Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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102 views

How does glucose uptake happen in the various tissues of the body?

I know that the GLUT4 transporter allows for insulin-dependent uptake of glucose in skeletal muscle, liver and adipocytes. I also know that GLUT2 transporters are present in the liver and allow it to ...
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716 views

Is the cell cycle applicable to meiosis as well, or just mitosis?

All the diagrams I can find, show the cell cycle as having G1 phase (growth 1), S phase (DNA replication), G2 (growth 2) before the Mitotic phase (mitosis + cytokinesis). Is there an equivalent "...
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Why don't weak detergents lyse the nuclear membrane?

A low concentration of a non-ionic detergent lyses the cell membrane, but leaves the nuclear membrane intact. Both are phospholipid bilayers, so why is only the cell membrane lysed? Under these ...
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Location of genes encoding ribosomal proteins

I have cited two sources below: the first, a textbook, says ribosomal proteins are imported into the nucleolus (from the cytoplasm) where initial ribosome assembly occurs. The second is a journal ...
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4answers
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Are there any organisms that are made of more than one (~5-12) cell?

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are unicellular, made of one cell. Great. Eukaryotes are unicellular or multicellular. But the typical examples of multicellular eukaryotes we have are made of, often, ...
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262 views

Primary function of cell wall is [closed]

A. Controlling volume B. Providing shape C. It's selective permeability D. Protection against bursting To me, all the given options seem correct except C. A and D are correct when the cell is placed ...
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1answer
51 views

metaphors for explaining the role of DNA in the cell [closed]

Various metaphors are used to explain the central role of DNA in a cell to laypersons. These include blueprint, recipe, catalogue, instruction manual etc. I even heard someone describing DNA as a '...
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58 views

How do viruses provide selective advantage

I've heard in many talks as a passing, well-known fact that viruses(e.g. pathogenic HPV strains) offer selective advantage for the infected cell to multiply. But I'm not able to quite wrap my head ...
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What are the interaction energies/chemical potential values for the cytoplasm - protein interactions within the cytoplasm?

I'm trying to simulate phase separation in a biological based system using a Cahn Hilliard model. I have 3 components, they are 2 theoretical enzymes and the cytoplasm. I have found plenty of sources ...
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Eukaryotic cell lysate-based protein expression efficiency

What is average efficiency of eukaryotic cell lysate-based protein expression systems in terms of (mg of protein expressed) / (mg of lysate) ?
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why does water go from high to low osmotic pressure to decrease the size of the nucleus?

I am reading this paper "Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus" (linked below) https://jcs.biologists.org/content/joces/128/18/3375.full.pdf I am confused by this ...
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What is the significance of running an uncut plasmid on electrophoresis gel?

What is the significance of running an uncut plasmid on electrophoresis gel? In this case we are talking about inserting a gene into plasmid, which then goes under PCR and then electrophoresis.
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1answer
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Need help interpreting Western blot data

So the paper I am reading (here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094582/) uses densitometric units to quantify the western blots. The authors mentioned that the unphosphorylated proteins ...
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1answer
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What is mitochondrial run length?

I am reading the following journal paper and I have come across the following statement: Overexpression of GSK-3β significantly increases motile mitochondria in a Tau protein-dependent manner. ...
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1answer
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Would there be more amino acid residues in the extracellular or intercellular space?

I am working on a bioinformatics project with HMMs and want to write some initiation probabilities for the location of amino acid residues. I know for different transmembrane proteins there will be ...
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0answers
236 views

What property of water explains how sweating helps the runner continue running?

My question I have to answer is: A runner picks up pace on a warm day and starts sweating profusely. What property of water explains how sweating helps the runner continue running? The following are ...
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2answers
231 views

How do mRNAs find ribosomes?

