Questions tagged [coronavirus]

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Why is half dose of Oxford's vaccine of covid more effective than full dose?

I recently read in a newspaper that the half dose of the Oxford's vaccine is 90% effective while the full dose is only 62% effective. Why is this the case ?
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Is there a survey on whether people have gained or lost weight as a consequence of lockdown?

I am not sure if this is the right forum for asking such a question. Moderators can of course close it if it isn't and please migrate it to relevant site. Is there a survey/study that statistically ...
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What does vaccine efficacy mean?

In the last few weeks, Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna and AstraZeneca have each released preliminary estimates of the efficacy of their SARS-COV-2 vaccines. But what do their respective efficacy percentages ...
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1answer
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Sequence structure of antibodies

It is said that "When a virus or a pathogen enters the body, the immune-response produces Y-shaped proteins called antibodies to bind to the pathogen or virus". "Also it is possible to ...
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How long might it take for the coronavirus to develop insensitivity to vaccines?

How long would it take for the SARS-CoV-2 to evolve in such a way that the current vaccination does not protect against it?
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Why does sequencing virus proteins take time?

According to the below paper, the coronavirus spike protein sequence was available to scientists by end of february 2020 - the begin of march 2020 timeline. I had this question that why does ...
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SARS-COV-2 detectability versus viability

This week (#47 of 2020) two meta-reviews were published in the Lancet. Ct values and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, a brief review published on 19 November in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, ...
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1answer
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Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
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Could using machine-intelligence to determine prioritisation for vaccine rollout program be effective [migrated]

The rollout of vaccination programs tends to be based on a given set of rules (advice) devised by government UK example. Such a rule-set are generally limited in complexity in order to be consistently ...
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Do lipid nanoparticles used for mRNA delivery show any cell tropism?

New mRNA-vaccines like those developed against SARS-Covid-2 use lipid nano particles as vectors. Does this technique of encapsulating (no spike or similar antigen on the surface of the particle that ...
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1answer
66 views

Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine

Recent news of Pfizer vaccine for corona needing -70C temperature, made me thinking why such a low temperature is needed for mRNA based vaccine? Are there other vaccine around which need such a low ...
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Could ACE become a target receptor of mutating Coronavirus as it is a homologue of ACE2?

ACE2 is the key target receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and considered a homologue of ACE. As homology of protein does not seem to imply exact and complete identity of protein, is it a possibility that SARS-...
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Can vaccination be explained by a principle of “broad specifity” of immune cells?

In the context of Covid-19, in Denmark all ferrets/minks in farms were killed, as there is infection in humans by the ferret corona-subtype. Counterintuitively, a virus transferred from ferret might ...
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1answer
48 views

Can a non-response to a vaccine be tested?

The BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is said to be 90% effective. Is there a test to establish the (degree of) success in individuals of a vaccine at provoking the desired immune response? ...
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What is the physiological function of the CoV-2 targeted ACE2-Mas receptor pathway on lung/nasal epithelial cells?

CoV-2 targets ACE2 receptor on epithelial cells, pneumocytes, as well as nasal cells which seem to be cells of the nervous system (loss of smell is a symptom of Covid). ACE2-Receptor is rather well ...
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Why is the SARS-CoV-2 target receptor ACE2 not endocytosed when bound physiologically?

The COVID-19 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. See, e.g. here. Why doesn’t the enzyme ACE2 — SARS-CoV-2’s target receptor — undergo endocytosis when bound by its ...
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1answer
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The fastest vaccine developed is a mumps vaccine, which took 4 years. Where is the hope that we will find a COVID vaccine in less time?

I understand that doctors and scientists are working hard to find a vaccine, but is there a reasonable chance that we will find one in the time that scientists and politicians are suggesting? I also ...
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1answer
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Are the y-axis values informative when performing biolayer interferometry?

I am currently reading an this article by Alexandra C. Walls et. al. I would like to ask a question about a graph that is being used in the article and I wanted to know if my analysis was correct. I ...
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1answer
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Why doesnt the SARS-Cov-2 affect other animals?

Why doesn't the coronavirus affect animals like dogs and cows? I know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus i.e. it can affect both humans and other animals. I also know that the DNA composition ...
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RNA vaccination and Autoimmune Reactions

To my knowledge we do not have any robust experience with RNA vaccination. Most likely this will change in the near future as RNA vaccines against COVID are in the pipeline. The rationale behind this ...
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2answers
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Is the coronavirus getting less dangerous?

Please note This question is based on data from the UK government's web site (data from the ONS). I am not taking this data as accurate, but am using this as it is the only source of data I can find, ...
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1answer
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COVID-19 deaths by year of birth?

Are there (global, country, etc.) data of COVID-19 deaths (or hospitalization) by year of birth? I was able to found them only by "age group", the meaning of this being usually an interval ...
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1answer
65 views

Why do coronavirus cases graphs have a sinusoidal like shape?

Some screenshots from a canadian website: See this sinusoidal shape? Why is it there? Shouldn't it be a single curve? My main guess is when cases are counted: is it possible that they are counted ...
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Biosafety Level 1 (BSL-1) surrogate viruses that show greatest similarity to SARS-CoV-2

I would like to know if there are any viruses that show high similarity to SARS-CoV-2 (particularly in terms of structure) that are very safe to use (i.e., classified as BSL-1). For example, an avian ...
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1answer
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Are coronaviruses gaining an evolutionary advantage?

