Questions tagged [coronavirus]

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Extensions of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 variants

What lineages of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 occurring in the wild show some extensions, i.e., mutations of the stop codons to codons encoding amino acids (mutations to another stop codon don't count ...
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Why can't the sequence of the spike protein be found in RNA sequence? [closed]

After looking at the RNA sequence on pubchem, I couldn't find parts of the spike protein sequence from SARS-CoV-2. Why is that? Is it that the protein sequence where a metabolite or else what do they ...
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Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
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Coronavirus lineages with amino acid insertions

Is there an overview over SARS-CoV-2 lineages that have some insertions in their genomes? Tools based on GISAID sequences do not show them. I am aware of a few lineages with insertions Mu with S:...
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If you catch Covid-19 infection, does it need to become vaccinated after recovery?

When we catch a cold, influenza, or Covid-19, the body starts to produce antibody against them, So the body become immune for a period of time. That means one should not get them until the presence of ...
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How do the lipid nanoparticles in the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines contain and release the mRNA payloads at the right time?

The engineering challenge with mRNA vaccines is that mRNA is fragile and degrades quickly. The solution, then, is to encapsulate the mRNA within lipid nanoparticles that carry the payload into cell. ...
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1answer
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What antibody targets are being tested for in the publicly offered UK antibody test?

In late August 2021 the NHS (UK) offered people who test positive for COVID what is referred to in this BBC report as a “new antibody test”. However, I have been unable to find out what exactly is new ...
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Can Covid's RNA be nullified by an opposite RNA strand?

Firstly, I have scant knowledge of biology, epidemiology, virology, and related fields. If my question seems nonsensical or bewildering, I beg your pardon. I'm not sure how to phrase this, but I'll ...
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How would a "synthetic defective interfering SARS-CoV-2" work in practice? Wouldn't it require a large fraction of all cells to be infected?

The abstract of A synthetic defective interfering SARS-CoV-2 is as follows. Abstract Viruses thrive by exploiting the cells they infect, but in order to replicate and infect other cells they must ...
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Safety of Covid-19 vaccine for pregnant women

Is there any possibility that the protein produced by COVID-19 mRNA vaccine taken into body could cause negative effect for unborn babies? In particular, isn't it possible the protein could be used as ...
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How does the hydrophobic amino acid fuse the corona virus with the host cell membrane?

I am reading the article How the coronavirus infects cells — and why Delta is so dangerous. It describes the fusion process of the virus into the host cell as follows right above an animation ...
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Viral vector vaccines - why doesn't the viral vector get attacked by the innate immune system?

I've been looking at how the Astrazeneca Covid-19 vaccine works: A chimpanzee adenovirus (the viral vector) is injected into the patient. After entering a cell, the viral DNA is deposited in the host ...
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delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

In latest news, it is reported that: if vaccinated people get infected anyway, they have as much virus in their bodies as unvaccinated people. That means they're as likely to infect someone else as ...
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What's happening in the "C" and "T" stripes of a covid test kit?

I have a COVID home test kit which produces C and T (control and test) stripes when the solution is applied to the strip. Something similar happens in pregnancy test kits. I understand the purpose of ...
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Do breakthrough infections spread attenuated virus?

No vaccines are 100% effective, so it's possible that patient A catches Covid-19 even after receiving two doses of vaccine. I understand that the risk is low, and the symptoms will generally be mild. ...
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Recombinations between Distant coronaviruses

With recombination I mean long ones, say > 1000 nucleotides, so that the two parents must be coronaviruses and the two pieces of genomes must have compatible genomic coordinates for the recombinant ...
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Ingredients in Pfizer vaccine

The ingredients in the Pfizer vaccine have been listed in a number of websites, including government healthcare ones. This site claims that the list includes ALL of the ingredients of the vaccine. ...
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Which molecular changes make certain SARS‑CoV‑2 strains more contagious?

Articles often state that certain SAR-COV-2 strains are more transmissible, e.g: Most studies indicate Delta is 50-60% more transmissible than the Alpha variant How dangerous are covid-19 Delta and ...
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Do mutations occur while growing virus for preparing inactivated viral vaccine?

The development of mutations in virus is reported to happen during replication, especially for an mRNA type virus like SARS-COV-2 Viruses that encode their genome in RNA, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV and ...
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How long will the spike protein from mRNA stay in the body?

Somewhat related to this question,how long will spike proteins produced as a result of mRNA covid 19 vaccines (Pfizer, moderna) stay in the body? How is it expected to be in comparison with adenovirus ...
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1answer
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What determines the physical appearance of a tangible amount of bacteria or viruses?

As in the title, I was wondering how would feel an amount of one type of bacteria or virus, big enough to have a tangible size of the sample. What color, state (liquid, solid), textures, smell ecc. of ...
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100 views

How are gene and DNA linked in this file?

So I am preparing some documents about Sar-Cov2 and I wanted to illustrate the "definition" of the virus with the DNA sequence. I found this sequence in GenBank. Now I think I need an ...
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Virus lineage, strain, and relation to spike protein variants

On the CDC website we have virus lineage which appears to be constant for all cases presented, or am I reading that wrong? Then the different names and of those with different names, different spike ...
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Detection of primer dimer on RT-PCR?

I usually do RT-PCR test for covid-19. Curves for Patients and Positive CTRL mostly appeared at 20 to 25 Ct. Sometimes, there are some curves that emerge at the last 5 cycles. Some argue that they are ...
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105 views

How long will traces of mRNA vaccines stay in the cell?

