Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Can I use a basic compound microscope to analyze the ploidy of plant chromosomes?

So, I'm not really any kind of trained botanist. But I do have two things: some dandelion seeds from France, and, collecting dust in my garage along with related accessories, this thing. Normally, ...
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Is vaccination futile or not [on hold]

Are measles and such obscure, subjective diseases? Are there any serious vaccines for other diseases? Is Vaccination backed by evidence? Or I am sure.
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Explain to a layperson how cigarettes smoke might cause cancer

I have a very intelligent friend who is a light smoker, and also a Biology layperson. I wondered whether understanding exactly how cigarettes smoke can cause cancer, might encourage him to smoke less ...
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Replacing, instead of repairing, DNA

I've been doing some light reading on DNA damage theory of aging. One of the main ideas from that theory that I got is that the accumulation of damage in our DNA is one of the biggest causes of why we ...
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Why is double stranded DNA considered to be one molecule? [duplicate]

Wikipedia, for example, refers to DNA as "a" molecule, not two separate molecules forming a double-helix structure. Isn't this technically incorrect? There are two separate polynucleotide strands (...
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Number of DNA strands per chromosome

As I was reading Griffith's Introduction to genetic analysis this evidence was provided for single DNA makes single chromosome. Eventually geneticists demonstrated directly that certain chromosomes ...
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What is the difference between DNA vs RNA Editing in the context of gene therapy?

As a someone with beginner knowledge on biology, I have come across the terms "RNA editing". Take this paper for example : RNA Editing with CRISPR-Cas13 From my understanding, DNA -> RNA -> Proteins ...
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How do primers anneal to ssDNA?

In a PCR type protocol, the high temperature stage of the cycle will cause dsDNA to denature, as well as any annealed primers. At the lower temperature the denatured dsDNA will remain denatured. As ...
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Do all restriction enzymes have palindromic recognition sites?

I am trying to find out the requirements for a segment of DNA to be the recognition site of a restriction enzyme. Acording to the article on Restriction Enzymes in Wikipedia, "many of them" (...
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Can radiation exposure cause cancer later in life even if no traces of radioactive material are present in the body anymore?

I had a long-lasting debate with a friend of mine about the Fukushima incident. The question that we tried to solve was if radiation or toxin exposure can cause cancer later in life even if no ...
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Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
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What do lower case nucleotides mean in this gene sequence?

The following table (image linked below) shows promoter sequences recognized by different sigma factors. The sequence given for, e.g. sigma B is "GTTTaa"; why are the "a"s lowercase? Thanks! ![From "...
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Genes of the electron transport chain

Where are the genes of proteins that make the electron transport chain of mitochondria?(are they in in the nucleus or they are in the dna of the mitochondria itself?) Thanks for this answering system ...
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What did Francis Crick and James Watson discover that Rosalind Franklin didn't?

I've recently been introduced to the history of DNA research from Miescher to Franklin, Crick, and Watson, and I've found that Franklin had figured out a great many number of things out that Crick and ...
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Is it possible to Clone a Dinosaur with a full strand of their DNA? [duplicate]

If you have a full strand of Dinosaur DNA would it be possible to make it living and hatch a dinosaur? Or would it be a failure? Could you use a bird or alligator, for replacein
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Where can I find DNA decryption research? [closed]

What is the name of the science that studies the mathematics of DNA? Where can I learn about maths, statistics, types of code, numbers, patterns and graphs for genes and information found in DNA?
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Can DNA be flattened?

DNA is always shaped like a double helix. But could you flatten the double helix (which is essentially just a twisted ladder) and would DNA still be able to duplicate and control cells?
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Need help to determine % difference between DNA-strand from two different haplotypes. Known nucleotide diversity and more

Backround: 229 DNA sequences 493 bp in length Haplotype diversity: 0.9956 Average number of nucleotide differences: 12.50544 Polymorphic sites: 145 Nucleotide diversity: 0.02426 Is it possible ...
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Phenotypes caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA?

Will mutations in mitochondrial DNA necessarily affect phenotypes? I have some cursory knowledge of serial endosymbiotic cell theory, and find it difficult to consider that the DNA of the former ...
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Is newly produced sperm healthy if there was previous DNA damage?

I read that sperm cannot repair DNA damage. So does this mean that if your sperm has DNA damage, then all of your sperm (whether present or future) has DNA damage? Or does it just mean that the ...
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Is DNA from more parents (than two) better for the fitness of the offspring?

I'm designing a system (a computer system actually) and (a whole while ago) I spoke with a friend about it and he had this opinion: If you combine DNA of more parents (than 2) it's better for the ...
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PCR in different cell line

I developed a PCR cycle to amplify a 5.5 kb genomic DNA region in HEK cell line. When I tried to use the same protocol in A375 cell line I had no results but only smear. Can you help me? Thanks in ...
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How would two SNPs interact to affect CYP3A5 gene activity?

If someone has a non-functional rs41303343(T;T) SNP, yet that individual also possess the partially functional rs776746(A;G) SNP, is their CYP3A5 genotype functional or nonfunctional? In other words, ...
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Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
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probability of hairpin vs self-dimer formation?