So there are 7 known strains of coronavirus that are known to infect humans: 4 that cause the common cold (229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1), and 3 that have been known to cause acute respiratory infection (...
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Is a virus a poison?

I've understood that a virus is not a living organism (like e.g. a bacterium). From Wikipedia I get that a poison is a substance that reacts physically or chemically with molecules in the human body. ...
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With the 5$ covid19 test - an antigen test - , would trials (most likely) be independent?

Actual question What would typically cause antigen tests to give a false positive or false negative and would these causes be typically independent (if we run the test twice it won't automatically ...
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2answers
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What specific markers does a Covid-19 PCR test look for?

I've done a search and can't find anything as to what specifically makes a Covid-19 positive that identifies it as unique. I would expect to see something like this: https://madridge.org/journals-...
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What does the decline of serum antibodies after infection mean for B cell immunity, exactly?

About a month ago there was a small media blip about a report in the New England Journal of Medicine that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 decline significantly within a matter of months. ...
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1answer
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How the vaccine based on “non replicating viral vector” is produced?

As I understand, this kind of vaccine is a virus that can infect the cell, start synthesis of proteins encoded by its genome, but cannot finish the replication cycle till the proper end. It can have ...
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Testing a COVID-19 vaccine on a large sample space of population from different nationalities

I came across an article few days ago, while checking the number of canditates for vaccines about COVID-19 where Sinopharm's vaccine development's trial phase caught my eye. The article says that: In ...
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1answer
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Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
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1answer
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Truncated ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV2! Why? How does it formed?

Across the world so far, we have three truncated ORF3a proteins in SARS-CoV2 in India only. Can you illuminate me how does a protein (here accessory protein of SARS-COV2) generally get such nonsense ...
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How are latence period and duration of infectiosity defined?

I assume that infectiosity of an individual is not a binary property but a quantity that grows and decays gradually, very much like the number of infected or infectious individuals in a population. ...
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1answer
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What kind of people are more likely to catch COVID-19?

It is well known that people of old age or with respiratory problems are more vulnerable by the effects of COVID-19. However, I wasn't able to find information on any similar trends on catching the ...
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1answer
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How T-Cell recognizes a cell infected by a virus?

According to few articles I read (like BBC about The people with hidden immunity against Covid-19 ): starting out about four or five days after infection, you begin to see T cells getting activated, ...
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1answer
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How close is the U.S. to herd immunity, assuming long-term immunity?

Assuming: infection always results in death or immunity (unproven, but no evidence of repeat infections yet) official COVID-19-related death counts are accurate (142k at the time of this question) ...
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1answer
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Where can we see professional discussions about vaccine development of the covid-19?

Is there any place where people keep talking about the vaccine development professionally? I need the latest news.
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Can we develop a virus which is amicable for us but deadly for SARS-CoV-2 and HIV?

I am not biologist and do not have special education in it etc. It is know that in the wild, some species have their deadly enemies. What I am suggesting is can we humans find/create virus that is ...
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1answer
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If Covid antibodies disappear after 2-3 months, will a vaccine still be effective?

It looks like there have been studies in China and also in Spain that suggest antibodies don't last very long or could disappear after some time. What does this mean for the effectiveness of a ...
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1answer
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About how many covid-19 virus particles is required in the human body before infection and sickness follows?

Our immune systems are often able to destroy germs and virus particles. About how many of them does it take to make a 70 year old healthy male sick ? Any ideas ?
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Are SARS-CoV-2 virus particles really able to travel through filopodia and “emerge from the tips”?

Watching the new University of California San Francisco video Coronavirus forces cells to produce tentacle-like structures that infect neighboring cells I saw The growths spread out, and ...
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1answer
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Did most pandemics originate from Asia/China?

This question may be on the borderline of well-posed-ness. Let me ask it. Then please tell me if or where it can be improved. Is it statistically true that the majority of the pandemics or epidemics ...
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For how long viruses survive in non-air moisture environments?

On the Internet there are plenty of information that viruses don't live long after they were exposed to air, after they starting to dry out. But it's hard to find an information on how long viruses ...
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1answer
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Can ACE2 receptors be syntesized? [duplicate]

I read that there are labs that can produces the spikes of the coronavirus. I wonder can they also synthesize ACE2 receptors or parts of them? If yes, can they be used as drugs?
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Do person with strong immune system have less chance of surviving SARS-COV-2 attack?

In most of the cases dealing with SARS-COV-2 disease, the major mortality cause is due to cytokine storm in response to Corona-virus that also attack healthy organs causing multiple organ failure. ...
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Are the social-distancing measures implemented against SARS-CoV-2 also suppressing the spread of other viruses?

With social-distancing measures being implemented in many countries I would expect other viruses, like the ones that cause seasonal flus, to have also a hard time propagating in these circumstances. ...
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VPg priming of the replication of RNA viruses

I'm doing a presentation on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 for my chemistry class, and I found that to replicate its RNA, the virus uses RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which is primed by a VPg primer. ...
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Understand and reproduce withdrawn publication method - Blastp - covid19

I try to reproduce the method of this withdrawn paper. I know this paper has been debunked and withdrawn. I am curious to understand the details of the method used on it. I am a programmer and I don't ...
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Factors of infection rate

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. Preliminaries The standard SIR model consists of a system of three differential equations $$ds/dt = -\beta s i$$ $$di/dt = \beta s i - \nu i$$ $$dr/dt = \nu i$...