Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Absence of cytoplasmic Intermediate Filaments in Arthropods

Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments such as vimentins support the architecture of the cell and have been known to aid signaling processes. However, as in this article, it is stated that out of all ...
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Why do doctors reccommend vegetable oils in high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease?

As there is high cholesterol in body why the patient need more fats and why the doctors are recommending it Transcribed: Vegetable oils are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The fatty acids ...
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mitochondria has more activity or the numbers of them are more?

If a cell is needing energy more than the other cells, does it mean that it has more mitochondria or the activity of them is more?
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Do SARS-CoV-2 virus particles really travel through filopodia and "emerge from the tips"?

Watching the new University of California San Francisco video Coronavirus forces cells to produce tentacle-like structures that infect neighboring cells I saw The growths spread out, and ...
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Can twins that develop in separate sacs but share the same placenta be identical?

I have two younger non identical twin sisters. When my mum was pregnant she was told they were both in different sacs when developing but shared the same placenta. We have done hours of research on ...
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Is there such a thing as an autotroph that doesn't use photosynthesis?

I've heard of photoautotrophs, which are just autotrophs that use photosynthesis. What I'm wondering is if there's any other way for an organism to make its own food that doesn't involve it using ...
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What is the exact definition of mitochondrial depolarization?

As I understand as per literature reading and some khanacademy(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtKAeihnbv0&t=315s): Proton gradient := the gradient created when hydrogen ions moves to the ...
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74 views

What is the pH of cytosol? And plastids?

My teacher ask this question, and I answered 7 to 7.4, but she said it's wrong. I read a lot and found the same answer (wikipedia) I'm here asking for confirmation of this and the pH inside & ...
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Origins of transcription factors and RNA Polymerase

I was learning about transcription factors and RNA polymerase from Khan Academy to supplement Dr. Robert Sapolsky's lectures on Human Behavioral Biology. As I understand: RNA Polymerase transcribes ...
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Is there a proton gradient across the cell membrane, just like for the mitochondrial membrane?

Mitochondria have a proton gradient, is there also a proton gradient between cells and the extracellular medium?
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how to culture mc38 cells

I work at a start up company in a vivarium. My boss would like me to start working with MC38 Cells. I bought all of the equipment (recommended by a colleague) and should be ready for the cells. Could ...
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Can intracellular protein initiate strong immune response?

Some autoantibodies escape immune tolerance and can cause autoimmune disease. In order to cause harm to the tissues by these autoantibodies, do the antigen need to be extracellular or membrane bound, ...
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Can hand sanitizer kill a fertilized human egg cell?

If you took a human egg cell that was fertilized in vitro and sprayed some hand sanitizer on it would it die?
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If there is such known "Mitochondrial Eve", does it means that all the mitochondrial dna in everyone's body is same?

P.S. I know not that much, just some basics, but this question really interested me :)
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Biological Calculations

(a) At the moment of fertilization a female egg is about 100μm in diameter. Assuming that each lipid molecule in the plasma membrane has a surface area of 10-14 cm2 , how many lipid molecules are ...
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162 views

Why does hypocalcaemia cause increased muscle contraction?

Calcium is needed for muscle contraction, so how does hypocalcaemia cause increased sustained contraction?
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212 views

What is the mass of a single erythrocyte?

I really have been searching through internet on different languages, but can’t find any article that answers on the question what is the single erythrocyte mass. I don’t know, I think it’s pretty ...
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Why does insertion of transmembrane domains occur in the rough ER?

To elaborate on that question, why in the secretory pathway does the insertion of transmembrane domains into the membrane occur in the rough ER as the protein is translated and threaded across the ER ...
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How is energy stored in the cotransport of molecules down to its electrochemical gradient?

I am talking about symporters and antiporters, that transport usually an amino acid against its concentration gradient while at the same time transport another molecule down its electrochemical or ...
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Removing DNA from a cell

Stupid question perhaps but what does happen if one completely removes DNA from a single cell organism? As far as I know DNA is only needed for propagating information to descendants doing it's ...
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Is it possible to make synthetic olfactory receptors?

Are there any electronic engineering technologies that allow people to make synthetic olfactory receptor that generate electrical impulses when exposed to certain proteins or molecules? If not, what ...
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Can DNA be used directly to determine the age of a mutation?

I've studied that proteins found in a sample as biochemical evidences for evolution. Its variation in structure and configuration can be used to date the age when that mutation occured, effectively ...
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How do biologists infect cells with viruses within a lab setting? [closed]

I'm writing an experimental proposal as my final paper for my single molecule biophysics class. Part of the procedure I wrote involves intentionally infecting a culture of HeLa cells with SARS-CoV-2 ...
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Protein half-life regulating gene expression

Are there any instances in real life of protein half-life regulating gene expression? For example, in a cell, Gene A produces a starting population of protein P, after which the expression of the gene ...
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Can a macrophage differentiate back into a monocyte?

I know that monocytes differentiate into macrophages when they enter the tissues, but do macrophages stay in those same tissues for the remainder of their lifespan, or do they differentiate back into ...
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Edema and hydrostatic pressure

I'm currently studying Robbins basic pathology, and I'm confused about a specific statement: It states in the book that when hydrostatic pressure is low due to a lack of albumin synthesis, it leads ...
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106 views

Why do meristematic cells have prominent nuclei and dense cytoplasm?