After mRNA is released from the nucleus, the next process is its translation by ribosomes. By what physical, chemical or biochemical process does the mRNA reach the ribosome in the cytoplasm?
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110 views

confusion in types and kingdom system of classification

I am a high school student and I want to ask: is the 'kingdom system' of classification (two-kingdom, three-kingdom etc.) different from artificial or natural classification? I am asking this because ...
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Why doesnt the SARS-Cov-2 affect other animals?

Why doesn't the coronavirus affect animals like dogs and cows? I know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus i.e. it can affect both humans and other animals. I also know that the DNA composition ...
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2answers
161 views

What is the purpose of co-translational transport?

During intracellular proteins synthesis, all proteins are made by free ribosomes in the cytoplasm and some, but not all ribosomes (those which make membrane or secretory proteins) move to the ...
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1answer
39 views

AMPK, PAN-AMPK, western blot

What does it mean by adding PAN before the AMPK. I am trying to do a western blot assay on AMPK and I am confused by PAN-AMPK, AMPK. does it mean pancreases? Is pan-ampk the total ampk?
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196 views

Does ATP production increase with oxygen availability?

I'm not a biologist so pardon any ignorance on my part. I'm working on a speculative evolution project and I'm looking to understand how the partial pressure of oxygen effects the maximum aerobic ...
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2answers
363 views

Single cell organism's brain [closed]

Multi cellular organisms have brain.But what about single celled organisms do they have brain to control the cell's work?If they have something what that part called?You can say that the nucleolus do ...
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1answer
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Question About Molecular Weight [closed]

In Lehninger's Principle of Biochemistry Pg. $14$, this is the definition for molecular weight (relative molecular mass): The molecular weight of a substance is defined as the ratio of the mass of a ...
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1answer
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How can Chronic myeloid Leukaemic drugs reduce the production of the Philadelphia genotype?

How can Chronic Myeloid Leukaemic drugs (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g. imatinib, etc.) that act by inhibiting bind of ATP to the active site of the BCR-ABL1 protein actually reduce the prevalence ...
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1answer
72 views

What is more dangerous, exotoxins or endotoxins?

Since gram- negative bacteria tends to cause disease to human and they mostly produce endotoxins. Does this mean that endotoxin is more dangerous than exotoxin? and if that so why?
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Is water movement across cell membrane purely diffusive or it always requires channels?

If we see nephrons, in the descending part of Loop of Henle (LoH), water movement is allowed but solute movement is not. On the contrary, in ascending LoH, solute movement is allowed but not water. ...
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158 views

Are specialized cells considered to have life?

A common definition of life, including the one in Biology SE Life requires physical entitites to have the capability of being able to reproduce. A process defining organisms that grow and adapt to ...
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1answer
119 views

What is the difference between a myofibril and a myoblast? (In skeletal muscle)

I read that a muscle fibre (myofiber) is formed when myoblasts fuse. https://teaching.ncl.ac.uk/bms/wiki/index.php/Skeletal_muscle#:~:text=The%20multinucleate%20feature%20is%20established%20in%...
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When and Why does G0 phase occur?

I've asked this question, specifically because i've seen this question. As we see in this diagram , G0 phase occurs after M phase and at a specific point within G1 phase. Is there a meaning to ...
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"Bacteria don't have membrane-bound organelles." Are sulfur bacteria or Cyanobacteria exceptions?

Can bacteria have membrane-bound organelles? I read this many textbooks: Bacteria cells are simple cells that do not contain a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. However, they do contain ...
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Is the mRNA produced constant during time?

I am doing a statistical data analysis of a dataset of P. Furiosus cells exposed to gamma radiation. For the samples exposed to gamma radiation, I have the values of mRNA produced over time. For the ...
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1answer
265 views

Are plasmids found in eukaryotes? [closed]

There are some who says plasmids are found in some eukaryotes but is it like scientifically proven?
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What are the differences in ultrastructure of cilia and flagella?

