Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Why do cells in meristematic tissues lack vacuoles?

Cells located in meristematic cells in plants lack vacuoles. However, this contradicts with the fact that plant cells have large vacuoles to store water and keep the plant in an upright position. I ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) in the endosome

I am learning vesicular transport of LDL endocytosis. I understand as pH of the endosome is lower (around 6.0) than cytosol (around 7.2) due to the H+ pump, so LDL disassembles from the LDL receptor ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

How broad are the conclusions that one can make from a heterologous expression experiment?

I am studying whether a neural protein regulates the activity of the protein GSK3. I am using heterologous expression systems where I am overexpressing the neural protein in CHO cells (via ...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

What are the advantages of heterologous expression systems?

I am doing research in a lab and I am relatively new to wet lab work. Many experiments that people are doing in my lab include overexpressing a protein of interest from another species (e.g. mouse) ...
-1
votes
1answer
31 views

Which terminology is better: Heterologous expression system or heterologous cell model?

I am reading a journal paper and I have read that the authors expressed the extracellular domain of the protein NCAM2 which is normally found in the brain in CHO cells. I know that this is an example ...
-1
votes
1answer
75 views

Can proteins be located on the surface of the mitochondria?

I am learning about the mitochondria and I know there are proteins present in the mitochondrial matrix such as SOD2, but I was wondering for a protein to be located on the surface of the mitochondria ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Is it necessary to calculate lane normalisation factor when doing western blot data analysis?

I have recently done my first western blot and I am doing data analysis to quantify my blot. I have labelled my membrane against inactive GSK3 and active GSK3 which are phosphoproteins so I am using ...
7
votes
1answer
134 views

How does the Endoplasmic Reticulum scale with Cell Volume in Epithelial Cells?

I am working on a mathematical model of a biological tissue (drosophila pupal notum; an epithelial tissue) where the tissue is built up from cells all described by the same cellular-model. The tissue ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Why am I finding peculiar B cell population when pbmcs are cultured for 3 days with CD40L?

While performing intracellular cytokine assay on B cells, I am finding a peculiar population. I use 2*10^6 cells for studying each functional marker. The pbmcs are cultured for 72 hours, with CD40L ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Is the phrase "transmembrane segment" equivalent to the transmembrane domain of a protein?

I am reading the Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology and I am learning about the cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 and I have come across the following: The overall structure of NCAM2 ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

What is meant by "opposing plasma membrane" with respect to cell adhesion molecules?

I am reading the Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology and I am learning about cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and I have come across the following: CAMs are involved in homo‐ or ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Do HEK293T cells express sufficient endogenous G-Proteins for calcium imaging?

I want to transfect different GPCRs to HEK cells and then do calcium imaging. I was wondering if the endogenous expression levels of Gq are high enough.
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Neanderthal minibrains vs human minibrains

Minibrains are lab-grown balls of neurons that have some (distant) semblance to a brain. One study showed that cells with the genome replaced with Neanderthal genes produced mini-brains that were &...
3
votes
1answer
19 views

Why are certain cells more likely to be attacked in autoimmune conditions?

For example, type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks and kills beta cells in the pancreas. This is relatively common. What makes beta cells more likely to be targeted than, say, alpha ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

How to assemble three 60mer nts by pcr?

Good morning, I am new to molecular biology. The question might be silly but i would like to know the answer. I have three 60mer single strand synthetic oligonucleotide. Namely Tag 1 - 3. My goal is ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How does the inactivation process of vaccines work on a cellular level? e.g. how does an inactivated virus look really?

it's very easy to find information what is an inactivated or dead virus, more or less. But I want the full detail. If you heat treat a virus, what is left of it? like chopping the virus into pieces? ...
-1
votes
1answer
171 views

Electrochemical and concentration gradient confusion [closed]

I am learning membrane transport and learnt that there are 2 gradients that determine passive and active transport. If the concentration of a cation is higher in the cytoplasm side (hence ions should ...
4
votes
1answer
115 views

Introns and miRNA

From this paper, it is stated that some introns may contain genes coding for miRNA, miRNA is essential in regulating gene expression by pairing with RNA, hence disrupting regular translation. From ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Dealing with heterochromatin during DNA replication

Heterochromatin are present along the chromosome (uncoiled state). With the highly-condensed structure relative to euchromatin, RNA polymerase cannot get into the DNA base pairs in heterochromatin and ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Flip-flopping in plasma membrane

Flip-flopping of lipids (and in proteins it is impossible) in plasma membrane is rare due to high energy barrier (video ref). However, it is an important mechanism since it allows asymmetric ...
4
votes
1answer
149 views

Skin (epithelial) stem cells: unipotent or multipotent?

In a video on the Khan platform on stem cells, epithelial stem cells are described as unipotent stem cells, i.e. only producing one kind of specialised cell: epithelialor skin cells. However, on a ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Western blotting: what common tweaks do you make to the protocol and why would you make membrane cuts?

I'm building an app which helps researchers plan out Western blots, record protocol tweaks and receive warnings in the app if: you're trying to multiplex antibodies of similar molecular weight on the ...
-2
votes
2answers
132 views

DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
-3
votes
2answers
62 views

Are all fish that can live in either salt water or fresh water bigger than some critical size that is larger than the smallest of fish?

