Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Do same DNA sequences lead to the same proteins in all organisms? [duplicate]

I'm not a biologist, but I am curious about a particular question about DNA. As I understand DNA encodes proteins using special sequences of nucleotides and cells decode these proteins from DNA during ...
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Why is it possible to render fat if it's in cells?

To the casual onlooker, fat seems like a mass of yellow-white material, composed of lipids. Biologically speaking however, rather than being a large mass, it's actually divided among countless cells, ...
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Is Thylakoid membrane continuous with the Inner membrane of Choloroplast?

This article mentions that thylakoid membrane is continuous with the inner membrane of cholorplast Thylakoid membrane encloses the innermost compartment or thylakoid lumen. The inner membrane of ...
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How easy is it for quantum dots to enter the intracellular portions of cells?

As quantum dots have better quantum yield than organic dyes, many are being developed as a substitute for them. Nonetheless, could these substitutes be small enough to enter inside cells as current ...
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Thermodynamically, how did the first cell arise?

Living cells are biochemical systems that constantly perform chemical reactions. One of the important consequences of these chemical reactions is the capacity of a living cell to replicate itself. The ...
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Question about using primary neuronal cultures from mice to support findings from in vivo models

I am analysing synapse formation during early postnatal development using the brains of postnatal day 2 (P2) and postnatal day 10 (P10) wild-type and knockout mice. Through Western blot analysis, I ...
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Should a red blood cell in hypertonic solution be drawn with a nucleus or not?

I'm a student at 6th stage in High school from Iraq. I need to draw a red blood cell when it is put in a hypertonic solution; "high concentration of solute and low concentration of solvent". ...
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Apply Shannon-Weiner index to evaluate single-cell sample balance?

I would like to identify single-cell clusters where each sample is evenly represented in it. Is it OK to calculate the Shannon-Weiner index from the sample counting data of each cluster? I am worrying ...
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In fluorescence microscopy images what is meant by the term "puncta"?

I am reading papers where confocal fluorescence microscopy images were analysed. In many of the papers I see the term "puncta" being used when researchers analyse the colocalisation between ...
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Does it make sense to say that microtubules are arranged in a ring around the cell periphery?

I am reading a journal paper and it is about how the organisation of microtubules are altered in CHO cells that overexpress microtubule-associated protein Tau. In the paper, the authors found that ...
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What controls the growth of a body?

Everything in our bodies is made of cells - bones, muscles, brain, blood. How do cells know how to build a body? Granted, each cell has a blueprint of the whole body in its nuleus, the genome. Does ...
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Why/How can Hydrophobic things pass the lipid bilayer? [duplicate]

I’m just looking for a simple answer for this question. I’m in Bio 10, and don’t know the in depth stuff. So the lipid bilayer is hydrophilic and the ends, but hydrophobic in the middle; so how can ...
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Is centrosome one of the structures that red blood cells lose during maturation process?

Centrosomes are microtubule organising centres- their function is to facilitate cell division. RBCs don't undergo division. They are produced via hematopoeisis in the bone marrow. It doesn't even have ...
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What is the difference between apoptosis caused by the release of enzymes from the electron transport chain vs that from the lysosome?

I know that the mitochondria is responsible for regulating apoptosis via release of enzymes from the electron transport chain. I believe that the release of hydrolytic enzymes from a lysosome is how ...
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Why are heterologous expression systems such as mammalian cell lines commonly used for studying interactions between neuronal proteins?

I am reading papers about heterologous expression systems and I have seen that they are used a lot in neuroscience to studying interactions between proteins that are normally expressed in the brain. I ...
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Will plant cells absorb "atypical" chemicals dissolved in water, by diffusion or otherwise?

I want to know what determines whether a chemical dissolved in water, will or will not be absorbed into a plant. I imagine this can happen at a few different levels -- through roots, or at a cellular ...
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Is P-Glycoprotein (or lack thereof) associated with sulfa drug sensitivity / allergy?

A deficiency in membrane P-Glycoprotein is known to cause toxic effects in some organ systems due to the increased bio-availability of drugs that are transported by P-Gp. Has it been shown that sulfa-...
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Is circular DNA the same as plasmids?

Chloroplasts have circular DNA, but would it be right to say that they have plasmids? Are plasmids and circular DNA even the same thing? Thank you in advance.
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What are proliferating, but "normal" (non-cancer, non stem) cells of the human (mouse)?

What are proliferating, but "normal" (not cancer, not stem, not differentiating) cells of the human (mouse) ? Typically after differentiation process finished the cells stop proliferation. ...
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Why bananas exposed in UVC light turn brown afterwards?

We have this research, where we test if our germicidal disinfection box is working and is functional by doing the banana test, where we expose the green banana to UVC and if the exposed peel turns ...
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Can a Gi GPCR receptor be equivalent to a Gs one?

Doesn't a Gi receptor agonist produce the same effects as a Gs receptor inverse agonist thus making them opposite and usable to achieve the same effects? I speculate this considering that one inhibits ...
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Isolated mitochondria in glucose rich solution, what happens to ATP generation?

I'm taking intro to biology course this year, and I was thinking about this question. Isolated mitochondria were placed in a glucose rich solution. (With ADP and Pi). How would this affect the ATP ...
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How do transmembrane proteins bind to specific locations on the membrane?

