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Questions tagged [cell-signaling]

Tag for questions related to the process of cells receiving a stimulus from its environment, or from itself (autocrine signaling), and responding as a result of the stimulus.

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Exporting RNA in extracellular vesicles (exosomes)?

I'm interested in how much is know about the process by which RNA is secreted from cells into extracellular vesicles. Where is a good place to start reading about this? How much is known about this ...
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Why is inhibition of inhibition (reciprocal inhibition) such a common motif in cell signalling?

In transcriptional regulation, you often find that positive signals proceed by inhibiting or destroying a protein that is in turn inhibiting or destroying the effector protein. This can be seen in the ...
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Why is erythropoietin produced in the kidney?

Erythropoietin is a hormone produced in the kidney to stimulate the generation of more red blood cell. It is triggered by low oxygen via HIF transcription factors. Makes sense. Oops, oxygen is low, ...
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48 views

Is there a reason for the lack of full RTK structures?

Bocharov et al. (2013) write that As there are no structures of full-length RTKs [receptor tyrosine kinases], we do not fully understand how different domains function together to mediate signal ...
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1answer
107 views

What is the difference between a cytokine, a hormone and a protein hormone?

I'm trying to figure out the difference between hormone, cytokine and protein hormone. It's clear to me that all three are biological messengers, but there seems to some ambiguity and overlap between ...
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1answer
31 views

T-Cell Motility: does motility require direction specific actin polymerization?

T-cells have been shown to migrate inside concentration gradients - both in the direction of the source or away. Even under shallow gradients, t-cells move. I argue that, to be able to move in a ...
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1answer
52 views

Is every neurotransmitter receptor an ion channel?

This is a rudimentary question--perhaps the answer is well known to biologists, but is every neurotransmitter receptor also an ion channel? For example, NMDAR is a glutamate receptor and cation ...
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Can we take diffusion coefficient constant in modeling cellular signaling processes?

I am majorly interested in signaling through molecules inside living organism. I want to know that when we model any cellular signaling process, do we take diffusion to be constant of the protein/...
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Is there some example of cell signalling being replaced by nanomachines?

We have listened a lot about nanomachines treating diseases. I just want to know if there some research going on where nanomachines replace the corrupt cell signaling to treat diseases? Elaborating ...
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29 views

Why inhbition of RTK will not help in a case of mutant EGF?

I was given the following as an example for a quiz question but i don't understand the answer. Any help will be most welcome: Question: Iressa is a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor. As a young oncologe, ...
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1answer
544 views

What is the difference between Integrin to Cadherin?

My question is probably very basic but i couldnt get it in lecture and not from looking in the net. What is the difference between Integrin to Cadherin. By difference I am looking for say: ...
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Why is calcium ion signalling so closely implicated in cytoskeletal remodelling/function?

A common motif in cell signalling is the release of calcium ions from the endoplasmic reticulum, or influx from the cell environment - it is commonly seen that the resultant raised intracellular ...
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Does vesicles fragmantation (fusion) during endocytosis require energy?

In the process of endocytosis, does the stage of fragmanting of the vesicle membrane to the cell membrane requires energy? I know that the disconection of the Vsnare and t-snare from the membrane ...
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How does the Lgr5 receptor contribute to maintaining stemness in the intestine?

I don't understand the connection between Lgr5 receptor and Wnt between Paneth cells and stem cells. And how does this link to the EphB-EprinB inhibition between transit amplifying cells and ...
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What is the purpose of Prostaglandin F2-alpha and the Prostaglandin F receptor in the melatonin cell signaling pathway?

I've been doing a lot of research recently on the melatonin cell signaling pathway for an extra credit project at school. I've included an image in this post, which is a diagram of the MT1 pathway. It ...
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1answer
45 views

How does cell detect if a RNA polymerase II is stalled during transcription and in turn deploy the proper transcription-coupled repair factors?

When a segment of the template strand of DNA is damaged due to factors such as UV radiation, a lesion is created that would effectively block the passage of RNA polymerase II during transcription. ...
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Does a cell deprived of growth factor undergoes apoptosis or G0 stasis?

I can't seem to find a decisive answer on this topic on any of my textbooks. If a cell is deprived of growth factors does it: Activate apoptosis Go in G0 phase but keeps living? Thanks.
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What could inhibit root growth in plants?

I am thinking of the practicality of "prosthetic roots", but they would be no use if the root kept growing back around the prosthetic root.
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How do cells relocate transmembrane proteins from one side of the cell to the other? Is it possible?

Is there a process by which cells can relocate proteins residing on the cell membrane in areas of low demand to that of a high demand location somewhere else in on the cell? What's that process called?...
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Does “eating less” stimulate cell starvation?

2016 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was given for the study of autophagy. Judging from the description, a healthy cell responds to starvation (and other types of stress) with autophagy. Does ...
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How do cells reproduce more slowly in the later stages of the human pregnancy?

I’m a 5th grader learning human reproduction and both my father and teacher told me that in the later stages of pregnancy the cells reproduce more slowly. What are the regulating mechanisms? Is it ...
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How do cell signaling ensures time synchronization?

Let us suppose two cells A and B communicating with one another, I want to know how do cells ensure time synchronization while communicating. For instance, let us assume cell A sends a sequence '110'. ...
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How do photoreceptors overcome the ambiguity of wavelength vs intensity to determine brightness?

I asked a similar question about the Principle of Univariance yesterday, but now I have another one. According to the Principle of Univariance, the input to a photoreceptor differs along two ...
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1answer
65 views

Do cells communicate only in binary levels?

In modern communication we generally have various schemes to communicate the given signal, one of them is to convey information with different levels. does cell signaling too have levels apart from ...
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What are these lines that connect into cells called?

