Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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A poor man's COVID-19 vaccine? [closed]

If person A is infected (COVID-19) and person B is not, could the following work as a vaccination? Person A exhales (coughs?) into a a transparent bag. The bag is radiated for a long time with a ...
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CRISPR-Cas9 knockout

With CRISPR-Cas9 I have conducted a targeted knockout of a DNA region encoding a certain protein (working with leukocytes). My question is, how long does it take until this protein is not detectable ...
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What is the ELF spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 when excited with Schumann resonanses? [closed]

According to prof. Luc Montagnier et al. some DNA sequences have extra low frequency (ELF) oscillating magnetic fields after having been exposed for a certain time to an electromagnetic field ...
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What could happen if [closed]

What could happen if a microwave zapped on your face, causing a new mutation? Which of the following options are possible? ☆•The mutated cells could spread through Meiosis• | •The mutated cells could ...
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Roughly speaking how stable are short sections of single-stranded RNA in exposed environments compared to double-stranded DNA?

A search following a recent news item led me to a CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report for 23 March 2020 which says in part: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified on a variety of surfaces in cabins ...
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Can Covid19 cure by CRISSPR-Cas9 treatment? [closed]

My colleague assumes that COVID19 is effecting the genetics, Also I was reading about CRISPR Genetics modification, Just wondering, can wether this cure Covid19s' patients. Detection: {If they can ...
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Where can I find the genome of the L-strain coronavirus and the S-strain coronavirus?

I read an interesting article about two strains of the coronavirus: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2236544-coronavirus-are-there-two-strains-and-is-one-more-deadly/ I would like to know how the ...
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What causes cells to inactivate one X-chromosome?

Normally, when a cell has two X-chromosomes (female genome), one is randomly inactivated. How does the cell detect that there are two X-chromosomes in the first place? Is there some kind of protein ...
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What evidence is there that mutations are random?

So correct me if I don't have this right: The scientific consensus is that mutations are random, but natural selection is not random. The beneficial mutations will be selected for by the enviromental ...
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how many crossing over sections are in human dna?

i have found in wikipedia: At a given chiasma, an exchange of genetic material can occur between both chromatids, what is called a chromosomal crossover, ... In humans, there seems to be one ...
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Can I pellet DNA back from dissolved state?

I have a dissolved plasmid pellet in water. Can I pellet it again by centrifuging it at 13000 rpm? If not, why?
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The new DNA study showing that we have two DNA codes and not only one unique code

I am looking for a study that i read maybe 2-3 years ago that i cant find at the moment. Scientist has always believed that humans only have one unique DNA code that makes us who we are, but a ...
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Genes and proteins with a significantly inbalanced composition

According to Wikipedia, the median size of a protein-coding gene is 26,288 bp which makes it possible (from statistical considerations) that the nucleotides C, G, A, T appear in roughly equal amounts ...
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A question about dna triplex

Short DNA triplex strands have been identified in various organsims. But, would injecting a single strand of DNA or RNA (with its bases complementary to the bases of DNA found in the major groove of a ...
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How to measure DNA concentration from Acetonitrile Cell Lysis of plant cells?

I'm currently trying to normalise my data to the number of cells present in each sample. Currently, I lyse the cells with cold ACN and centrifuge. The supernatant contains what I'm interested in, and ...
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Changes in DNA and forensic cases

If DNA changes over time, how is it that forensic DNA gathered decades ago can be matched to a person today for solving crimes?
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How to calculate the quantification of qPCR to the equivalent of the number of nuclei in fungi?

I have a question about the quantification through qPCR. The my question is: if I made the qPCR of a fungal functional gene, how is possible to obtain from the quantification number (in nanogram) the ...
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What is the charge of (bacterial) ribosome?

Ribosomes are negatively charged and thus electrostaticaly repelled from DNA. However, I could not find a good reference that would allow me to estimate the magnitude of negative charge on a ribosome. ...
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Is the total of all human DNA (23 pairs) the longest of all species?

The human DNA molecule is about 2 meters in length. See here. We have 46 of them, so in total 82 meters. In this article it is said that the genome of the Protopterus aethiopicus (a.k.a The marbled ...
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Why does absorption (at 260nm) of ssDNA increase with temperature?

In the graph below, I understand why A260 of double stranded DNA would increase with temperature increase, as more of the DNA becomes single stranded (and A260 of ssDNA is higher than that of dsDNA ...
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How hard is it to build a promotor in a DNA that initiates DNA transcription when specific hormones are around

I have an idea that you could find out which substances are within a sample in vitro that you are investigating by creating DNA that has a bunch of different promotors for different substances you are ...
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3answers
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Is it possible to distinguish between coding and template strands from the sequence?

Let’s say you have the following DNA sequence fragment: 5’-ACCAGTACTTCGT-3’ 3’-TGGTCATGAAGCA-5’ Is there any way to determine which strand is the template ...
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How to calculate percentage of DNA that ancestors contributed?

In David Reich's book "Who we are and how we got here" there is a graph explaining that more we go back in our ancestors generations, the least we have chances to have any DNA inherited from one of ...
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Significance of the resequencing of the chimpanzee genome

Introductory remark: I am not a biologist, but a somewhat knowledgeable layperson. I have been told that sequencing of chimpanzee DNA until recently has been done almost exclusively using human DNA ...
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What's the transposon difference between chimps and humans?

