Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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A question about dna triplex

Short DNA triplex strands have been identified in various organsims. But, would injecting a single strand of DNA or RNA (with its bases complementary to the bases of DNA found in the major groove of a ...
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How to measure DNA concentration from Acetonitrile Cell Lysis of plant cells?

I'm currently trying to normalise my data to the number of cells present in each sample. Currently, I lyse the cells with cold ACN and centrifuge. The supernatant contains what I'm interested in, and ...
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Changes in DNA and forensic cases

If DNA changes over time, how is it that forensic DNA gathered decades ago can be matched to a person today for solving crimes?
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How to calculate the quantification of qPCR to the equivalent of the number of nuclei in fungi?

I have a question about the quantification through qPCR. The my question is: if I made the qPCR of a fungal functional gene, how is possible to obtain from the quantification number (in nanogram) the ...
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Is our data about DNA purely empirical?

I was curious about what makes some things living. The concept of a virus prompted me to think about that. I read that a virus is a very simple organism with only DNA in it. This DNA is the "...
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What is the charge of (bacterial) ribosome?

Ribosomes are negatively charged and thus electrostaticaly repelled from DNA. However, I could not find a good reference that would allow me to estimate the magnitude of negative charge on a ribosome. ...
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Is the total of all human DNA (23 pairs) the longest of all species?

The human DNA molecule is about 2 meters in length. See here. We have 46 of them, so in total 82 meters. In this article it is said that the genome of the Protopterus aethiopicus (a.k.a The marbled ...
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Why does absorption (at 260nm) of ssDNA increase with temperature?

In the graph below, I understand why A260 of double stranded DNA would increase with temperature increase, as more of the DNA becomes single stranded (and A260 of ssDNA is higher than that of dsDNA ...
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How hard is it to build a promotor in a DNA that initiates DNA transcription when specific hormones are around

I have an idea that you could find out which substances are within a sample in vitro that you are investigating by creating DNA that has a bunch of different promotors for different substances you are ...
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Is it possible to distinguish between coding and template strands from the sequence?

Let’s say you have the following DNA sequence fragment: 5’-ACCAGTACTTCGT-3’ 3’-TGGTCATGAAGCA-5’ Is there any way to determine which strand is the template ...
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How to calculate percentage of DNA that ancestors contributed?

In David Reich's book "Who we are and how we got here" there is a graph explaining that more we go back in our ancestors generations, the least we have chances to have any DNA inherited from one of ...
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Significance of the resequencing of the chimpanzee genome

Introductory remark: I am not a biologist, but a somewhat knowledgeable layperson. I have been told that sequencing of chimpanzee DNA until recently has been done almost exclusively using human DNA ...
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What's the transposon difference between chimps and humans?

I was reading that humans and chimps share 98-99% of the same DNA sequence but I also read humans and chimps only share around 20% of the same proteins. Also, 45% of the human genome is transposable ...
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In theory, could a woman that has fathers and mothers cromosome identical, be able to live?

What Im getting at is something totally impossible, but im making some mental experiences. Assuming I have a machine that can produce a living being just from a DNA code (like in the movie The Fly)....
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Which DNA polymerase can use a nick as priming site?

Which DNA polymerase (commercially available) can initiate polymerization at nicks, without a standard primer? My goal is to perform rolling circle amplification starting at a nick.
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How to design a permanent vaccine to cholera using CRISPR?

I know that Vibrio Cholerae infects the body through the GM1 ganglioside. So, would it be possible to engineer a CRISPR gene editing tool to prevent Vibrio Cholerae from getting into our cells? ...
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DNA described somewhere?

This is not purely biological question but how do the companies making DNA analysis know what your DNA means? Is there some database describing human DNA? I watched some documents about DNA, gene ...
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From DNA data, is it easier to conclude that chimpanzees are our close relative, than it is to do a paternity testing?

Well, today I was contemplating on how to explain evolution, approaching with the dialectic method. When it came to why chimpanzees and us being so close in the tree of evolution isn't outright absurd,...
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DNA of Different Species and The Fossil Record of Their Common Ancestor

Let me please be clear about something. I believe in evolution. The evidence and data are compelling and conclusive which makes it a very well-established theory. I'm seeking a certain evidence (if ...
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What is the fundamental difference between human genome and other genomes that makes human a self-conscious living organism?

DNA is considered to be the blueprint from which any organism can be created. DNA carries the genetic information to construct a living body. DNA carries genes which represents the information that is ...
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Taq Polymerase's stability at high temperature

I was asked a question as to what is so special with Taq Polymerase that makes it quite stable at high temperatures though its functioning is the same as other DNA polymerases like that of mesophiles. ...
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Are there any ways to force DNA-origami to create a geometric shape from non-nucleotides (not from DNA)?

I mean, can we create with the help of DNA-origami figures that would not consist of DNA, but, for example, carbon? Is it even possible?
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How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share?

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share? There are articles online that indicate that humans share xxx% of DNA with Chimpanzees, bananas, and other assorted ...
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Why do we need to amplify DNA sequences?

I am learning about biotechnology. I have no education in biology or chemistry and am simply interested in the subject of biotechnology. I am wondering why we need to have multiple copies of a piece ...
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How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer?

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer? I know that a mutation in DNA can cause the triplet code on the mRNA to change so different amini acids are made and a different order means a ...
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Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young?

As I understand, when I am getting older DNA becomes more and more damaged in my body. Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young (38 years old or for my kids) in ...
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How much DNA can differ among different humans today?

