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Questions tagged [development]

The process through which a biological organism grows to maturity. In certain contexts it can mean the changes the organism goes through over its entire lifetime.

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Butterfly wings with ragged edges - worn out, camouflage, fungus, or something else?

Here are two different butterfly individuals of different species in northern Taiwan whose wings had ragged edges. The whitish one was pretty lethargic and just wanted to stay in the grass and be left ...
uhoh's user avatar
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45 views

How to tell the difference between adult male Golden Orb spider and a juvenile female of the same size?

I believe these are Golden Orb-weavers (Nephila pilipes). PHotos of large adult females can be found in Do these large spiders in Taiwan belong to different species? They are quite common in Taiwan (...
uhoh's user avatar
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4 votes
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Has there ever been a recorded incident of mule deer bucks raising fawns?

I live in Colorado Springs, Colorado. According to Colorado Parks and Wildlife, there are two species of deer in CO, mule deer, and white-tailed deer. According to CPW: There are two species of deer ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
1 vote
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How does the primitive streak disappear after gastrulation?

So, I am not a biologist or anything related to the field, but this question is indirectly related to something I am curious about. I read some articles about the role of the primitive streak in the ...
Hesham Abdelgawad's user avatar
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Transfecting cocoon or chrysalis

Do you know whether anybody tried to transfect insects during their cocoon/chrysalis stage, and if so do you have a link to such studies? I was thinking it would be easier to do given that it's a more ...
TheChymera's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why Triceratops' frill reabsorbed the triangular epiossifications on the edge of the frill?

Why Triceratops' frill reabsorbed the triangular epiossifications on the edge of the frill? Juvenile and even sub-adult Triceratops had triangular prongs on the edge of the frill, called "...
Triceratops's user avatar
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13 votes
1 answer
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Have elephants (or any species other than humans) been known to cover their dead?

I was just reading this blog on HarperCollins website about 5 animals that grieve. Of elephants, the following claim is made: They bury their dead and pay tribute to the bodies and to the bones. [my ...
Curious Layman's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
146 views

How does embryology provide evidence for evolution?

I am not a biology student, I just have a profound fascination and appreciation for biology, and from time to time I like to read and watch videos about it. I was reading about evolution when I came ...
Srinidhi kabra's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
62 views

Larval abalone devlopmental times - what does ~ °C.days or °C hr-1 mean

I'm looking a number of papers on abalone larval development and the term °C.days or °C hrs-1 keeps coming up. The numbers before these terms are much larger than they would be if this term actually ...
timeywimey's user avatar
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A question on cell division rates

It seems that in the adult human body the rate of cell division should be approximately equal to the rate of cell death, but how is this reconciled from the developmental phase where a single germ ...
GTOgod's user avatar
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How does a turtle develop inside its egg?

This is related to Cause of premature death in turtle eggs, for those interested. I have noticed that Kinosternon spp. eggs have three layers: hard outer shell white opaque membrane (like the one you ...
godo's user avatar
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Are there any species whose cells do not copy the DNA that has been inactivated during cell differentiation?

According to this paper, the ATP cost of a having (not counting transcribing) a gene in a diploid eukaryote is about $5\times 10^3$ ATP per base pair, while the lifetime ATP usage of a mono-cellular ...
Retracted's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do the cells of any multicellular lifeforms discard their genetic material after differentiating?

There are many types of cells which will never again divide. Some of them may not need DNA to perform their function. Are there any cases where the DNA is discarded after a final differentiation?
Retracted's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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Do we know the genome contains all the information necessary for embryonic development?

Since high school biology I've assumed that all information necessary for creating an organism is found in its genome. As Nature's Scitable site says: Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as ...
yters's user avatar
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Which varieties of Aurelia aurita do not have a polyp phase?

According to this "In some Aurelia aurita, the polyp stage does not exist.", but they don't cite anything. Is there a resource detailing life cycles of various jellyfish or do I have to find ...
beardeadclown's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
348 views

Why does water damage the lungs but amniotic fluid doesn't?

