Binding to LDL Receptor

Is Ap2 always bound to the LDL receptor and only binds clathrin when it detects a change in the LDL receptor, i.e. LDL binds?
bio_rocks's user avatar
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0 answers
13 views

FH (familial hypercholesterolemia)and LDL Receptors

I'm trying to understand how FH affects LDL receptors. Does FH affect the function of LDL receptors (mutates them) or the number of LDL receptors at the plasma membrane at any given point? Or both?
bio_rocks's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
45 views

Induction of IFN-beta in HEK293T

I'm trying to increase expression of a protein we're attempting to study, UBL7, supposedly unregulated by Type I Interferon and particularly IFN-beta. I've tried treating HEK293T cells (~60% ...
Tom Murphy's user avatar
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0 answers
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Does this cryoEM micrograph show one or two macrophages?

Attribution: CC BY 2.0 DEED NIAID. The image description says "Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a macrophage," implying this is just one macrophage. Is this true? If so, what is the ...
ning's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
77 views

Are cytoplasm and collagen basic in nature?

Eosin is acidic in nature. Hematoxylin is basic in nature. What I have learnt about H and E staining is that the nucleus is blue in colour because it is acidic and takes up the basic dye, Hematoxylin. ...
Dr Tenma's user avatar
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0 answers
41 views

What is the difference between an immortalized human cell line and a cancerous cell line?

Many cell lines (like CaCo2) are derived from cancerous tissue, and hence, like any other tumor cell, they have an infinite replicative potential. However, many cell lines like HaCaT cells are not ...
Adheeti's user avatar
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1 answer
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Does this explanation hold good even in case of Mitotracker red?

When the fluorescence intensity is higher when the depolarization is high? The more damage to the mitochondria, the more mitochondrial dysfunction and therefore more fluorescence intensity. So, in ...
user76965's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
132 views

Does the molecules in nerve cell membrane change 100% during the life of the nerve cell?

In their lifespan nerve cells do not divide and so they stay the same. They do get damaged sometimes and require some maintenance and change their axons a bit. They also require a lot of energy so ...
Lauri's user avatar
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0 answers
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Examples of mechanisms of metabolic trapping inside cells that create concentration gradient

I am looking for examples in biology in which a metabolite that can diffuse freely across a cell membrane (through passive diffusion), once inside, gets modified to a form that cannot diffuse back ...
Massimo Bilancioni's user avatar
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Effects of oxygenated water on bacteria

I was curious if any of you would happen to have any experience with this but any hypotheses regarding how this would turn out would be much appreciated. I’m wondering if water fully aerated with ...
Jaston's user avatar
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0 answers
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Explanation behind the observed chloroplasts in Elodea during Hypotonic vs Isotonic Solution

Me and my colleagues put the elodea leaf in distilled (hypotonic) and tap water (isotonic). We observed under the microscope that the elodea under the hypotonic solution became elongated and turgid, ...
Jj Luntayan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
62 views

Can multi-cellular organisms transform into single-cellular organisms and conversely?

If we have a multicellular organism A, can it transform into an organism B in its lifespan, so that B is single-cellular? And conversely given a single-cellular organism B, can it become a multi-...
Jakobian's user avatar
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How is axis formation in the mouse embryo determined?

I recently came across this MCQ question when revising for stem cell biology exam. "How is axis formation in the mouse embryo determined?" The 5 options are as follow: A. By sperm entry ...
Mona Xia's user avatar
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0 answers
52 views

Is there such thing as "being aware of itself" at a cellular level, or is awareness only a multicellular thing?

It appears to me after a brief thought, that you need multiple cells to send and coordinate messages in order to have "self awareness". Basically, you need some sort of centralized brain it ...
Lance's user avatar
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0 answers
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Proportion of cell layers in the different areas of human cortex

I am looking for any scientific paper or book which could help me find the different proportion of layers across the different areas of the human cortex. I am working on a research project which ...
Matheus C.'s user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
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Where can I find a video of human cells reacting to cold water vs warm?

I have the following lists: ...
Andrew Arrow's user avatar

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