According to this article, Australian aborigines carry unknown DNA Australian Aboriginal people carry the DNA of an unknown human relative. This made me wonder, is it known how much DNA can differ ...
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During DNA foot-printing, what is the purpose of radioactively labeling only one end of the DNA fragment?

I read that during DNA foot-printing analysis, DNA is radioactively labeled on one end before being cleaved by DNase 1. I understand that it is labeled so in order to locate the fragment on a gel, but ...
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What's the difference between the terms “gene map” and “genome”?

It seems some sites arbitrarily restrict "gene map" to only a single chromosome, but others don't. Supposing we don't restrict it to just a single chromosome, is it different from "genome"? Are these ...
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Linker DNA and Genetic Expression

So I was reading on linker DNA, and the textbook only describes it in terms of structure. I was wondering if linker DNA can ever contain genes, and if it can, whether it will always be expressed or ...
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How does the helicase enzyme break the hydrogen bonds between the strands of DNA?

I know helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the strands of a DNA, but how is this done? Does it put an ion between the strands of the nucleic acid so that the bond breaks apart itself or is ...
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128 views

Is variation a result of Evolution?

We know that the DNA copying mechanism that replicates DNA during cellular division is not 100% accurate and the resultant errors are the source of variation in the members of a population. At the ...
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What is the status of the cfDNA ends?

I am working on a protocol to ligate cfDNA, extracted from blood, into some vector. I have looked into the literature but I cannot find any detail about the status of the ends of the cfDNA. Are they ...
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Can 1.5 gigabytes encoded in the human genome really account for the complexity of a human being?

I read the human genome is 1.5 gigabytes in size. Thats actually not a lot; Photoshop probably takes more space. Mac OS takes 10+ gigabytes of space. Also, the genome is 1.5 gigabytes when counting ...
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Who invented dN/dS?

I am writing a paper, and I want to refer to the original paper that coined the term dN/dS (or Ka/Ks for that matter). I have found early works on dN and dS (like Miyata and Yasunaga 1980), but cannot ...
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Why do mutations not take place in mRNA of higher eukaryotes?

Is it because it is too short-lived to be mutated? Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids so how is mRNA protected? RNA viruses undergo mutations to evolve so I guess it is not immune to mutations
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A little help understanding DNA supercoiling

I am studying molecular biology from Lewin's Genes XII and got confused in the supercoiling topic. Since then I read from several other sources and so far understood the following. However, I can't ...
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How to find which genetic pattern is responsible for structure of a cell

I studied that DNA are blueprints that describes an organism. How do I learn more specifically about DNA regions responsible for storing structure of a cell. By Structure of a cell I meant to ask ...
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Separate DNA fragments with very different size (oligo and lambda-DNA)

I am running a ligation reaction to one of the sticky ends of lambda-DNA. The oligo for the ligation is 25 bp (10x excess), whereas lambda-DNA is 48 kbp. I would like to recover the lambda-DNA and ...
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In a Chromosome, 2 nm is the length of what?

this figure comes from the nature 2 nm at the top right hand corner is the length of what?
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DNA and Genes, which consists of which? It seems that the hot answer on quora is different to the nih post

This quora's answer has got 8.3k views and 20 Upvoters. "Genes are a part of the DNA." per nih, "Genes are made up of DNA, which is telling the truth." in my understanding, the quora version ...
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Is presence of air necessary for silica gel to absorb moisture?

I am a biologist currently doing field work where I need to quickly dry leaf samples using silica gel crystals. I use the orange indicating kind that are 2-4mm in size. The setup is like this. I ...
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Insertional inactivation using pBR322

I have questions regarding "selection using insertional inactivation". In a typical DNA recombination experiment using plasmid pBR322 where a new gene in inserted in the place of tet gene, it is ...
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Difference Junk DNA and Pseudogenes [duplicate]

1-Are Pseudogenes and Junk DNA both Non-Coding DNA or they are different entity? How much Pseudogenes & Junk DNA do we have respectively? 2-I read that Non-Coding DNA has functions, my question ...
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Is UV radiation more likely to cause mutations during mitosis?

According to Life: The Science of Biology (10th edition), UV radiation might cause the formation of pyrimidine dimers, which are the primary cause of skin cancer in humans. Are mutations more likely ...
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Can I use a basic compound microscope to analyze the ploidy of plant chromosomes?

So, I'm not really any kind of trained botanist. But I do have two things: some dandelion seeds from France, and, collecting dust in my garage along with related accessories, this thing. Normally, ...
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Explain to a layperson how cigarettes smoke might cause cancer

I have a very intelligent friend who is a light smoker, and also a Biology layperson. I wondered whether understanding exactly how cigarettes smoke can cause cancer, might encourage him to smoke less ...
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Replacing, instead of repairing, DNA

I've been doing some light reading on DNA damage theory of aging. One of the main ideas from that theory that I got is that the accumulation of damage in our DNA is one of the biggest causes of why we ...
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Why is double stranded DNA considered to be one molecule? [duplicate]

Wikipedia, for example, refers to DNA as "a" molecule, not two separate molecules forming a double-helix structure. Isn't this technically incorrect? There are two separate polynucleotide strands (...
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Number of DNA strands per chromosome

As I was reading Griffith's Introduction to genetic analysis this evidence was provided for single DNA makes single chromosome. Eventually geneticists demonstrated directly that certain chromosomes ...

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