Questions tagged [coronavirus]

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1answer
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Will Covid-19 wipe out the Humanity that we know of?

As there are multiple variants of Coronavirus and every couple of weeks later there are new, deadly and highly contagious variants of COVID-19 virus emerging from the backdrop, I am just wondering is ...
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How difficult is it to adapt an existing vaccine to a virus variant?

There is (at least in France) an ongoing discussion about the Astra-Zeneca vaccine which is perceived as "outdated" because of the prevalence of new variants (the vaccine was designed based ...
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Covid-19 is a respiratory illness. So how could you catch it by touch?

The U.S. department of agriculture put out a statement in February 2021 in which they wished to underscore that at the time there is no epidemiologic or scientific information that COVID-19 spreads ...
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1answer
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA-based vaccines cannot lead to COVID-19 or its symptoms since they only lead to the production of the spike protein in the cell. However, the spike protein itself can lead to cell fusion: ...
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COVID-19 vaccination second doses: why two doses and why the specified interval? [closed]

Certain COVID-19 vaccines such as the Pfizer BioNTech and Moderna are specified to be administered in two doses separated by a 21 and 28 day interval, respectively. My questions are: Why administered ...
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Mutation rate breakdown by original and mutated nucleotide for Coronaviridae

In a discussion of the mutations S:Q677H and S:Q677P in SARS-CoV-2 it was mentioned that the mutations leading to this result are "against the tendency" of preferred mutations on the ...
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Can we assume to face more mutations of a virus with a rising degree of vaccinated individuals in the population?

Can we assume to face more mutations of a virus with a rising degree of vaccinated individuals in the population? And if so, what are the reasons for this? So, I am comparing two scenarios: A) No ...
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1answer
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The probability meaning of Covid variants

In the CDC webpage about Covid-19's variants the next sentence appears: This (the United Kingdom) variant spreads more easily and quickly than other variants. In the ECDC paper about Covid-19's ...
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T cell “memory” vs natural immunity with viral infections

Please note: in this question I discuss COVID-19 as an example, but it really applies to viruses in general and how the immune system deals with "remembering" how to overpower them upon ...
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2answers
80 views

SARS-CoV-2 : does vaccination provide a better immunity than being sick and recover?

I recently read in the news that countries are thinking to offer a "green passport" based on the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, allowing vaccinated people to do things with less ...
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1answer
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With an mRNA-vaccine, would it hypothetically be possible to get that sequence transcribed into their genome for people who suffer from a retrovirus?

I recently read a bit about the mRNA-vaccines for COVID-2019. I fully understand that mRNA cannot enter the genome of a healthy person as they lack the required reverse transcriptase required to ...
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1answer
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How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)? [closed]

Some Covid vaccines like Covaxin employ a 'Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell'. How is the virion 'deactivated' for the vaccine?
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1answer
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When does one decide to refer to a virus as a new variant?

I've read that SARS-Cov-2 has several variants, e.g.: Can the U.S. keep Covid variants in check? Here's what it takes. Novavax’s Vaccine Works Well — Except on Variant First Found in South Africa ...
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1answer
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What causes people to smell one persistent smell during Covid-19 infection?

Some of the people I know got COVID and they loss the smell. After discussing with them about it, they told me that they only smell one persistent smell, everywhere (like onion). Is this frequent for ...
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1answer
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Loss of taste and smell during a SARS-CoV-2 infection

In France the loss of taste and smell (la perte du goût et de l'odorat) is considered as one of the key symptoms of a SARS-CoV-2 infection (although googling shows that it is considered less ...
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What is the consensus in the scientific community over COVID-19's mode of transmission?

I've read from many news and scientific sources that COVID spreads primarily through respiratory droplets, but I've also read multiple sources that have said we don't entirely know yet. Is it fomites, ...
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1answer
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Can mRNA vaccine have flaws and generate the wrong spike protein?

Someone asked me if SARS-COV2 mRNA vaccine could create the wrong spike protein and have a negative effect on our immune system. Since I know too little about biology I couldn't answer that and ...
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Do partial (nighttime) curfews curb the spread of epidemics (and via which mechanisms)? [closed]

Do partial (e.g., nighttime) curfews curb the spread of epidemics? What is the (epidemiological) mechanism by which partial curfews curb the spread of epidemics? Is there evidence from past or present ...
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1answer
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Sensitivity vs. Limit of Detection of rapid antigen tests

I'm comparing a bunch of SARS-CoV2 rapid antigen tests: Source Columns 4 and 6 list the values for sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD). How come that a test with a several times lower limit of ...
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60 views

Does a critical mass of infected individuals exist after which mutations will overtake vaccination attempts?

As we know, all organisms have a probability to undergo mutations when they replicate. For every infected individual with the Covid-19 their bodies are environments in which the SARS-CoV-2 may mutate ...
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Predicting how proteins will be cleaved

Is it possible to predict how proteins coded from mRNA will be cleaved? The reason I was interested in this is because I did some initial work to translate the raw Coronavirus RNA sequences, which you ...
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1answer
36 views

Minimum and maximum exposure to virus

Is it possible to say that there is a maximum exposure time for the virus so that even an exposure time beyond that - will leave us with the same chances of infection? If so, is there a way to ...
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1answer
76 views

Questions on mid-2019 Covid-19 Spread in Spain

I recently read in the news from Reuters that Covid-19 was already present in the Europe in March 2019 as reported by the study by Chavarria-Miró et al (2020). According to Chavarria-Miró et al they ...
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COVID-19 infection data when partitioning to communities

Suppose we think of the disease in a certain country as follows. We have a set of "communities" $C_1,\dots,C_k$ in the country where $k$ is some small constant, say $10$. Each individual is ...
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Why use two stop UGA codons instead of one in the spike protein mRNA for the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine?