I've read that near-drowning causes lung damage due to water inhalation. How come this is not the case with amniotic fluid? Taking this further, would lukewarm purified oxygenated water cause damage (...
Shaptarshi Joarder's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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What is the purpose of interkinetic nuclear migration during neurogenesis?

I am reading about neurogenesis and I am learning about the different types of neural stem and progenitor cells (neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells and basal progenitors). I have read that ...
ceno980's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How can I decrease the generation time of Drosophila melanogaster?

I have a gene deletion strain of Drosophila melanogaster made with CRIPR/Cas9, and now I have to clean the background of this strain (TM6C balancer background) by making backcrosses with wild type. ...
WiKC's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
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Does a brown Pieris brassicae chrysalis indicate it is dead?

I have been breeding Pieris brassicae larvae in a glass tank indoors for my own personal observation. One of them, after the fifth instar, has moulted into a chrysalis. After 5 days of development in ...
Algae's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is tissue patterning?

This term gets thrown around sometimes in biology articles, and I have a rough idea of what it is: during embryonic development, the tissue differentiates in a certain spatial configuration. Wikipedia ...
David Cian's user avatar
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cell proliferation assays for research proposal

I'm an undergrad Biology student and I'm working on a research proposal for a certain course. I need help or guide on cell proliferation assays. I have a target gene , recent papers show that this ...
Halake's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is meant by pro-acinar cell?

What is meant by "pro-acinar cell" in the following sentence? progenitors/precursors? A transient decline in Neurog3 expression from E11 to E12 coincides with peak segregation of MPCs into ...
MCH's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
381 views

Spontaneous generation of fruit flies

I live in the South of England. It is currently winter. Whenever I buy bananas, even one, if I leave the discarded banana peel in my kitchen, within hours or even minutes, there is a cloud of little ...
chasly - supports Monica's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
83 views

Development of radial symmetry in starfishes and other animals

How does nearly perfect radial symmetry arise in an animal like the starfish? My confusion lies in the fact that cells are fluid & amorphous, & that these characteristics seem to make it ...
Paul Petricevic's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
95 views

What is the evolutionary advantage of breathing and heart beats syncing between partners?

I recently read that partners who are close to one another usually when touching have their heart beats and breathing in sync. Why does this occur? What is the benefit of it occurring? How does this ...
James's user avatar
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8 votes
2 answers
217 views

Why can human viruses that can't infect chickens be grown in embryonic chicken cells?

Embryonic chicken cells are commonly used in vaccine production. The viruses are grown in chicken eggs, or in embryonic cells taken from those eggs, and then inactivated or attenuated to produce the ...
theorist's user avatar
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14 votes
1 answer
258 views

Do patella bones form in people born with the inability to walk?

The patella is a sesamoid bone that typically doesn't completely from and ossify until ~3-6 years of age (e.g., Source). My long-standing understanding (supported by a claim in Saladin's college A&...
theforestecologist's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
918 views

Germ cells vs. gametes

Naively, I thought that germ cells are diploid (in diploid species like human/mouse at least). Then, germ cells undergo meiosis and become haploid. I thought this was the critical change that defined ...
Chris_Rands's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
128 views

Do babies have a fight or flight response?

Do babies react in the same way as young children and adults in regards to the fight or flight response? If they do not respond in a similar way or don't have a fight or flight response at all then at ...
James's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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Can the axial length of the human eye decrease?

I understand that the axial length of the eyeball grows until you are around 20 years of age, which is why hypermetropia decreases with age but myopia doesn't. My question is: can the axial length of ...
James's user avatar
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1 answer
674 views

What is the difference between floral primordia and floral buds?

As we know an axillary bud differentiates to form a floral bud, but what is a floral primodium?
Rohnit's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
113 views

Can hand sanitizer kill a fertilized human egg cell?

If you took a human egg cell that was fertilized in vitro and sprayed some hand sanitizer on it would it die?
sibling's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why do Centipedes always have an odd number of pairs of legs?

Furthermore, centipedes are within the Myriapoda, a subphylum of arthropods which also contains millipedes. Do millipedes also have an odd number pair of legs?
Single Malt's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
118 views

Are there any known consequences of the right-handedness of the DNA double helix?