I have a linear ssDNA oligo that is designed such that the ends are complementary, and conducive to hairpin formation (see attached figure). My question is, which has a higher likelihood of formation, ...
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How do introns code for proteins? [duplicate]

The reason I am asking this is because my textbook states that: Some introns may themselves encode proteins, and some may become short non-coding lengths of RNA involved in gene regulation. Some ...
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Calculate a global dN dS ratio for the all tree

I'm using the codeml application with the python package ete3 in order to calculate the dN/dS ratio of my trees, but it appears that there is no possibility to calculate a such ratio for all the three....
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How is it possible for phosphate to form two ester bonds in DNA replication?

I understand that in phosphodiester bond formation, two hydroxl groups on the phosphate molecule bind to the 3' and 5' OH groups on two independent pentose sugars. This is a condensation reaction, so ...
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Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...
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How does the nucleophilic attack in DNA replication occur?

Hi there, I am confused about how the nucleophilic attack occurs in DNA replication.I watched this video from a biology professor (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4hKibS2fAo) I watched this video ...
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How atom works and it's different from DNA? [closed]

I am studying atoms recently because I am writing a short story and the characters would talk about it for a bit. And I wish it's scientifically accurate. So I read a lot of articles about the atom ...
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How does bonding between non-complementary bases occur?

My teacher told me that when DNA polymerase makes an error (roughly every 10 million nucleotides?) that if, for example, it matches an A with a G that the error remains and is the main cause of point ...
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Calculating Possible Combinations of Bases in a DNA Strand of a Given Length

In my Biology class we were asked this question: This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. How many different sequences of eight bases can you make? Explain how you found your ...
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Do we posses technology to rebuild sequenced DNA? [closed]

Is there existing technology that would allow to rebuild DNA molecule from a digital file storing sequenced DNA? If not, does there at least exist theory explaining how such device could be built?
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How do biologists discover information from fossils? [closed]

I have a query about the study of fossils (palaeontology). Let me know about the study of fossils. How do biologist discover "DNA" information from dead and old fossils such as a dinosaur? (answer ...
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What is the structure of DNA during Interphase? Chromatin Fibre or Beads on a string(nucleosomes)?

During Interphase, does DNA predominantly exist as Chromatin Fibre (30nm fibre) or Chromatin/beads on a string structure(10nm) ?
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Why don't mitochondria have plasmids?

According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria are descended from specialised bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or ...
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DNA replication - how many times and when does it occur?

I’m currently learning about DNA replication in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. And my lecturer has mentioned that replication is a once in a lifetime activity. And I’m not sure what this is ...
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Can CRISPR also remove DNA viruses?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Can CRISPR cut DNA ...
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How do DNA viruses keep themselves in the nucleus without inserting themselves into genome?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Then how do DNA ...
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How are mitochondrial diseases like MERRF inherited?

I am doing a project on the disorder MERRF in Mitochondrial DNA. I have to make a pedigree and explain how it is transferred on from generation to generation. I know that it is inherited maternally, ...
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Are viruses ever manufactured directly from viral DNA embedded in the genome?

Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~...
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How many phosphates are in the 5' end of a DNA strand?

I know that the pyrophosphate of a NTP is hydrolysed so that it can create enough energy for the synthesis of DNA. But if we want to get specific we can know for sure that the 3' end of the DNA strand ...
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Can a hydra get cancer?

Because hydras have immune systems, telomerase activity, and Piwi-piRNA like cancer cells I wonder if they can get cancer?
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Must I HPLC-purify my PCR Primers for amplicon sequencing with PacBio SMRT?

I would like to order some primers for amplicon sequencing. I am using universal tag primers (unusually long 30-mers recommended by PacBio for SMRT, both F&R) + barcodes (16-mers). The resulting ...
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Projects in DNA Computing [closed]

I am physicist and have recently heard about DNA computing. I want to work in this area. I want your ideas on a "feasible but new project" (maximum time I can put on the project: 6 Months ), I can ...
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Why don't all protein sequences taken from DNA get synthesized?

Why don't all protein sequences in DNA get synthesized? The genome, and subsequently extracted proteome, is much larger than the collection of proteins for which there is any other experimental ...
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If an ethnic group holds nearly 100% of a particular haplogroup, does it means that people who have this haplogroup are their descendants?

Let me give you a hypothetical example. If the Egyptians were 100% E3b1, and the Levantines 50%, and the Anatolians 25%. Does this indicate that the Levantines and Anatolians are descended from ...
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Typical DNA replication times

Just out of curiosity (I am completely strange to biology), as I have been unable to find this info on the internet: How long does the whole DNA replication process take? (say, the replication of a ...
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Are there any DNA base sequences that are shared by every living being that we know of? And if yes, are some of those sequences “silent”?

In "every living being" I am not including viruses as another question already answered that. I have read that some part of the DNA sequences of humans and other animals/plants are "silent" as in not ...