I was reading that humans and chimps share 98-99% of the same DNA sequence but I also read humans and chimps only share around 20% of the same proteins. Also, 45% of the human genome is transposable ...
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In theory, could a woman that has fathers and mothers cromosome identical, be able to live?

What Im getting at is something totally impossible, but im making some mental experiences. Assuming I have a machine that can produce a living being just from a DNA code (like in the movie The Fly)....
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Which DNA polymerase can use a nick as priming site?

Which DNA polymerase (commercially available) can initiate polymerization at nicks, without a standard primer? My goal is to perform rolling circle amplification starting at a nick.
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How to design a permanent vaccine to cholera using CRISPR?

I know that Vibrio Cholerae infects the body through the GM1 ganglioside. So, would it be possible to engineer a CRISPR gene editing tool to prevent Vibrio Cholerae from getting into our cells? ...
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DNA described somewhere?

This is not purely biological question but how do the companies making DNA analysis know what your DNA means? Is there some database describing human DNA? I watched some documents about DNA, gene ...
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From DNA data, is it easier to conclude that chimpanzees are our close relative, than it is to do a paternity testing?

Well, today I was contemplating on how to explain evolution, approaching with the dialectic method. When it came to why chimpanzees and us being so close in the tree of evolution isn't outright absurd,...
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DNA of Different Species and The Fossil Record of Their Common Ancestor

Let me please be clear about something. I believe in evolution. The evidence and data are compelling and conclusive which makes it a very well-established theory. I'm seeking a certain evidence (if ...
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What is the fundamental difference between human genome and other genomes that makes human a self-conscious living organism?

DNA is considered to be the blueprint from which any organism can be created. DNA carries the genetic information to construct a living body. DNA carries genes which represents the information that is ...
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Taq Polymerase's stability at high temperature

I was asked a question as to what is so special with Taq Polymerase that makes it quite stable at high temperatures though its functioning is the same as other DNA polymerases like that of mesophiles. ...
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Are there any ways to force DNA-origami to create a geometric shape from non-nucleotides (not from DNA)?

I mean, can we create with the help of DNA-origami figures that would not consist of DNA, but, for example, carbon? Is it even possible?
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How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share?

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share? There are articles online that indicate that humans share xxx% of DNA with Chimpanzees, bananas, and other assorted ...
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Why do we need to amplify DNA sequences?

I am learning about biotechnology. I have no education in biology or chemistry and am simply interested in the subject of biotechnology. I am wondering why we need to have multiple copies of a piece ...
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How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer?

How do mutations and protein synthesis link to cancer? I know that a mutation in DNA can cause the triplet code on the mRNA to change so different amini acids are made and a different order means a ...
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Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young?

As I understand, when I am getting older DNA becomes more and more damaged in my body. Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young (38 years old or for my kids) in ...
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How much DNA can differ among different humans today?

According to this article, Australian aborigines carry unknown DNA Australian Aboriginal people carry the DNA of an unknown human relative. This made me wonder, is it known how much DNA can differ ...
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During DNA foot-printing, what is the purpose of radioactively labeling only one end of the DNA fragment?

I read that during DNA foot-printing analysis, DNA is radioactively labeled on one end before being cleaved by DNase 1. I understand that it is labeled so in order to locate the fragment on a gel, but ...
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What's the difference between the terms “gene map” and “genome”?

It seems some sites arbitrarily restrict "gene map" to only a single chromosome, but others don't. Supposing we don't restrict it to just a single chromosome, is it different from "genome"? Are these ...
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Linker DNA and Genetic Expression

So I was reading on linker DNA, and the textbook only describes it in terms of structure. I was wondering if linker DNA can ever contain genes, and if it can, whether it will always be expressed or ...
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How does the helicase enzyme break the hydrogen bonds between the strands of DNA?

I know helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the strands of a DNA, but how is this done? Does it put an ion between the strands of the nucleic acid so that the bond breaks apart itself or is ...
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Is variation a result of Evolution?

We know that the DNA copying mechanism that replicates DNA during cellular division is not 100% accurate and the resultant errors are the source of variation in the members of a population. At the ...
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What is the status of the cfDNA ends?

I am working on a protocol to ligate cfDNA, extracted from blood, into some vector. I have looked into the literature but I cannot find any detail about the status of the ends of the cfDNA. Are they ...
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Can 1.5 gigabytes encoded in the human genome really account for the complexity of a human being?

I read the human genome is 1.5 gigabytes in size. Thats actually not a lot; Photoshop probably takes more space. Mac OS takes 10+ gigabytes of space. Also, the genome is 1.5 gigabytes when counting ...
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Who invented dN/dS?

I am writing a paper, and I want to refer to the original paper that coined the term dN/dS (or Ka/Ks for that matter). I have found early works on dN and dS (like Miyata and Yasunaga 1980), but cannot ...
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Why do mutations not take place in mRNA of higher eukaryotes?

Is it because it is too short-lived to be mutated? Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids so how is mRNA protected? RNA viruses undergo mutations to evolve so I guess it is not immune to mutations
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A little help understanding DNA supercoiling

I am studying molecular biology from Lewin's Genes XII and got confused in the supercoiling topic. Since then I read from several other sources and so far understood the following. However, I can't ...
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How to find which genetic pattern is responsible for structure of a cell

I studied that DNA are blueprints that describes an organism. How do I learn more specifically about DNA regions responsible for storing structure of a cell. By Structure of a cell I meant to ask ...

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