Suppose a valid administration of an mRNA vaccine (e.g. Pfizer / Moderna), lipid nanoparticles with the mRNA instructions enter the cell, the lipid particles will merge with the endosome and the mRNA ...
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How long after taking a vaccine shot (Oxford–AstraZeneca) could an individual test negative for antibody (IgM)?

What I know so far about the way this vaccine works is that by encoding virus' biological signature into the vaccine and injecting it into a subject, the subject's immune system would learn to ...
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101 views

How are mRNA vaccines spread across the body?

Covid mRNA vaccines are injected into the deltoid. What is the process in which they spread from there to the rest of the body? Would there be a better immunization reaction if the second dose is ...
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142 views

mRNA vaccine and cell mitosis

What happens with the injected mRNA when cells are in the different stages of the mitosis process? Does the mRNA enter the cell and behaves normally throughout the mitosis phases?
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Which cells do mRNA vaccines target?

mRNA vaccines instruct cells to produce spike protein that will trigger an immune response. But which types of cells will it work on? and which cells will it not work on?
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Longevity and extent of transfection after SARS-COV-2 vaccination with Janssen

The Johnson vaccine, unlike the RNA vaccines from Pfizer & Moderna, uses a vector containing DNA encoding for the SARS-COV-2 spike protein. This vector DNA needs to enter the cell, allowing for ...
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Why there is Cp/Ct (crossing point) value for negative sample in COVID-19 RT-PCR?

I am from IT/ Engineering background and have some confusion in RT-PCR. So far my understanding we extract RNA from test specimens and transcribed it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and inside PCR DNA ...
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Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
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why secondary/booster vaccine shots may sometimes induce worse side effects?

Background: I had my first shot about 1.5 months ago, I just had my shot yesterday. Unmistakable fever like symptom started within 4 hours. within 10 hours the whole body started aching, accompanied ...
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

In recent scientific articles, it has been discovered how the spike protein not only is a respiratory disease but also damages blood vessels cells directly, and is connected with higher risk of ...
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Understanding mRNA vaccine for COVID

As I've learned, mRNA helps us to produce virus spikes proteins to induce learning of the immune system. But then, I remember to have read that the coronavirus has some trick to pretend to be "...
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Virus variant transmissibility: empirical data or spike protein shape?

Well first I am not in the field of Biology or Medical Sciences. Since these days we are waiting scientists to tell us if the Indian variant of SARS Cov 2 is more transmissible than the original virus,...
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

I realize there are several different mRNA vaccines. I would be happy to know the ballpark figure for any of them. As a follow-up, is it known about what percentage of injected mRNA strands are ...
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60 views

SARS-CoV - relative size of the spike protein

I was given the task of determining the percentage of the S-protein of the SARS-CoV relative to the total of its proteins from the attached image. However, I have been given no explanation of the ...
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1answer
81 views

Acquiring Covid-19 vaccination through kissing with viral vector vaccinated person

The mechanism of COVID-19 viral vector based vaccines (AstraZeneca - Vaxzevria, Johnsen, Sputnik V - Gam-COVID-Vac, Johnson & Johnson - Janssen, etc. ) is delivering the genetic information of the ...
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Is the stuffy environment due to using masks all day, helping in spread corona virus in people?

I came across a research that stated, the most disease ridden place in a toilet is actually the air dryer. The hot and moist microcosm that develops around the dryer due to frequent use helps in ...
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Does the false positive covid-19 PCR % referred to by Surkova & Nikolayevskyy in The Lancet mean % of all tests, or % of positive tests?

In False-positive COVID-19 results: hidden problems and costs it is said: The current rate of operational false-positive swab tests in the UK is unknown; preliminary estimates show it could be ...
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Is covid vaccine helpful for a covid patient?

I am not a biology student and this question came in my mind out of nowhere. I read somewhere that the vaccines contain some denatured or almost dead corona viruses and when these are injected in our ...
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Does vaccination lead to short-term secondary infection suceptibility?

For clarity, here is a summary of my question, per anongoodnurse's comment: Does a lower peripheral lymphocyte count resulting from recent immunization render us more susceptible to infection by other ...
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1answer
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SARS-COV-2 replication speed

What is the speed of replication of SC2? Any information, including in vitro data would be appreciated. I would be interested to know the length of SC2 eclipse period, latent period and something like ...
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Evidences supporting that coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) came from bats

I was trying to find evidence that the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) came from bats. So far I know that coronavirus shared 96.2% overall genome sequence identity with a bat coronavirus RaTG13 from ...
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How does the inactivation process of vaccines work on a cellular level? e.g. how does an inactivated virus look really?

it's very easy to find information what is an inactivated or dead virus, more or less. But I want the full detail. If you heat treat a virus, what is left of it? like chopping the virus into pieces? ...
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Do the primers used for Covid-19 test work with all new strains?

We keep reading news of new Sars-CoV-2 strains, some of them allegedly able to evade vaccine-induced Igs. That's not unexpected, specially for a single-stranded RNA virus. However, it seems to me that ...
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How many coronavirus particles are in the body at the peak?

How many coronavirus (or other common virus) particles are in the body at the peak? How far it multiplies? Are there billions, trillions or other number of them?
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Will Covid-19 wipe out the Humanity that we know of?

As there are multiple variants of Coronavirus and every couple of weeks later there are new, deadly and highly contagious variants of COVID-19 virus emerging from the backdrop, I am just wondering is ...
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How difficult is it to adapt an existing vaccine to a virus variant?

There is (at least in France) an ongoing discussion about the Astra-Zeneca vaccine which is perceived as "outdated" because of the prevalence of new variants (the vaccine was designed based ...

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