Taking a specific case, how do some GPCRs only bind to dendrites and others only to the axon terminals (reuptake receptors)?
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How fast do ions move in body when they go in and out of the cell membrane?

Do we have any measurement tools to measure the speed of ions moving in a human body, specifically going in and out of the cell membrane? Do we have any tools to know where an ion is at a specific ...
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Safety in Liposomal Amphotericin B

From reading about Amphotericin B antifungal, I understand it is quite a toxic medicine for kidney, but I am not able to find any details as to how Liposomal version of same medication is so safe, in ...
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How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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Why can't H3O+ ions pass through aquaporins?

Aquaporins are proteins that facilitate the movement of water (and related molecules) through cell membranes. (Also, these transport proteins are very specific about what they transport.) ...
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Are IgE antibodies capable of binding water molecules?

I learned in med school, that they are too small to trigger the IgE reaction that causes the release of histamine. However, I came across reports of this condition; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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In plasmid-based transient transfection of mesenchymal stem cells, do I have to select for transfected cells and verify GOI expression via a reporter?

I am transiently transfecting mesenchymal stem cells with a mammalian plasmid-based expression vector that does not contain any mammalian selection marker and also the gene of interest will be cloned ...
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Why are microtubules absent in and around the nucleus?

I was going through fluorescence microscopy and found these four images. The top left corner shows the actin cytoskeleton (rhodamin phalloidin) and the bottom left image shows the microtubule ...
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colocalization by IFA?

I have done IFA (immunofluorescence assay) previously but i targeted only one protein or i tagged my endogenous protein with GFP/RFP then i performed IFA. I want to do the IFA in parental cell line (...
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In phospho/pan analysis in Western blots, what is best way to normalise to an internal loading control?

I am analysing the expression of a protein kinase X that is a phosphoprotein through Western blots. I have labelled the membrane for both the phosphorylated form of the protein and also for the total ...
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When analysing phosphoproteins via Western blot, why is total protein level of the target protein recommended as an internal loading control?

I am analysing the expression of a protein kinase via Western blots, and it is a phosphoprotein. I have labelled my membrane with antibodies against the phosphorylated form of the protein (using ...
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Can you use images taken at different exposure times in western blot image analysis?

I am doing Western blot data analysis where I have images from a number of experiments (where the samples in the experiments are biological/technical replicates). For each experiment, I labelled the ...
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How arteries split into smaller blood vessels?

I am not sure if I am asking question that is hard to answer precisely. I just have begun learning about anatomy and physiology and have watched bunch of human dissection videos online. I feel like ...
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

In recent scientific articles, it has been discovered how the spike protein not only is a respiratory disease but also damages blood vessels cells directly, and is connected with higher risk of ...
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Atom or Cell? Which is the basic unit of life? [closed]

As it is said that everything in this universe is made up of atom and molecules and atoms is called the building block of matter. But then why the cell is called the basic unit of life, why not atoms?
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How to select a microscope for deep microscopy? Specifically for Deep Learning/ML model development

I am new to biology and microscopy. I am a data scientist. I am faced with a question on selecting a good microscope that enables automation of scanning the slides. And cellular object detection using ...
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What actually kills a plant that requires winter dormancy if it is kept indoors all year?

In bonsai practice, beginners will commonly purchase a juniper (often Juniperus procumbens 'Nana'), which is an outdoor tree, and keep it inside all year. The tree invariably dies. It is commonly ...
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Does cell culturing contribute to dangerous antibiotic resistance to the same degree as livestock?

According to the CDC, antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. The largest incubator for antibiotic resistance is the factory farming of animals where ...
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Acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing capacity

how many cells can a CTL eliminate sequentially? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are a subset of the adaptive immune system which can target cells for apoptotic elimination. This elimination begins ...
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Why is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) less effective for interspecies?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), a process for replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with a nucleus containing genetic information of a different animal, seems to be very useful for cloning and ...
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Are there any "in vivo" DNA replication fidelity assays?

I haven't been able to find a way to assess the fidelity of DNA replication in vivo as opposed to in vitro. I was wondering, would it be possible to find this by sequencing the DNA of individual cells ...
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Amount of carbon captured in photosynthesis by a plant

Is it more proportional to the mass or the volume of the plant? I thought it might be helpful to think on the cellular level here. Even a reference to an external explanation would be useful.
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Does the term 'protein expression' refer to the production of proteins only or also their regulation?

I am learning about molecular biology and I have come across the term 'protein expression' in a research paper. I have searched the definition of this term online and on the Thermo Fisher Scientific ...
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What are the uses of centrioles and matrix of centrosomes?

In centrosomes, the gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC) located on the surface are essential as the nucleation site for the growing (with polarity) of microtubules. However, I see that there is ...
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Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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Difference between tissue compression and compaction

I often see these two terms used when studying models of cell dynamics. Is there a technical difference between the terms "compression" and "compaction" of a cell tissue?
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When transmembrane proteins destined for the plasma membrane are in the ER membrane are they in their final folded form?

I am studying how transmembrane proteins are made and I have read that proteins that are destined for the plasma membrane are initially in the ER membrane and do not get translocated into the ER lumen ...
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What is special about Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation (PAM) fluorometry?

I know that PAM fluorometry is used to measure chlorophyll fluorescence and understand the principle of those measurements. It is in principle clear to me from prior research in the literature, that ...

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