I just recently watched a very interesting video that showed cell division under a microscope. In the video, you can see cells that have either one, two or more lines connected to them. What are these ...
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Can the radius of curvature of a cell be so large with respect to the size of incoming molecule that it can be considered flat?

I want to model a cell signaling scenario where the molecules acting as a signal is getting received at the receptor protein present at the cell membrane. I want to know can this molecule size be so ...
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What happens to those molecules that are not received by receptor proteins on the cell membrane?

I am studying cell communication and come to know that proteins from outside environment gets received by receptors on the cellular membrane and then the signal is transduced inside the cell. My ...
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1answer
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Specific examples of signalling pathway using logical 'OR' and 'AND'?

I have read here that "signals from two different pathways may be needed to activate a response, which is like a logical "AND." Alternatively, either of two pathways may trigger the same response, ...
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69 views

Signaling between Organelles

I'm confused about how organelles communicate with each other. I understand signaling between cells and the whole transcription and translation of DNA process. However, how does a motor protein know ...
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54 views

Is there a measurable variance in neuronal transmission speed and fidelity?

My understanding of how neurons transmit signals is pretty basic - dendrites receive signals (both excitatory and inhibitory), transmitting them to the cell body where, if a sufficient depolarization ...
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1answer
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Exact definition of 'convergent' and 'divergence' in cell signalling?

From what I understand, we refer to 'signal convergence' as being when two different ligands/stimuli lead to the same (at least in part) responses inside a single cell. This may or may not be due to ...
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1answer
51 views

How many molecules are generally required for cell signallng processes for given cases?

I know its really a broad topic but I am interested in just few cases: Quorum sensing neurotransmitters for the communication of images/ general information hormones/pheromones I actually want to ...
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494 views

Advantages and disadvantages of sporulation compared with competence in bacteria?

Why do bacteria have both of these mechanisms to deal with the same environmental stress: nutrient deprivation? In a culture exposed to this condition, often both competent cells and sporulated cells ...
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1answer
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Is Sda a protein, or is it a protein domain of DnaA?

I initially thought that a domain was a specific part of a protein, with it given tertiary structure, to which a given molecule is able to bind. (I think I recall phrases such as "the haem binding ...
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Specificity in MAPK/ERK pathway and PC12 Cells

Background PC12 Cell stimulation leads to distinct outcomes upon stimulation with either EGF or NGF (epidermal and nerve growth factors). The outputs are transmitted through the MAPK/ERK signaling ...
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2answers
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How can calcium be a kept as a local signal in the cytoplasm?

We went through this in my class last week and it doesn't make sense to me at all. It's small and it diffuses in and out so easily so wouldn't it diffuse out quickly and thus not be a local signal? ...
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2answers
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Where and how is information about pathogen immunity stored in a cell?

If all of the DNA is being used, then how would the cell be able to store new information about pathogens in DNA? It's like a full hard drive that can't hold any more. So does the cell just compress ...
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3answers
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Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

For this reason "insulin insensitivity", or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 – the cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an ...
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Terminology for quantitative response of T cells to antigen complexes

In the article, there is a statement which is: Although DCs are remarkably efficient in evoking T cell responses with few antigen– MHC complexes (1–100 per DC) (1–3), they must first ...
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1answer
694 views

Hedgehog AP Bio question

Could someone please explain this AP Biology question? I know the answer is C but I do not understand why. Doesn't Smo prevent gene transcription? If you "block its activity" then wouldn't it cause ...
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What is the step by step procedure that leads the T cell to release chemokines?

When T cell receptors bind to the receptor of an antigen presenting cell, is this what leads to the release of chemokines? I know that T cell release of chemokines leads to the migration of other T ...
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1answer
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Do two hormones have the same effect on a cell if the second messenger is the same?

There are so many hormones/cytokines/neurotransmitters and receptors, all of which act through about 4-5 second-messenger systems. So if one particular cell has receptors for say, two different ...
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2answers
755 views

How do chameleons signal cells to change color?

I have read about how they can change color, but is there literature about the chemical signaling process they use to do so? I read that it could be some combination of hormones and neurotransmitters,...
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Retrograde/anterorade transport; kinesin/dynein; COP1/COP2; Endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi

I am getting slightly confused with all of the terms above and was wondering if someone could see if I have got this right: I think transport from the ER to Golgi is almost always from the plus end ...
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Is the signal peptide always cleaved during protein synthesis in the ER?

My university supervisor said that the signal sequence is always cleaved, however my text book differs. What I gather from my text book (though it isn't very clearly stated so i'm not sure) is that: ...
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Need to activate Adenylyl Cyclase in HEK293T cell line, any ideas?

Adherent 293T cell line Looking to activate cAMP production I have some candidate drugs -which do you think is best, or have ahd experience with? Prostaglanin 1 (PGE1) Forskolin (a diterpene) ...
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1answer
461 views

How do cells determine what size to grow to before dividing? [closed]

How do cells determine size to grow to before dividing?
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Do all plant hormones of one group show the same qualitative effect with respect to their target pathway(s) and the biological response?

I wonder, terms like "Auxin", "Cytokinin", "Gibberellin" etc means NOT a single compound; but a class of compound. For example "Auxin" does-not mean a single compound, but several compounds such as :...
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How exactly apoptosis starts? [closed]

I read article about apoptosis on Wikipedia, but didn't understand, how exactly the organism learns that it is necessary to launch process of apoptosis in certain cell. In other words, on what signs ...
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How does carcinoma enter into blood or lymphatic vessels?

When carcinoma begins to metastasize, it enters into blood vessel or lymphatic vessel to migrate to the site of metastasis. In that case, although I think breaking down the basement membrane is ...