Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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What is the high level mechanism of building organisms from DNA

From my understanding DNA is some kind of instruction set which guides how to build organism, let's take a human body for example DNA consist of A T G C, and they are grouped in Genomes(something like ...
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Are DNA molecules negatively charged at low pH values?

We know, that for each monomer of DNA, phosphate groups are having -1 charge because one of the oxygen is negatively charged (2nd oxygen participates in the phosphodiester covalent bond), but isn't it ...
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DNA as a data storage medium: how many GB can a human genome store?

DNA molecules may be the digital storage medium of the future. I was looking at how much data you could fit if you would synthesize a DNA molecule the size of a human genome. So DNA base molecules are ...
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Does an ORF need a stop codon?

I try to read ORFs from a gene sequence but I am not sure how to interpret a sequence with a start codon but no stop codon. Imagining I have a gene sequence like the following: ...
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Can gene mutations cause Down's syndrome in humans?

I am working on an A levels questions: Which of the following statements about gene mutation is incorrect? A. It can occur in both somatic and sex cells B. It can cause Down's syndrome in humans C. ...
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Are gene conversions and expansion/contraction of repetitive (satellite) DNA examples of directional, non-random mutations?

Are gene conversions and expansion/contraction of repetitive (satellite) DNA examples of directional, non-random mutations? For some context, it was brought to mind as a result of reading the ...
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Explanation for the results of Topoisomerase I treatment of ERCs - Gel Electrophoresis

This part of a 1997 paper published in The Cell (David A. Sinclair & Leonard Guarente, 1997) discusses the presence of extrachromosomal rDNA circles (ERCs) in greater numbers in old mutant yeast ...
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Cancer: computing the proliferation of DNA mutations in cancer cells

I have a question about cancer. How is it, that in a cancerogenous cell, once a specific gene changes, subsequent DNAs in cells end up exponentially acquiring more and more mutations? Can, these ...
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How long does DNA last in wood?

I was wondering if it's possible to find out if the wood of the table I bought is from the same tree of the chair in the same set. Most likely not, but I was wondering if it's theoretically possible ...
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What is a random piece of DNA called?

If I picked up a DNA molecule and randomly snipped out a piece with scissors what is the scientific name for the resulting piece? I'll confess right up front that I am not an academic or professional. ...
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Is DNA a Language? [duplicate]

I’ve been thinking about attributes that are unique to humans (not just far more developed in humans than other species) and aside from trivial things like chins, the only ones I can think of are art ...
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Genetic modifications to produce blue hair

The following animals are known to produce blue pigmentation: Linckia laevigata (blue star, study reveals blue carotenoprotein, linkiacyanin) Nessaea batesii (obrina olivewing, study reveals blue ...
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What came first: the ribosome in which RNA is read, or the RNA to encode for the ribosome proteins? [duplicate]

It's a bit like the chicken-and-egg problem. Ribosomes need proteins because they are partially made of them. Where can they get their proteins? They read the base sequence in mRNA entering them, ...
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DNA from Egyptian Mummies Evolution vs Human of Today

Comment: I ask my biological questions from the point of view of mathematical proportions. I am not a biologist. Are there significant differences in DNA from Egyptian Mummies vs. those available from ...
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Why does plasmid cloning efficiency go down with increased size of insert?

I am setting up a cloning experiment. Briefly, I ran PCR on a gene of interest, cloned it into a vector (pGemTeasy) and bulked it up in bacteria. I have been advised to limit the size of my fragment ...
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Why are DNA samples stored as biochemical samples and not as binary data?

Why are DNA samples stored in cryogenic conditions as biological (or bio-chemical) samples and not as binary data streams of nucleotide sequences in a hard disk or tape drive? A few reasons I can ...
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Do complementary DNA sequences/codons produce the same amino acids? [closed]

I haven’t been able to confirm this anywhere. If this were not the case, when transcription occurred, if the transcription were based upon the incorrect side of the DNA molecule, a completely ...
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Non fluorescent DNA stain to visualize Drosophila polytene chromosomes

I am working on designing a lab for an undergrad genetics course which involves dissecting and visualising polytene chromosomes from Drosophila salivary glands. I need a non-fluorescent non-antibased ...
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Calculate radius of curvature of DNA

I am using this article to calculate the radius of curvature of DNA. I know that 150bp segment of DNA length wraps itself 1.7 times around a histone core. There are 0.34nm/bp DNA's persistence length ...
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Why are RNA nucleotides added first, only to be replaced by DNA nucleotides during DNA replication?

I am not asking why RNA primer needs to be added, but rather why RNA nucleotides are added as a primer by Primase and replaced by DNA polymerase I? It seems very inefficient to first insert RNA ...
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What results would come from DNA analysis of several different types of DNA mixed together?

By "types," I mean several different species of animals. If, post extraction, the pure, isolated DNA of several different animals were mixed together and run through DNA analysis, I know the ...
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Plasmid Design and Integration events [Single vs Double cross over]

When linearising a vector by restriction digest within the middle of a homologous region can a single cross over integration event only occur if the plasmid is re-ligated within the cell after ...
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How does a (stem) cell keep track of its own 'specialization'?

If I understand correctly, as stem cells divide, they become more and more specialized. The very first (fertilized) cell still can divide into every other cell in the body, but as they divide further, ...
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Do we know the genome contains all the information necessary for embryonic development?

Since high school biology I've assumed that all information necessary for creating an organism is found in its genome. As Nature's Scitable site says: Deoxyribonucleic acid, more commonly known as ...
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Can the coding strand for an RNA act as the template for another?

