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Questions tagged [central-nervous-system]

The complex of nerve tissues including the brain and spinal cord, but excluding the peripheral nervous system.

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1answer
33 views

Does ingestion of alcohol with methylphenidate make it act more like dexmethylphenidate?

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. It is the racemic mixture of d-MPH and l-MPH. According to the binding profile info on Wikipedia, based on studies, it is at ...
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Correlation between height and nervous system response

The basis of this observation is purely anecdotal, although I do believe it holds significant weight. I am rather tall(197cm) and am quite the slow typist. However, everyone of my friends or ...
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1answer
63 views

What are these two nerves running parallel to the spine called?

I was looking for a human body nervous system, and often times i found a picture like the one below, where there are two nerves running parallel to the spinal column. I searched for it, but nothing ...
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Does every axon in a fascicle have its own soma?

If every axon has a soma/neuron, and a fascicle is a group of axons, then why cant I find any images of a group of soma connected to a fascicle?
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1answer
51 views

Does the nature of nervous impulses give us a finite number of things we can perceive?

This is a subject that is very disturbing to me and one that I've been obsessing over for years. I warn you now that this is probably not the sort of thing you get asked on this website and I'm not ...
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1answer
49 views

How does (action potential) hyper-polarisation work?

I understand that after depolarisation, repolarisation and then hyperpolarisaiton occurs and that an area in hyperpolarisation is in its "refractory period". Why does this prevent Na+ ions diffusing "...
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Stem cells therapy for stroke via thecal sac?

According to this video posted below, stem cells for stroke patients can be induced to thecal sack, below the spinal cord. Those stem cells would make their way up to the brain. https://youtu.be/...
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1answer
83 views

Why are spinal nerves considered a part of PNS while the spinal cord is a part of CNS?

So from my common understanding, CNS consists of brain and spinal cord, and PNS consists of everything else. But the spinal nerves - the nerves connected to the spinal cord - why are those considered ...
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Why are higher doses of atropine required to produce central effects?

Reason given in my book is restricted entry into the brain..is it something to do with the chemisty?
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14 views

Mild introduction to selective advantage of intelligence/nervous systems in animals?

I have a general understanding of why intelligence, i.e. nervous systems in animals, is advantageous: processing information allows an animal to adapt to its environment dynamically and perform ...
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1answer
685 views

How a nerve impulse reaches the correct destination?

Say your brain wants to retract your right hand. If there is some information coding playing a major role here, then what is the mechanism to find the correct path to reach the correct muscle? Or is ...
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1answer
576 views

Why is the hippocampus considered to be a cortical structure but not the amygdala?

I'm having some trouble understanding the anatomical differences that classify the hippocampus as a cortical structure but not the amygdala. I have included the screenshot of a diagram from Gray's ...
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41 views

Results of self-administration study about pain in honeybees?

There research on nih.gov about ability of bees feel pain. But I can't understand their conclusion. Could you provide necessary excerpts here from those study so it would be clear what conclusion they'...
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Any known values of density for spinal cord (pig or human)?

Need to know the density of spinal cord tissue to evaluate the shear modulus from ultrasound elastography (shear wave velocity) measurements, but need the density of the tissue to compute this. I am ...
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1answer
239 views

Is it possible to Interpret Nerve Signals As to Where They Are Going In The Human Body And What Their Task Is? [closed]

I have recently watched some anime, (yes, anime, probably a huge cause to lots of questions asked on the internet), and it got me thinking. We can intercept nerve signals throughout the body, but ...
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1answer
2k views

How pain can stimulate the vagus nerve

I'm trying to find out why a prompt, severe, short pain is causing a stimulation of the vagus nerve. What could the physiological explanation be? Is that because the pain is triggering the ...
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2answers
551 views

Why do nerve gas victims have chronic neurological issues?

The article on Wikipedia says the following: The effects of nerve agents are long lasting and increase with continued exposure. Survivors of nerve agent poisoning almost invariably suffer chronic ...
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3answers
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Why are some neurones unmyelinated?

As far as I am aware, most of the central nervous system consists of myelinated axons and most of the peripheral consists of unmyelinated. What is the reason for this? Would it not be more ...
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Neurons during Numb feeling

We become numb when there is short supply of blood to some parts, as mentioned here. If that is the reason, why don't neurons and other cells die at that part if they don't receive oxygen and other ...
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1answer
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If motor neurons are part of the CNS, what is the PNS made of? [closed]

It is my understanding that motor neurons transmit messages to the myocytes of skeletal muscles all over the body. This should make them part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits both the ...
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1answer
96 views

Electric Shock To Human Body [closed]

What happens in our body when we get an electric shock?
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1answer
332 views

Are all cone cells connected directly to the brain?

Coming from a computing science background, I noticed that cameras have orders of magnitude fewer wires than pixels. For example, the Raspberry Pi Camera v2 has 8 megapixels, but only 10 wires ...
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1answer
143 views

Does GABA help or hinder anxiety?

This article https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/smartphone-addiction-creates-imbalance-in-brain-300558945.html Says both The researchers performed MRS exams on the addicted youth prior to ...
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1answer
170 views

How do nerve impulses travel so quickly?

Nerve impulses must travel incredibly fast to achieve the functions they do. However, I have been taught that sodium ions move down the axons by diffusion (thus causing depolarisation of the next part ...
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1answer
133 views

Why are “itch signals” transmitted so slowly from the skin to the human brain?

In the second half of the BBC radio (and podcast) program Cats and Itch; Discovery, The Curious Cases of Rutherford and Fry Episode 2 of 5 the phenomenon and origin of the "itch" and related ...
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123 views

An introduction to nuclei in the pons?