I cannot understand this answer. I don't know much about biology or have a lot of trouble recalling stuff from a university biology book I bought for a course I never took because it was so long ago ...
4
votes
1answer
196 views

Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
0
votes
2answers
85 views

How many cells need to be damaged before a human can feel it as pain?

I'm guessing the answer to this question is rather large. Skin cells die all the time, it seems, and that never registers as painful. But suppose you rupture or otherwise destroy a group of cells, say ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Question about : RNA interference - small-interference RNA AND about Rab-protein in vesicles

First Question : RNA interference - small-interference RNA in the textbook -Essential cell biology By Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Karen Hopkin this Figure is Shown my question is : if the foreign RNA ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Gibson assembley for small fragments?

I am new to the Gibson assembly, I know how I need my plasmid but main problem is I don't have short tags and linker so I wanted to do Gibson assembly? 5'-...
0
votes
1answer
159 views

When the sister chromatids are joined in the centromere, why is it stated that the number of chromosomes is 46 and not 72?

Before the DNA is replicated in a human somatic cell, the cell has 46 chromosomes. Also, after the sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase, the chromosome number in the cell doubles to 72, so ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

Is the number of nucleoli in a nucleus fixed?

A nucleus can have multiple nucleoli. But are there any constraints on the number of nucleoli in a nucleus? Can cells of individuals of different species have a different number of nucleoli? Can ...
9
votes
1answer
404 views

Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

VDJ sequencing in mice, DNA or RNA?

I am wondering if anyone who is well versed with VDJ sequencing for TCR repertoire analysis (specifically CDR3) would know if DNA or RNA is a better starting material? We are looking at the effects of ...
0
votes
1answer
161 views

What type of epithelium are the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans?

The human pancreas contains exocrine acinus cells (simple cuboidal epithelium) and Islets of Langerhans. Despite looking online I cannot identify what type of epithelium the Islets of Langerhans ...
-2
votes
1answer
63 views

Do plant viruses attack animals? examples? [duplicate]

Do plant viruses attack animals, if yes please give an example of the virus. I feel both plant and animal viruses are different, and they cannot attack each other hosts.
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Why is the number of cells virtually a constant?

Going back to highschool, I learnt about mitosis: in order to renew their cells, eucaryots' cells divide themselves into two copies. But my course didn't cover what moderate the replication. By ...
6
votes
1answer
280 views

How can a good SD / Kozak sequence enhance translation efficiency?

In prokaryotes, if there is an mRNA with a good (almost the consensus sequence) Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence, ribosome proteins will bind to it. In eukaryotes, ribosome binds to the 5' cap, then start ...
4
votes
1answer
345 views

What is Lysoferrin?

I was going though my Guyton and Hall Medical Physiology when I came across the name of an antibacterial lysosomal enzyme - Lysoferrin. It said that Lysoferrin "binds to iron and other metals ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Why don't the cell organelles settle down in the cell under the influence of gravity? [closed]

In cuboidal or columnar cells or cells of any other shape the nucleus and the other organelles and inclusions remain suspended in the cytoplasm. Why doesn't gravity affect them ? Could this be because ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Potential obstacles to growing nanoelectronics within living cells? [closed]

Say there was a nanotechnology allowing to "grow" and wire up electronic components/sensors measured only a few nanometers in cross-section, though spanning in length across microns. Say ...
0
votes
1answer
130 views

Osmotic pressure and turgor pressure details

I am a high school student and I am very confused in how we define osmotic pressure? Osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure required to stop the diffusion of solvent into a solution by applying ...
-2
votes
1answer
79 views

How could I make my fish gold?

I'm doing research on how the pigmentation of fish. I want to know how could you change it with the help of genetic modification. I have some Silver Dollar fish (Metynnis argenteus) and I want to make ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

cell proliferation assays for research proposal

I'm an undergrad Biology student and I'm working on a research proposal for a certain course. I need help or guide on cell proliferation assays. I have a target gene , recent papers show that this ...
-1
votes
2answers
189 views

Are animal cells animals themselves?

If all life can be divided into several kingdoms, and if the cells that make up organisms are the smallest units of life, does that mean that cells are part of those kingdoms as well? E.g. are animal ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

When was peptidoglycan discovered?

I've searched for some time now, but I can't find a definitive answer. The closest I have gotten is "knowledge about peptidoglycan structures dates back to the 1970s–80s" from this paper.
3
votes
2answers
219 views

What is the significance of the phospholipid bilayer being two-dimensional?

I'm wondering about the significance of the phospholipid bilayer being a two-dimensional fluid. I found this powerpoint: I also found that thetwo-dimensional fluids have limited degrees of freedom. ...
9
votes
2answers
901 views

How does blood reach skin cells and other closely packed cells?

When I see diagrams of cellular structures such as the layers of the skin, these diagrams show the cells as being closely packed together. For example here is a typical such diagram: So, it shows the ...
2
votes
1answer
91 views

Decreasing signals in assay measurements

I'm working with a calcium assay to study the effects of different virulence factors. The assay works, but from day to day the signals of cell lysis go down. Unfortunately, I haven't found an ...
1
vote
2answers
546 views

What does the term 'glycogen mobilisation' mean?

I read that glycogen is a mobilised store of glucose: Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be ...
10
votes
1answer
450 views

Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
4
votes
1answer
168 views

How do organelles divide?

I'm sure by the nature of this question you will come to know my amateurish knowledge in biology. During mitosis, they simply state that the organelles just replicate...while we are provided somewhat ...

1 2
3
4 5
33