Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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What would happen if we place denatured DNA in acidic medium?

My teacher in one of the biology lecture told that DNA could be denatured at high temperatures or keeping it at alkaline ph And he further added that it could be renatured by keeping it at low ...
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Why don't moles repair their DNA?

Cells have mechanism to repair damaged DNA. So why don't the cells in moles (the spots), repair themselves and the moles dissappear?
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how do you argue the creation of bacterial cell controlled by a chemically synthesized genome

I want answer related to synthetic biology and how it relates to genetic engineering
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DNA denaturation and Renaturation

If we denature dsDNA by heating it and then rapidly cooling it then what would happen? I read this question, where it was written that if we were given dsDNA sample which was completely denatured and ...
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Can the self correction mechanisms in cells imply that the DNA code to a degree is self modifying

There is an argument that proteins coded by 20 amino acids via the DNA program has so few successful protein formation that a search never can reach the complexity of it via natural selection and ...
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“How the clustal omega can be reverse engineered, to trace ancestral inversion mutations via the guide tree?” [migrated]

I apologise for very basic question but I am very new to biology and have very specific knowledge of this field, I am currently working on Bioinformatics in my machine learning project which is why I ...
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On the science of DNA modifications putting animal genes into humans and modifying a human

I am wondering about the possibility of modifying DNA or changing DNA of a human being.... I am wondering if something like this can be possible in the future when DNA structure has been fully ...
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Embrionic stem cells mediated gene transfer in mice & chimeric mice

one of the ways of making a transgenic mice is via a technique called "Embrionic stem cell mediated gene transfer". This technique starts by getting a blastocyte from a brown mouse, in which ...
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Why has interest in haplotype blocks waned over the decade?

I looked up haplotype blocks in Google Scholar, and the results returned by its algorithm show that almost all the relevant articles were published between 2001 and 2009. Plus, there was almost ...
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Why is the 5′ end of DNA a monophosphate?

According to my textbook: While the 5′ end of a DNA strand is typically a monophosphate, the 5′ end of an RNA molecule is typically a triphosphate. Source: Biology: How Life Works, 3rd Edition How ...
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Why do some karyotype graphs contain 46 pairs of chromosomes?

The human genome consists of 23 pairs of chromosomes. Two copies of each pair connect to each other at the centromere. Normal karyotype graphs should look like this: But some karyotype graphs contain ...
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How would one model a Neutrophil Extracellular Trap with Hookean Springs?

This is a question based in biology but involves a good amount of physics. Given that a Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (N.E.T) behaves like an aggregate of DNA strands with citrullinated Histones and ...
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Do DNA viroids exist?

Viroids are described as short circular ssRNA with no protein coating. Are there any analogous infectious particles that contain DNA instead of RNA? If DNA viroids do not exist, is there an obvious ...
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Does DNA being circular or linear directly affect the speed of DNA replication?

Let's say we have two DNA molecules of equal length, one belonging to a prokaryote and the other to an eukaryote. It's known that replication of the eukaryotic DNA is faster in this case. One clear ...
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What is the role of pyrophosphatase in RNA polymerization?

In Molecular Cell Biology (8th edition) there's a fragment in chapter 5.2 that says: The energetics of the polymerization reaction strongly favor the addition of ribonucleotides to the growing RNA ...
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What exactly is a DNA molecule? [duplicate]

Are the two strands of the double helix collectively called the DNA molecule, or is each individual strand the DNA molecule?
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Is the leading strand consistent in the same chromosome with multiple replication forks?

If a chromosome has multiple origins or replication, do those origins necessarily pick the same DNA strand as leading and the same one as lagging, or can they be of opposite orientations, sending ...
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State of extracted DNA

A well-known and commonly-done experiment is to extract DNA from strawberries or other fruit by first mashing the fruit of choice, adding the mush to a mixture of water, salt, and detergent, and then ...
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What is the copy number of a given gene in GRCh37?

sorry for the naive question, but how do I determine what the copy number is in GRCh37 for a gene with multiple CNVs? (e.g. DRD4).
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SNP Genotyping Scanning technology

The silicon bead micro-array technology for SNP scanning is a marvellous example of human ingenuity. Is anyone aware of a non-technical history of its development accessible to the lay reader? As an ...
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Are there any DNA viruses with junk DNA in them?

I know mimiviruses and pandoraviruses have orphan DNA - DNA that is not found in other species - but this is DNA that codes for proteins. I am not able to find out if they contain junk DNA. By junk I ...
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How does the DNA cross through bacterial cell wall during electroporation?

There exists a lot of literature on electroporation of Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Most of it gives an explanation that electroporation works by creating transient pores in cell membranes of ...
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Origins of transcription factors and RNA Polymerase

I was learning about transcription factors and RNA polymerase from Khan Academy to supplement Dr. Robert Sapolsky's lectures on Human Behavioral Biology. As I understand: RNA Polymerase transcribes ...
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Is this basic gene diagram correctly labeled?

I keep seeing this gene diagram, and I am not sure how to interpret it. I don't know what this diagram is called or where it was first depicted, but in the second picture, I have labeled it with what ...
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gene inversion and DNA directionality

The directionality of the DNA goes from the 3-prime end to the 5-prime end. Thus, the inversion of a gene would connect a 5-prime to a 5-prime. How could that be? Maybe inverting a gene also ...
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Universal clock for humans contained in the telomeric sequences?

