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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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GC content of a protein-coding region

I have computer science background and I am trying to understand the equation below. The average value of the G + C content of a protein-coding region is given by : (G+C)= $\sum_{\alpha} (I_\alpha *...
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Realistic Application of CRISPR in Human Disorders

Human trials recently began to use the genome editing technology CRISPR to treat sickle cell anemia using edited stem cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a single DNA Mutation, and is also a ...
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45 views

Is there a feasible way to create a large number of long random DNA strands?

Suppose I want to create a large number of random DNA strands (maybe a million, or a billion, or even something close to all $4^N$ possible sequences of $N$ base pairs). Is there an experimental way ...
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Does every protein encoding gene necessarily have a transcription factor?

For instance, transcription factor gene A is responsible for activating gene B that encodes protein 1. However, it is possible for genes like gene B to encode proteins without having transcription ...
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20 views

How does DNA determine all of our hereditary traits?

It's my understanding that DNA codes only for protein synthesis. Does that mean that hereditary traits, like the shape of our nose, are determined only by the proportions in which various proteins are ...
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2answers
120 views

What makes/breaks the hydrogen bonds between DNA and RNA during transcription?

So I know that RNA polymerase catalyzes the phosphodiester bonds that hold the sugar backbones of a growing mRNA molecule together during transcription. However, I'm less sure about the hydrogen bonds ...
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2answers
41 views

Antiparallel DNA Strands - Error Correcting Code?

Let me quote Wikipedia.org: "The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel." There is a practice or method used for error correction with regard to ...
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1answer
19 views

Crispr complex in human cells?

Is the crispr (where the parts of Virus DNA is saved) section of the DNA existing in human cells aswell or is it just in bacteria cells?
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16 views

Fluorophore binding to DNA, how many fluorophore can be realistically bound per site?

I'm trying to find out what a realistic number of fluorophores (fluorescent molecules) is that can be bound to a specific site (at DNA). However I know very little biology and also have limited ...
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30 views

Chemical/Molecular explanation of how nucleotides “power” and then bond to form DNA

As I'm teaching General Biology to my college students, I realized that I don't fully understand how a 3-P nucleotide like ATP is broken down to be incorporated into DNA during replication. How does ...
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1answer
26 views

Are there interesting biomolecules consisting of chains of nucleotides that present multiple bond?

Watson-Crick bonds guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine helically shape DNA. If I understand correctly, a sequence in only two of the nucleotides, for instance TGGTGTGGGTG ... would determine the dual ...
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17 views

What would the family tree look like

If a son has a baby with his mother, how would the child's family tree be arranged? would the child show that he is the mother's grandchild or son? Sound twisted I know, but I must ask...
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1answer
72 views

What experiment for first time showed DNA is anti-parallel? [closed]

Scientists how to prove DNA is anti-parallel?
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2answers
47 views

Loading buffer in agarose gel electrophoresis

How much loading buffer (x6) do I need for my PCR reaction with a volume of 25 ul? And what is the general way to calculate it? Thank you.
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1answer
36 views

Passing on the DNA of old age

I've often pondered the fact that we only pass on the DNA of our youth. Any mutations to our DNA that occur after having children, that may help us to respond to getting older, are not inherited. Do ...
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1answer
55 views

How can two biological sequences be anything but homologous?

If we consider homology between two nucleotide sequences as a yes/no answer to whether they have shared a common ancestral sequence, then given that all life share common ancestry and sequences are ...
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0answers
45 views

Best method to storage human DNA i a freezer?

I want to collect human DNA and then store it for as many years as possible, that is at least 10 years. I have a freezer at home that can hold down to minus 31 degrees celcius (-22 Fahrenheit). ...
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7 views

Can Phi29 polymerase work at higer temperature?

Phi29 polymerase is often used at 25-30 degrees Celsius and heat inactivated at 60-70 degrees. I couldn't find any data on its functionality on temperatures around 40-50 degrees. Before testing it ...
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1answer
31 views

What is (roughly) the net charge of the DNA in an average human cell?

I was wondering about what general range for the net charge of DNA in human cells is in Coulombs. I imagine that kind of thing would be hard to measure but could be approximately calculated/estimated....
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136 views

Can mitochondria become cancerous?

Given that mitochondria have their own DNA and can replicate independently, can they ever become cancerous? For example, could a mutation in their DNA cause them to rapidly replicate, ultimately ...
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64 views

How are elements like iron recognized and routed to the right places for use in the body?

I asked this in Chemistry and it was suggested to ask it here. I wondered how the genome, which afaik does not contain iron or calcium as "reference" copies, nonetheless produces an organism that uses ...
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1answer
54 views

How much of a DNA difference is between Chicken of the Woods, and Hen of the Woods? [closed]

I've noticed that when a COW is touching the ground it turns a gray color, but when on a log/tree it's bright orange. Is there a correlation between the DNA, and where it grows?
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2answers
88 views

What is a chromosome?

I read the wikipedia article and am confused if a chromosome is the pair of two chromotoids or if each chromatoid is considered a chromosome. I've heard someone say we have 23 pairs of chromosomes ...
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1answer
44 views

Why telomere shortening slowing down cancer?