I have a couple of questions regarding the nuclei in the pons, thus I figured it would be best to frame the main question in the way that I did. My main question, however, is whether the basal ...
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1answer
223 views

Alcohol consumption and central nervous system

After alcohol intake, the cerebrum related functions like vision and speech is affected first and later on there's problem with the cerebellar functions like balancing and hand-eye coordination. My ...
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40 views

Nervous stimuli and neurotransmitters and impacts

As far my knowledge, in body parts generally **acetacholine ** is the neurotransmitter. Which is responsible for most nervous impulses. Consider a body part, say, foot. Only one nerve reaches here. ...
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2answers
825 views

Biological advantage of electric synapses

Electric synapses are synapses that do not process information but simply foward one action potential from one neuron to the next. There are no neurotransmitters, no inhibitory and exitatory ...
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1answer
50 views

Seizures and blood pressure

A seizure is basically a synchronized firing of neurons as opposed to the more common unsynchronized firing taking place during normal neural activities. However, I am uncertain if the exact technical ...
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3answers
5k views

Do lobsters possess a nervous system to feel pain?

I was reading an article, which it mentions that lobsters do not have a nervous system: Lobsters have very poor eyesight and no nervous system. They walk slowly on the sea floor but are capable ...
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3answers
1k views

How do our eyes detect light at different frequencies?

Here is my confusion: we can see colored light of different wavelengths: form red to violet. To my understanding, these stimuli cause a confirmational change in the photoreceptors in our eyes and ...
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2answers
1k views

Is the bipolar neuron of the retina considered a sensory neuron?

Any neuron that participates in sending impulses from receptors to CNS are referred as sensory neurons. But I often see bipolar neurons of eye(which according to the above definition should be sensory ...
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2answers
104 views

At what stage is the nervous system developed enough to interpret neuronal signals as 'pain'?

According to this article in Live Science, one of the reasons the fetus can't feel pain until 19 weeks is because the nervous system isn't fully developed. But according to this article, the heart ...
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4answers
8k views

Are there organisms with fewer than 1000 neurons?

I'm developing neural networks comprised of just 3 to 10 layers of virtual neurons and I'm curious to know if there are any insect brains out there with fewer than a thousand neurons? Are there any ...
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1answer
487 views

Can low temperatures induce a withdrawal reflex?

I read in "Essentials of Pathophysiology: Concepts of Altered Health States By Carol Porth" that "The thermal pain receptors are stimulated only by extremes of temperature such as "freezing cold" ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is bacterial meningitis worse than viral meningitis?

My field is not biology related, but it is commonly said that bacterial meningitis is far more dangerous to the individual than the viral kind. It seems to be true even with antibiotic treatment. What ...
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3answers
582 views

Why are our muscles limited to 7 Hertz?

I have heard from a (usually very knowledgeable) friend before, that a human can only tap his fingers 7 times per second. I generalized this to "our muscles are limited to 7 hertz" When my wife ...
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2answers
1k views

How is information sent from the skin to the brain?

Say you have a needle, and you poke a very specific area on your left thumb. A signal gets sent from that nerve up your spine and into your brain. How does the brain know exactly where this signal ...
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0answers
230 views

Why are interneurons needed in the spinal cord for polysynaptic reflexes and somatosensory tracts to the brain?

The single explanation I found for the polysynaptic reflex is that the interneuron diverges into more pathways, such as the efferent motor neuron, the inhibitory neuron to the opposite extensor muscle,...
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1answer
65 views

Photoreceptors and light with mixed frequencies

I am interested in how the activation of a, say, blue cone depends on the incident light. Wikipedia tells me this: , which describes how strong the activation of the blue cone is for light with a ...
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1answer
2k views

Differences in the action of Scopolamine and Atropine

Both Scopolamine and Atropine are muscarinic antagonists, having essentially the same action: blocking parasympathetic nerve receptors. The action on the brain by muscarinic antagonists is presumed ...
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1answer
668 views

Why is Capsaicin injection not used instead of nerve surgeries for pain?

High concentration capsaicin kills c & a-delta nerve fibers permanently or at least long term. This has been known for 30 years. But capsaicin is only used in creams and patches, and not for ...
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2answers
875 views

Do all nerves in the body end at the tongue? [closed]

I saw this someone but have searched on google to affirm or deny it, but didnt find anything on all nerves ending in the tongue. Please help
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Is the CNS vascularized?

I was under the impression that the CNS is never penetrated by blood vessels, which explains why one never sees them in histological samples. However a google search reveals I am wrong. So can ...
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1answer
2k views

What would happen if nerves didn't have refractory period? [closed]

What would happen if nerves didn't have refractory period? And, what part of his nervous system or neurons are not needed?
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2answers
3k views

What is the difference between the neural tube and the dorsal ventral cord?

I was wondering what the difference is between the neural tube and the dorsal ventral cord. I know that the neural tube forms during embryonic development from the ectoderm layer that folds inwards. ...
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2answers
307 views

Can the spinal cord contain an “epileptic focus”?

I was wondering, is there a possibility of an something similar to an epileptic focus to exist within the spinal cord? Note I am using the terminology "epileptic" loosely here, principally for the ...
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1answer
131 views

In theory how fast could nerve signals travel if the nerve fibre was perfectly insulated?

My question is purely theoretical and my main aim is to find out the maximum speed that a nerve signal can travel within a nervous system and and whether this speed represents the physical limit of ...
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1answer
158 views

Anatomy of nervous system's sensory pathways

When I touch my hand on a hot stove, I feel pain. I'm interested in knowing all the main "endpoints" (components/parts of the body) that are involved in relaying this pain signal. As I understand it ...