I've been reading about meristematic cells having prominent nuclei and dense cytoplasm. However, I could not understand why it is that way. Could somebody please explain?
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What are the short/long term effects of chloroquine on fundamental cell processes?

Does chloroquine, which affects the endosomal membrane traffic pathway (by affecting the acid environment used for fundamental endosomal reactions), have short/long-term effects on cell growth/...
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Do larger unicellular eukaryotic organisms have larger organelles?

It seems that many of the giant unicellular eukaryotic organisms (size 1mm and above) are multinucleate but there are some with a single nucleus as well (the genus of Acetabularia). My question is: do ...
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Can single-cell organisms have through-holes? (Are donut-cells a thing?)

I've watched a YouTube video about microorganisms, which featured a shot (below) of a single-cell organism, that looked like it had several through-holes in its body. Somehow I have a pretty steady ...
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Does Remdesivir interfere with human transcription?

Remdesivir is metabolized into a nucleotide analogue. It is incorporated in the viral genomes causing either termination of transcription or a dysfunctional genome. Thus, the new viral particles ...
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why does translation occur more frequently than transcription?

In our textbook it says that translation occurs more in a cell than transcription but I couldn't find anything that explains why it happens
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Does an FAD:FADH2 ratio exist in the cytoplasm? (similar to NAD+:NADH ratio?)

I have learned about a lot of enzymes/proteins which are covalently bound to FAD, and use this as an oxidising agent. In vivo, FAD is (almost) always protein bound (very low concentrations of free FMN/...
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Is there any other sources of hydrogen carriers for the Electron Transport Chain other than the 3 main metabolic pathways?

I am learning about the 4 main metabolic pathways for cellular respiration. I learned that NADH and FADH2 hydrogen carriers are essential in the Electron Transport Chain, because they deposit their ...
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Ways cancer cells spread through blood

If I understand correctly when tumor grows, it can reach blood vessel and then spread through it to another organ - it called metastasis. How do cancer cells then are spreading through blood? Do they ...
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What causes the localization of myoglobin in turkey to regions of muscle tissue?

I've read that myoglobin localization is responsible for the darker colour of leg muscles in turkeys. Why does this localization occur in terms of any of cell biology, molecular biology, or ...
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Do plants take in the same amount of CO2 as they release?

There are many claims in the media that trees remove more carbon dioxide form the atmosphere than they release back into the atmosphere. By what chemical pathway can this occur? The law that matter is ...
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Question about the Derivation of the cable equation for neurites

I read in Wikipedia how the cable equation was derived (here) and had a specific problem regarding one of its equation: At the start of the derivation it states that we first need to pretend that the ...
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227 views

Proteoglycans vs Glycoproteins

On the left, is my histology book, on the right there's qoura (the internet). My histology textbook says that "unlike glycoproteins, proteoglycans have attached GAGs which often comprise a greater ...
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Why the length constant of passive current flow isn't depend on the membrane capacitance?

I read that the equation for the length constant for passive conductance along a neuron depend on the resistance of the plasma membrane, the intracellular axoplasm and the extracellular medium. My ...
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Are ligand gated channels saturable?

A major difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated diffusion has a maximum transport and velocity; the rate of diffusion is limited, whereas in simple diffusion, ...
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266 views

Why does hexokinase bond phosphate to the hydroxyl group on carbon-6 of glucose in glycolysis?

When glucose enters the cell, it is phosphorylated by the enzyme hexokinase. Why is this phosphorylation done at carbon-6? Why not at C-1 or C-2? In other words, why is glucose-6-phosphate being ...
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Protein content in chemical composition of different phyla?

The protein content in the human body is roughly 15%, what are the percentages for other organisms? Bacteria, plants, fungi, protozoa, etc.
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What causes the overactivity of keratin production and expression in the cells of the nail bed/ nail matrix after some traumata?

What is the cellular mechanism of traumatic(sterile) onychodystrophy(hypertrophy)? I.e one hits his toenail and has it removed twice( once after the first trauma and then again 3 years after the first ...
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318 views

Does Rough ER (RER) produce phospholipids?

I have found out that rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) produces membranes. Therefore it has to produce phospholipids, but I thought that the smooth ER was where the synthesis of lipids occurs. What ...
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What gene targets associated with the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been identified so far?

One hypothesis for which we have some supporting evidence is that the new virus (SARS-CoV-2) "enters human cells through an interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2" see here. Although it is ...
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Tools for modelling and visualizing growth of cells

I am looking for a program/GUI app/package that would help me do simulations for cell growth. I have a microscopic mathematical model, and the scenario is basically the following: I start with a rod-...
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What causes cells to inactivate one X-chromosome?

Normally, when a cell has two X-chromosomes (female genome), one is randomly inactivated. How does the cell detect that there are two X-chromosomes in the first place? Is there some kind of protein ...
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52 views

Relationship between bacteria size and temperature?

I'm, doing a research in a TOC (total organic carbon) degradation in a BAC (biologically active carbon) filter for the grey-water treatment. Recently, I started to wonder if there is a relation ...
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From stem cells to fully differentiated cells

I'd like to understand better how stem cells produce fully differentiated cells via progenitor cells. I assume the following: Only cells that are not fully differentiated do divide at all. When a ...

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