Cilia and flagella are aimed for similar perpose, motion. And both of them show the (9+2) microtubule arrangement. They are nearly identical in structure. But to be more specific , where exactly does ...
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192 views

quiescent stage (G0) occurs at the end of M phase or G1 phase: [closed]

I know that G0 phase occurs when certain cells exit the cell cycle during G1 phase but that means it goes to G0 phase after M phase right?
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49 views

Where are the ATP synthases synthesised? [duplicate]

The nano-machinary of energy production ATP synthase is well known to exist on mitochondrial inner membrane and chloroplasts. But how and where are they formed or synthesised ?
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2nd messenger mechanisms [duplicate]

Many hormones use 2nd messenger mechanisms, such as cAMP and cGMP, and also act on the same cells. For example calcitonin and PTH both use cAMP and have opposite effects. How is it possible that the ...
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2answers
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Are Oct4 and Oct3 the same protein?

Are the transcription factors Oct4 and Oct3, who are encoded by the POU5F1 gene, actually the same protein, or alternative spliced products from said gene?
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1answer
126 views

Do sieve tube cells have any extrachromosomal circular DNA at maturity?

In order to generate a tube system of low resistance, sieve elements lose most of their cellular components such as the nucleus, cytoskeleton, ribosomes, tonoplast etc. Mature sieve elements contain ...
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1answer
86 views

Where are neurotransmitters secreted?

As far as I know, neurotransmitters are proteins, so they should be secreted from the cell body of the neurons. However, when I checked online, they say neurotransmitters are secreted in the axon ...
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28 views

How do Rab proteins ensure specificity in vesicle transport?

From this paragraph, from Molecular Biology of the Cell 6th Edition, the author makes it quite clear that Rab proteins are important for the specificity of vesicle transport and that Rab proteins are ...
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1answer
25 views

What is the intracellular chloride concentration in rat T-cells or thymocytes

I'm modeling acid-base in T-cells as based on Grinstein J Gen Physiol 1984; 83: 341-369. I have an estimate of strong ion difference (SID), and Grinstein gives Na and K, but for SID to be true at 33 ...
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1answer
37 views

Can viruses be deformed?

Viruses are created in their fully-formed state and do not grow. But one thing has been bugging me lately: can a virus be deformed, e.g. in order to fit into an opening slightly smaller than itself? ...
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Is a FoldScope microscope suitable for plant cytogenetics?

I have recently been getting more interested in amateur botany, and have some background in genetics and genomics (PhD+). I have used standard light and confocal microscopes but don't have much ...
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48 views

How do platelets produce proteins (if they do)?

I'm aware that platelets don't contain a nucleus, but do contain mitochondria (so have mtDNA) and rough endoplasmic reticulum / Golgi. Since platelets require many important cell surface proteins (...
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1answer
69 views

Absorption of glucose in small intestine

During the absorption of glucose in the small intestine, glucose enters the epithelium by Na+/glucose co-transporter by the concentration gradient of Na+. The gradient is generated by pumping 3Na+ out ...
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1answer
254 views

What is the difference between fragmentation and true regeneration?

I read in my book that Planaria (flat worms) undergo true regeneration. Fungi, filamentous algae and protonema of mosses multiply by fragmentation. What is the exact difference between fragmentation ...
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1answer
48 views

rapidly growing mold on flat surface

For an experiment I'm conducting, I need to grow mold on a 2 foot square piece of white fiberglass. I'm in Florida, with high heat and humility, so mold already grows easily. I've seen elsewhere that ...
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How is Elysia chlorotica classified as an animal capable of photosynthesis?

Elysia chlorotica is a kind of sea slug. Technically, it's an animal. However, it undergoes a process called kleptoplasty, which is the absorption of chloroplasts from algal prey cells which are then ...
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Can the self correction mechanisms in cells imply that the DNA code to a degree is self modifying

There is an argument that proteins coded by 20 amino acids via the DNA program has so few successful protein formation that a search never can reach the complexity of it via natural selection and ...

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