I am reading Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Mammalian Cells, about how telomeres linked to human cancers. Due to the end-replication problem,5,6 the ends of linear chromosomes shorten ...
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DNA preservation at room temperature

I am considering preserving the DNA of a family member who passed away. The funeral home offers a service called DNA Memories from a Canadian company (CG Labs). They have two options: Store the DNA in ...
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1answer
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Sequencing inaccurate at the primer site

The times I have sent a sample to sequence, both the forward and the reverse primer sites, show high inaccuracy while the rest of the gene is correctly sequenced. Because of this, the sequences of my ...
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2answers
54 views

Do all cells have the same DNA? [duplicate]

According to genome.gov, All the cells in a person's body have the same DNA. I understand that the main reason parents and children have different genomes is because of random mixing of 2 genomes, ...
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Misuse of DNA leaks to create your clones, or children

Recently, sequenced DNA data leaks have been reported. The linked article discusses possible risks like blackmailing based on health related data. However there could be one more misuse, at least ...
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1answer
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Error frequency of DNA replication without proof reading activity of DNA polymerase?

Different domains of DNA polymerase contain different activity, like 5'->3' polymerisation and 3'->5' proof reading ...
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2answers
98 views

How much variation is there between DNA molecules from the same organism

If different but in tact molecules of DNA were extracted from my body, for example hair sample, blood sample, and mouth swab, how much variation would there be between DNA molecules?
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1answer
46 views

Non-coding DNA correlation with rate of evolution

Non-coding DNA can be helpful in generating useful mutations that can go on to become new features/functionality of an organism. Non-coding DNA also indirectly reduces chances of mutation of useful/...
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39 views

How to preserve tissue DNA without using formalin?

Except using formalin to preserve human corpse for autopsy. I heard from the news that technique damages the DNA in the organs Question: Suppose corpse will be investigated next by another juridical ...
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26 views

What can I research for thesis on DNA data storage from math? [closed]

I'm a math researcher, I just finished a Master on Error Correcting Codes. I recently saw a presentation on DNA-based data storage that I loved. I wish to continue my studies on (applied mathematics) ...
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3answers
239 views

Can the central dogma work in reverse?

Theoretically, is it possible to obtain the original gene from the protein’s amino acid sequence as its “template”, as in, the reverse of how gene’s codons were “templates” for the amino acid sequence ...
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2answers
67 views

How to find the amino acid in the DNA protein

3' A T A G T A C C G C A T G T A C G G G C G A G A C A T T C G A G C A T T C A T 5' This a Template DNA. How to find the number of amino acids amino acids ...
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3answers
54 views

How is the mechanism that reads dna passed?

DNA is how a species stores genetic information. Somehow the body needs to know what to do with this information. somehow the "machinery" that translates the DNA into proteins needs to be passed along ...
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1answer
70 views

Paper saying that humans and animals are (mostly) the same age

I'm brazilian and today I've came across this news published in a religious brazilian site. It's about a recent study that says that 9 to 10 species on Earth today, including humans, came into being ...
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2answers
28 views

What happens to the complementary base when the other undergoes a base substitution mutation?

From what I know only the base pairs A and T/U, or G and C can occur due to hydrogen bonding. So if a base substitution mutation occurs, say an A is replaced by a C on the strand, does it affect only ...
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2answers
51 views

What dictates which protein to synthesize at a given time?

I understand how DNA is replicated and how it directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids through RNA polymerase, RNA and ribosomes. Now I want to understand how it works in the big picture. ...
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1answer
73 views

Does all cells in individual has same mitochondrial DNA?

I read that genetic code is universal except for mitochondrial DNA. However, I want to clarify (generally speaking, regarding humans especially): does all mitochondria in the same cell have almost ...
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1answer
40 views

Human genome, chromosomes

I have a very basic question, but it seems the hardest to me. So we have 46 chromosomes (23, 2 copies of each). Do all chromosomes have the same DNA? If so, does it mean that in different cells with ...
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1answer
254 views

What is the purpose of the “No DNA control”?

What is the purpose of the “No DNA control”? Recently I have done a forensic DNA lab experiment and I still cannot understand the use of “No DNA control”
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How specific are Vitamin D promotors in the DNA?

As far as I understand there are genes that get regulated by the amount of Vitamin D that comes in contact with DNA. How specific are those promoters? Are there promotors that for example only get ...
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Gibson Assembly Primers

exchange biologists, Currently having some trouble getting a Gibson assembly to work and as it's my first time working with this method I thought I'd ask for some advice. See the bottom of this post ...
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best thawing strategy for -80C frozen double-spun plasma

What's the best thawing strategy for -80C frozen double-spun plasma in order to preserve the cfDNA contained in the plasma? Looking at different web searches, it seems like slowly thawing at 4C is ...
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1answer
37 views

How does one identify a seed's species & variety?

How does one identify a seed's species & variety, could it be done by some means of DNA or by use of a microscope? Say for example, I had a pumpkin seed, I knew that it was a "small sugar pumpkin"...
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2answers
154 views

Why the genome is divided into several chromosomes and not just a single big chromosome?

In many eukaryote species, there are several chromosomes. In humans, for example, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Why are there several chromosomes and not just a join of all chromosomes into a ...
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32 views

How diverse are the sperm cells of an individual male due to random mutations?

Due to the sheer number of sperm cells in an individual and the rate of mutations, are they likely to be incredibly diverse and encompass most of what we see across our species? For instance would it ...
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2answers
42 views

complete DNA transfer across different organism zygotes

Consider we have a monkey zygote (i.e. single cell just fused) and a tiger zygote. If we extract the nucleus of monkey zygote and place it into tiger zygote where nucleus of tiger zygote is already ...
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How to perform TUNEL Assay for yeast?

Currently, I am working on yeast strain CEN PK and I want to carry out TUNEL Assay to detect the amount of damage upon treatment with some damaging agent. We have a kit in the name of TUNEL Assay Kit -...