In this article it is suggested (without evidence) that the right-handedness of DNA may be the cause that "kick[s] off asymmetry in the early embryo [of snails]". On the one hand we know that ...
Eric's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
400 views

Why does it take so long for the human brain to develop from an evolutionary point of view?

I have read that it takes about 25 years for the brain to be fully developed. Coincidentally, humans from the Neolithic and Bronze Age had a very short life expectancy, in fact most of their life ...
Struggling_Student's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

How much blood do we have when the heart first starts to beat?

How much blood do we have when the heart beats for the first time? It should be between the third and fourth week of embryonic life.
francesco's user avatar
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1 vote
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Reflex muscular activity in three months old fetus

At the end of the third month, reflex activity can be evoked in aborted fetuses, indicating muscular activity This quote is from Langman's Medical Embriology. Have I misunderstood it or it is ...
francesco's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
26 views

What is Balbiani's vitelline body function?

I tried searching on Google Scholar but I found little to no information about this Balbiani's vitelline body. I don't even know why it is called vitelline...I've been taught that it can be seen ...
francesco's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
91 views

Do any non-human species have juveniles that cannot communicate with adults?

Human babies take 1+ years to begin learning how to speak (though sign language can be learned a bit earlier1). I know that cries, yells, and other non-linguistic sound are a simple form of ...
theforestecologist's user avatar
10 votes
1 answer
532 views

How many times have the cells in a human body divided?

Every single cell in a multicellular organism can in principle trace its "ancestry" back to the zygote through a continuous chain of cell divisions. How many divisions have occurred in a typical cell ...
tparker's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
107 views

How do schistosomes find and attach to human skin?

Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that have a snail intermediate host and a human definitive host. After developing in the snail, they (cercariae stage) escape into the water and can attach to the ...
F16Falcon's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
55 views

How does X chromosome monosomy occur

I want to understand how Turner syndrome - monosomy X - occurs at the molecular level. The NIH mentions that there are cases of both complete monosomy and of mosaicism. I’m particularly interested ...
Forest's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
62 views

If DNA methylation inactivates genes, does DNA demethylation activate them?

DNA demethylation can be passive or active. The passive process takes place in the absence of methylation of newly synthesized DNA strands by DNMT1 during several replication rounds – for example, ...
user50398's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
56 views

Archenteron vs Gastrocoele

What is Difference between “Archenteron” and “Gastrocoele”. Are they same or different? Gastrula is characterized by Archenteron or Gastrocoele or Both?
user334272's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Does natural selection select for randomness in development?

In a podcast with Sean Carroll and Liv Boeree they discuss a result from game theory that the optimal strategy in the face of incomplete information can require random decision making. For example, ...
Sean Lake's user avatar
  • 529
3 votes
1 answer
79 views

Why don't rates of cancer increase generation to generation?

As cells divide, they accumulate mutations that can sometimes cause cancer. Gametes have to divide like any other cell, and thus generation to generation mutations should accumulate in people's ...
Mike Flynn's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
50 views

How can the same transcription factor be both an activator and suppressor of the same gene?

For example, hunchback in moderate concentrations is an activator of kruppel, but a suppressor of kruppel in large concentrations. From what I've seen in literature, that's because the kruppel's ...
Slavus's user avatar
  • 171
2 votes
1 answer
33 views

Technical reason that specialized embryonic cells form

During the embryonic stage of human development, rapid cell division occurs and specialized cells form to build the various parts of the developing fetus. I'm curious: Why technically do specialized ...
Mike Pennington's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
143 views

Is there a mechanism of timing or delaying the expression of gap genes?

Summary Gap genes are expressed in presence of the right combination and amount of transcription factors. But is there any additional mechanism of timing the expression of the gap genes to ensure ...
Slavus's user avatar
  • 171
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

Real embryo pictures: How different zones(speeman organizer, marginal zones...) are known?

In many textbook, figures of embryo are drawn,but in reality how biologist know which zone is this one of an embryo in gastrulation stade? Except the dorsal lip here i can't localize other thing.
Maickel Tawdrous's user avatar

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