Unlike the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has two stop UGA codons at the end of the Spike protein: ...
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1answer
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What is the motivation behind the AAAAGCAUAU GACUAAAAAA of the mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine when encoding its polyadenylated ending?

The very end of mRNA is polyadenylated as usual, but the BNT162b2 vaccine ends the following sequence, as denoted in this article: ...
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2answers
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What is the motivation behind the CCA -> CCU modification between SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine when encoding the signal peptide?

The S glycoprotein signal peptide in SARS-CoV-2 and the mRNA vaccine is encoded by: ...
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2answers
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Is there any difference between strain and mutation/mutant?

Experts are closely monitoring the strain, which has rapidly spread through the country's south. Source Most of the media/newspapers are calling VOC-202012/01 a COVID strain, instead of a COVID ...
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1answer
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What makes some viruses more infectious than others?

This week a new strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was discovered in the UK, and reports are saying that it's more infectious than the strains we've been dealing with for the past year. Which made me ...
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6answers
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Is it plausible that strict lockdowns made it more likely for the new variant of COVID to have emerged?

My idea is that strict lockdowns put greater evolutionary pressure on the coronavirus by restricting oppurtunities to be transmitted, meaning that a faster-spreading variant had much less competition. ...
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0answers
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Do mRNA vaccines encoded proteins get glycosylated?

per recent hype around the new mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 (or sars-ncov-2) it got me thinking about the mRNA vaccine principle. From my biochem education I've taken, that human proteins are usually ...
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2answers
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Coronavirus mutation: bad luck or a consequence of vaccination?

I would like to know whether a mutation within a virus (such as the new coronavirus mutation that appeared in England source) is a consequence of the vaccination program - maybe because it is ...
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
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1answer
198 views

Does SARS-CoV-2 kill its host cell or not?

Wikipedia says that Initial spike protein priming by transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is essential for entry of SARS-CoV-2.After a SARS-CoV-2 virion attaches to a target cell, the cell's ...
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What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
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1answer
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Several sources describe the initial failures in the realization of a successful mRNA vaccine. E.g., this 2017 article from Stat describes the following problem faced by Moderna while working on one ...
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1answer
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What goes into a vaccine placebo, typically and in the specific case of Pfizer's SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials?

I am curious about what actually goes into a vaccine placebo formulation, given that there were apparently some reactions reported by trial subjects who received the Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 placebo. From ...
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1answer
62 views

Why does this study about genetic likelihood of COVID hospitalization not associate risk to base pairs?

In the study "Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19", (free to download) the authors share their findings on which genomes seem to be associated with an increased likelihood of ...
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1answer
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Can one derive COVID-19 risk from a cheap consumer genetic test like 23andme?

Studies have found genes associated with a significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19, some of them claiming it to be 1.6 times the general risk. They mention genes at markers such as rs35044562, ...
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1answer
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How good are the hematologic parameters (e,g, IL6 or others) in predicting which patients will develop a severe COVID-19 disease?

Clinical implications of the hematologic profile of COVID-19 patients including cytokine storm, coagulation profile and thrombophilic complications are starting to be recognized. Hypercoagulability ...
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1answer
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To a population with no immunity, why is smallpox or measles more deadly compared to COVID-19?

Specifically, this is not a question asking how easily a virus spread in a population (airborne, asymptomatic spread, etc), but regarding the mechanism or the "havoc" it wreaks once inside a ...
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Why is half dose of Oxford's vaccine of covid more effective than full dose?

I recently read in a newspaper that the half dose of the Oxford's vaccine is 90% effective while the full dose is only 62% effective. Why is this the case ?
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Is there a survey on whether people have gained or lost weight as a consequence of lockdown?

I am not sure if this is the right forum for asking such a question. Moderators can of course close it if it isn't and please migrate it to relevant site. Is there a survey/study that statistically ...
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What does vaccine efficacy mean?

In the last few weeks, Pfizer/BionTech, Moderna and AstraZeneca have each released preliminary estimates of the efficacy of their SARS-COV-2 vaccines. But what do their respective efficacy percentages ...
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2answers
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Sequence structure of antibodies

It is said that "When a virus or a pathogen enters the body, the immune-response produces Y-shaped proteins called antibodies to bind to the pathogen or virus". "Also it is possible to ...
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2answers
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Why does sequencing virus proteins take time?

According to the below paper, the coronavirus spike protein sequence was available to scientists by end of february 2020 - the begin of march 2020 timeline. I had this question that why does ...
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SARS-COV-2 detectability versus viability

This week (#47 of 2020) two meta-reviews were published in the Lancet. Ct values and infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 on surfaces, a brief review published on 19 November in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, ...
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Do mRNA vaccines cause transfected cells to be killed by cytotoxic T cells?

Based on my research on how mRNA vaccines (specifically for COVID-19) work: An mRNA sequence, that contains the sequence of the coronavirus spike protein, is absorbed by some cells. These cells now ...
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1answer
92 views

Need for -70 degree temperature for Corona vaccine

Recent news of Pfizer vaccine for corona needing -70C temperature, made me thinking why such a low temperature is needed for mRNA based vaccine? Are there other vaccine around which need such a low ...
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Can vaccination be explained by a principle of “broad specifity” of immune cells?

In the context of Covid-19, in Denmark all ferrets/minks in farms were killed, as there is infection in humans by the ferret corona-subtype. Contrary heightened concerns, a virus transferred from ...

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