Questions tagged [cladistics]

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How valid is Schwartz's criticism of molecular phylogenetics?

A proponent of the human-orangutan clade, Jeffrey Schwartz argues, in this paper [1], that molecular phylogenetics is largely based on a baseless assumption. To sum up, according to him: this type of ...
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2answers
118 views

Why aren't mammals and reptiles considered amphibians?

We've all heard it: birds descend from dinosaurs, so they're dinosaurs too. But this got me thinking: doesn't this mean that, for instance, all terrestrial vertebrates – including humans – are ...
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1answer
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The phylogenetic definition of the clade Dinosauria

Up until two years ago the clade of Dinosauria was defined as all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and birds. From Wikipedia: Under phylogenetic nomenclature, ...
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2answers
67 views

The parts of the phylogenetic nomenclature that need to be “unique”

I am not quite sure I have sorted through the diversity of approaches to nomenclature, but I had a specific question to help clarify what is going on. Basically I am just wondering what needs to be ...
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1answer
59 views

Why swordfish aren't put in the same family as Marlins?

Why Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), which are very similar to Marlins, do not belong to the same family as Marlin - Istiophoridae? Both has long bill or a sword in the upper jaw, both has (at least in ...
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1answer
106 views

How would I represent this on a cladogram?

So, right now I am making a cladogram (More of a dendrogram) for a kingdom of fictional species, and I'm not exactly sure how to represent a certain relationship. Let's say that the oldest class in ...
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1answer
71 views

Minimum number of clades needed to partition Vertebrates while maintaining Birds, Mammals, and Amphibians as distinct clades?

At school I was taught the Linnaean view of vertebrate life - that vertebrate animals consisted of 5 distinct groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish. I learned later however that this was ...
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1answer
434 views

Forming a cladogram from a table of information

Can someone please give me some tips or help me build a cladogram from the following table of information? The outgroup is Lancelets and the first derived character is vertebrae, followed by Lampreys ...
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1answer
491 views

Which synamorphy evolved last [closed]

I know that if species are on the same height level, they existed at the same time and indicates extinction. Does that apply to synamorphy? Did hair and eggs with shells evolve at the same time or did ...
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2answers
927 views

Did radial symmetry evolve twice?

In the history of animal evolution, both the Cnidarians and the Echinoderms have radial symmetry, according to this cladogram: Source: http://www.cpalms.org/Public/PreviewResourceLesson/Preview/45851 ...
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1answer
5k views

How to read cladograms/phylograms?

I understand the difference between cladograms and phylograms; the latter can show the evolutionary linkage over time. However, I am having trouble finding out which two organisms are most closely ...
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0answers
134 views

What were the Neanderthal innovations?

At some point the neanderthal and modern human lineages diverged. I'm not sure what exactly their most common recent ancestor was (I see some sources suggesting homo heidelbergensis), but in any case ...
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3k views

If dinosaurs could have feathers, would they still be reptiles?

I just finished watching a video where it was mentioned that nowadays birds are dinosaurs and non-avians dinosaurs could have feathers. I confirmed this from wikipedia: Birds are highly advanced ...
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2answers
21k views

What is an apomorphy? What is a plesiomorphy? Can someone confirm these definitions?

I want to know the correct definitions for the terms apomorphy and plesiomorphy. Unfortunately, there seems to be a variety of ways to define these terms depending on the language one uses. Thus, it ...
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1answer
2k views

How would i describe a Cladogram as paragraph? [closed]

I have this paragraph that i have halfway finished, but i do not know what to put in the spaces. A Cladogram is a branching diagram that represents the proposed phylogeny or evolution of a species or ...
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1answer
106 views

What is the most recent well-attested common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans?

Humans and chimpanzees are related and thus have a most recent common ancestor. Of course pinning down this precise point is essentially impossible, so I'm interested in close ancestors of this most ...
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1k views

Which phylum appeared most recently

I'm aware that our earliest records of many major animal and plant phyla come from the Cambrian or Precambrian periods, and I'm also vaguely aware of some of the objections raised with general concept ...