Questions tagged [cell-signaling]

Tag for questions related to the process of cells receiving a stimulus from its environment, or from itself (autocrine signaling), and responding as a result of the stimulus.

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What is the essence of difference of how different chemicals affect the same receptor?

It is known that various chemicals can bind to the same receptor type, producing different effects. Be these chemicals agonists or antagonists, there are more variations in how they influence the ...
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When and How do pacemaker cells develop during the cell aggregation process of Dictyostelium discoideum?

I was reading a paper by Tang & Othmer about oscillations and waves in Dictyostelium discoideum. Under certain condition like starvation period in the life cycle of a Dictyostelium discoideum ...
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What is the purpose of Prostaglandin F2-alpha and the Prostaglandin F receptor in the melatonin cell signaling pathway?

I've been doing a lot of research recently on the melatonin cell signaling pathway for an extra credit project at school. I've included an image in this post, which is a diagram of the MT1 pathway. It ...
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Is there a measurable variance in neuronal transmission speed and fidelity?

My understanding of how neurons transmit signals is pretty basic - dendrites receive signals (both excitatory and inhibitory), transmitting them to the cell body where, if a sufficient depolarization ...
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Specificity in MAPK/ERK pathway and PC12 Cells

Background PC12 Cell stimulation leads to distinct outcomes upon stimulation with either EGF or NGF (epidermal and nerve growth factors). The outputs are transmitted through the MAPK/ERK signaling ...
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What regulates cyclic AMP?

After reading a textbook chapter on GPCRs I am still confused by what regulates cAMP. I took in my notes that cAMP is made by adenylyl cyclase and destroyed by cAMP phosphodiesterases (also another ...
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343 views

Why is erythropoietin produced in the kidney?

Erythropoietin is a hormone produced in the kidney to stimulate the generation of more red blood cell. It is triggered by low oxygen via HIF transcription factors. Makes sense. Oops, oxygen is low, ...
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102 views

What happens to those molecules that are not received by receptor proteins on the cell membrane?

I am studying cell communication and come to know that proteins from outside environment gets received by receptors on the cellular membrane and then the signal is transduced inside the cell. My ...
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Advantages and disadvantages of sporulation compared with competence in bacteria?

Why do bacteria have both of these mechanisms to deal with the same environmental stress: nutrient deprivation? In a culture exposed to this condition, often both competent cells and sporulated cells ...
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What's the purpose of Cdk activity having more than one method of becoming inactive?

Cdk becomes partially active once its bound to cyclin and then gets phosphorylated and fully active once a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) phosphorylates the partially active Cdk. This fully activated Cdk ...
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How do receptors lose their sensitivity?

Recently, I learned that one of the causes of Type II diabetes is that insulin receptors on cell surfaces lose their sensitivity due to long-term high exposure to insulin (which occurs as a result of ...
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Exporting RNA in extracellular vesicles (exosomes)?

I'm interested in how much is know about the process by which RNA is secreted from cells into extracellular vesicles. Where is a good place to start reading about this? How much is known about this ...
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How does the Lgr5 receptor contribute to maintaining stemness in the intestine?

I don't understand the connection between Lgr5 receptor and Wnt between Paneth cells and stem cells. And how does this link to the EphB-EprinB inhibition between transit amplifying cells and ...
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Does a cell deprived of growth factors undergo apoptosis or G0 stasis?

I can't seem to find a decisive answer on this topic in any of my textbooks. If a cell is deprived of growth factors does it: Activate apoptosis Go into the G0 phase but keep living? Thanks.
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Does “eating less” stimulate cell starvation?

2016 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was given for the study of autophagy. Judging from the description, a healthy cell responds to starvation (and other types of stress) with autophagy. Does ...
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How do cell signaling ensures time synchronization?

Let us suppose two cells A and B communicating with one another, I want to know how do cells ensure time synchronization while communicating. For instance, let us assume cell A sends a sequence '110'. ...
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What are these lines that connect into cells called?

I just recently watched a very interesting video that showed cell division under a microscope. In the video, you can see cells that have either one, two or more lines connected to them. What are these ...
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What is the step by step procedure that leads the T cell to release chemokines?

When T cell receptors bind to the receptor of an antigen presenting cell, is this what leads to the release of chemokines? I know that T cell release of chemokines leads to the migration of other T ...
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154 views

Retrograde/anterorade transport; kinesin/dynein; COP1/COP2; Endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi

I am getting slightly confused with all of the terms above and was wondering if someone could see if I have got this right: I think transport from the ER to Golgi is almost always from the plus end ...
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Is the signal peptide always cleaved during protein synthesis in the ER?

My university supervisor said that the signal sequence is always cleaved, however my text book differs. What I gather from my text book (though it isn't very clearly stated so i'm not sure) is that: ...
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How does carcinoma enter into blood or lymphatic vessels?

When carcinoma begins to metastasize, it enters into blood vessel or lymphatic vessel to migrate to the site of metastasis. In that case, although I think breaking down the basement membrane is ...
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127 views

Insulin and leptin action on Anorexigenic Neurons in Hypothalamus?

Receptors for Insulin are present on liver, adipose tissue and muscles. In addition, there are Insulin Receptors present in arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus, which influences anorexogenic neurons ...
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28 views

Is EGF-mediated proliferation symmetric?

It's known that the MAPK signaling cascade (say, ERK) is downstream of EGFR in epithelial cells, and that EGFR activation can cause proliferation in some cell types in some situations. My question is ...
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What is the lifetime of the vasopressin receptor V2?

I was looking at the production of vasopressin receptor 2, also known as V2R or ADH-R. What I found is that it is coded by the AVPR2 gene and degraded by the Alix protein (source). But I did not get ...
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histamine inter-cellular and cytoplasmic binding site

I noticed that HRH (histamine receptor) has an inter-cellular and cytoplasmic binding site of anti-histamines which are equal in binding energy. Does anyone know what is the function of the well ...
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Examples of GDP (rather than GTP) activating cell signalling?

Is there any known example in a cell where a protein is activated by the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, rather than the reverse in which a protein is activated when GTP binds to an inactive GDP-bound ...
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Why inhbition of RTK will not help in a case of mutant EGF?

I was given the following as an example for a quiz question but i don't understand the answer. Any help will be most welcome: Question: Iressa is a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor. As a young oncologe, ...