Can the same strand of DNA act as a sense strand and an antisense strand at two different occasions of transcription and result in two different proteins?
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Confusion regarding the meaning of the coding strand of DNA [duplicate]

I am having problems getting the ‘correct’ answer for the above question. I am assuming that mRNA uses the template strand (not the coding strand) for protein synthesis. So: ...
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Any reasonable avenues toward extending telomere length for humans?

Is there any biological research progress toward extending the length of telomeres for humans? It seems as though this has seen some moderate success in extending the length of life of mice -- is it ...
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Are haploid offspring of Hymenoptera insects perfect clones?

I was looking up haplodiplody and I become slightly confused. Since unfertilized eggs of Hymeniptera insects (ants, bees, wasps) are always haploid male drones, it means that they only receive ...
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What is the DNA sequences between two Inverted Repeats called?

I would like to know some rules about the nomenclature of Inverted Repeats DNA sequences. More in detail, I want to know what is the name of sequences between two inverted repeats. For example, I have ...
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Do the quantum mechanical properties of the particles that make up DNA affect mutations in the genome?

Do quantum mechanical properties of particles, such as uncertainty, probability, tunneling, and so on, affect mutations in the genome?
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When a dog sniffs up organic material that contains DNA, is it possible his genome incorporates it? [closed]

I'm not kidding. Was just watching my German Shepherd sniffing away at a new Amazon box. ...realized she sniffs vast array of DNA from organic material when on a walk: millions of mammalian, plant, ...
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How much is known about dinosaur DNA condensation and crosslinking?

The conclusion section of Bailleul et al. (2020) Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage is: The identification of chemical markers ...
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What are the SNPs responsible for PCSK9 expression?

My understanding is that PCSK9 is an enzyme that affects how cholesterol is cleared from the liver, and thus how how high or low the LDL cholesterol number is in a person. I'm curious to know what are ...
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Why do eubacterial DNA Ligases use NAD whereas eukaryotic and archaeal DNA Ligases use ATP?

DNA ligases in eukaryotes are ATP-dependent (as is the enzyme from bacteriophage T4) but in Escherichia coli the DNA ligase is NAD+-dependent. I cannot understand the reason for this. An extensive ...
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how to perform ligand and DNA alignment in pymol

I need help in inserting ligand to specific base pair in DNA. I have a drug molecule and want to insert in between the base pairs I am interested in (it is dsDNA). Please note that it is a customed ...
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Is double-stranded DNA denatured to single-stranded DNA in retorted canned tuna?

A PCR reaction has a cycle of about 55°C annealing, 72°C extension and 95°C denaturing with short time spans. Retorting canned tuna heats the tuna to 115°C to 121°C for 30 minutes to 2 hours depending ...
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Could you recreate an organism having only its DNA? [duplicate]

Or in other words: does DNA carry all the information required to fully describe the specie or is some of that information "stored" in how are its living organisms bodies structured/shaped/...
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Simulate merging of two ssDNA together

I have two .pdb files with two ssDNAs, which should form some specific shape when closed together. Is it possible to model/simulate this merging somehow? I would preferably like to have a program that ...
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Is the use of DNA SNPs vs amino acid variations in the description to detail the absence or presence of a consequent amino acid variation?

Studying Schizophrenia and reading some papers discussing polymorphisms in the 5HT-2A receptor gene (HTR2A). Specifically, the authors mention A-1438G, T102C, his452tyr. Was his452tyr not described as ...
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

If we can make RNA vaccines against COVID-19 and we know which errors in our DNA leads to different kinds of cancer, can we make a vaccine that will teach our immune system to detect and destroy ...
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Occurrence of the theoretical thymine enol::guanine base pair in DNA [closed]

DNA polymerase has a proofreading exonuclease activity that can remove incorrect tautomers in the DNA template or incoming base. In theory the enol form of thymine can form three hydrogen bonds with ...
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In what sense is PCR a "nuclear-derived" technique? [closed]

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has launched an initiative, ZODIAC, to combat pandemics that originate in animals. In part, this involves the deployment of kits utilising real-time ...
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Can two of a persons relatives who are unrelated to each other, one through each parent, match on the same chromosome segment?

Regarding the title, I would like to emphasize, assuming no recent endogamy. To be clear, let's say they're distant enough that any endogamy would be expected to be less than 5 continuous ...
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Ordering Primers: When to choose wet vs dry delivery format?

Whenever ordering primers, I'm always asked to specify which delivery matrix I prefer to have the oligos delivered in: wet (in water or some kind of TE buffer) vs. dry. My understanding is that when ...
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Are the complementary base pairs known as genes? [closed]

In my text book ,it is written that a chromosome has 1000s of genes and it is distributed throughout the chromatids except in the centromere. But we know that the chromosomes have DNAs inside them ...
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Can we cure cancer with CRISPR dead Cas?

Here's a silly idea I had this morning: Sequence a bunch of normal patient cells. Sequence a bunch of tumor cells from a biopsy. Find a DNA sequence that we're reasonably certain exists in the cancer ...
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How many different DNA molecule classes does a person have?

Books always refer to human DNA as a unique molecule, and two different humans generally have different DNA molecules. But how many different types of DNA molecule does a person have? In order to make ...
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Why don't we use hybridization instead of PCR? [closed]

So, I would like to ask, why don't we use just DNA hybridization instead of PCR primer amplification to diagnise some illness? I know, when you have a really small amount of DNA from virus or cell you ...
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How to generate PDB file for custom DNA squence(10 base pairs)

I am trying to study docking of drug-DNA interaction and for that I need PDB file. How can I get a pdb file for my custom dsDNA sequence (10-11 base pairs long)? I will really appreciate if you can ...
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Why is there no wavelength change in the hyperchromic shift in DNA?

From Wikipedia article on hyperchromicity (emphasis my own): "When the bases become unstacked, the wavelength of maximum absorbance does not change, but the amount absorbed increases by 37%.&...
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