I don't know if this would make sense, but imagine that we could only suffer from natural aging (not diseases whatsoever involved). Is there an estimate of what is our natural maximum lifespan that a ...
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Does using CRISPR/Cas9 knockout need to add donor DNA in the process?

I am new to this technology and don't quite understand how it works. Hope someone can give some suggestions! Thank you.
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What animal classes has also “Like Humans” XY Chromosomes for Males and XX for Females? [closed]

Are other mammals. birds, reptiles, or even insects same to humans in that the male organisms have XY Chromoson at the end and female XX? Thanks for the ansver
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Why does the structure of RNA change? [closed]

RNA only has one strand, but like DNA, is made up of nucleotides. RNA strands are shorter than DNA strands. RNA sometimes forms a secondary double helix structure, but only intermittently. Why does ...
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Can DNA rings, i.e. plasmids, form as Möbius strips?

I know that plasmids can be present in a coiled form, which keeps the DNA strands together when they degenerate, by forming catenases. I was wondering, however, whether it has been documented to ...
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Available Protein sequence alignment dataset and HMM model

I am new to biology and I find my algorithm may be used in the Protein sequence alignment, since it is a henced HMM model. I find that people use HMM to generate noisy copies of the consensus sequence ...
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Removing DNA from a cell

Stupid question perhaps but what does happen if one completely removes DNA from a single cell organism? As far as I know DNA is only needed for propagating information to descendants doing it's ...
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How can a homozygous mutation, considered pathogenic, occur on a gene such as HFE without the disease developing?

What happens when you have a homozygous mutation on a gene (eg. a swapped base), that is considered pathogenic, but without developing the disease? It it were a heterozygous mutation I would get it, ...
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DNA from sweat on the hat band? [closed]

My father died in 1987. I have an old cowboy hat of his. Can I use a FamilyTreeDNA test kit to recover any DNA?
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Why do the calicheamicins bind to DNA at the minor, rather than the major, groove?

I am trying to understand why some drugs bind only to the minor groove and not to the major groove. More specifically, I am interested in calicheamicins. They target DNA and cause strand scission. ...
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Does the cell release the empty capsids?

The virus via the spike of the capsid connects to a receptor in a cell, then the DNA enters the cell wall. My question is what happens to the capsid - does it stay connected to the receptor or is ...
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Can DNA be used directly to determine the age of a mutation?

I've studied that proteins found in a sample as biochemical evidences for evolution. Its variation in structure and configuration can be used to date the age when that mutation occured, effectively ...
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Are there any known consequences of the right-handedness of the DNA double helix?

In this article it is suggested (without evidence) that the right-handedness of DNA may be the cause that "kick[s] off asymmetry in the early embryo [of snails]". On the one hand we know that ...
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identificaation of the correct fragments with desired nucleotide sequences using probes

in making of rDNA, my text book has a point that is written above(the question). what i don't get is if we already know what the nucleotide sequence is why do we need to take out the gene having the ...
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Does DNA have a phosphate group or phosphoric acid? [closed]

I am confused about the structure of nucleotide of a DNA. I have seen that it has a phosphate group(PO₄³⁻) in some books but phosphoric acid(H₃PO₄) in other ones. Which one is right?
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How does DNA shape a living organism? [closed]

I'm haven't studied biology so excuse me if I'm getting something wrong. I'm trying to understand how the DNA from a sperm and egg cause the egg too multiply and form a perticular shape (shape of a ...
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How can DNA replication result in hair pin structures?

My professor said that one of the reasons SSB proteins are so important was to prevent the formation of hair pin structures, I can't see how or why DNA would form hairpin structures and there's not ...
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Self-study genetics

I'm new at the field of genomics. I'm a theoretical physicist by training and now we would like to translate some of the ideas to the DNA, possibly in real genomic instances. The concrete example ...
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Non-radioactive nucleotide labeling compatible with reverse transcriptase?

Are there any methods for nucleotide labeling which are compatible with use for reverse-transcription, besides radiolabeling, and for which the regulatory framework in the EU / USA are permissive ? ...
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Is it possible nowadays to artificially create an organism just by inserting organism's DNA into an artificial environment?

Let's say we have a DNA of a bacteria and we want to recreate the bacteria just from this DNA. Is it possible nowadays to get this DNA and insert it into some artificial solution so that from this DNA ...
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How to determine the most likely reading frame of a DNA sequence?

This question is from a past exam paper for an introductory bioinformatics module. I'm a computer scientist doing biology for the first time. "A short bacterial gene has been sequenced, giving the ...
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What is the disadvantage of circular DNA?

I have searched online and there is little information about the disadvantage of a circular DNA. Since I know that with chromosome arrangement like human, we have telomere that held the DNA strands ...
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Why does inbreeding cause genetic defects, but cell division in one's own body does not?

I was watching a DNA transcription video when I realized that cells basically create copies of DNA all the time in our body. There may be a few mutations/errors, but it works out fine. However, when ...
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How can I classify the 3 clades(S, G, V) of the coronavirus that are found on GISAID?

On GISAID they classified the corona using 4 clades(S, G, V, Other). I would like to know exactly how these genomes were classified for my research. So how do you classify a coronavirus genome as ...
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Why does DNA have two sets of bases? [closed]

DNA has two sets of bases. Why is this the case? If one gets mutated, does the other as well?

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