Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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How does a (stem) cell keep track of its own 'specialization'?

If I understand correctly, as stem cells divide, they become more and more specialized. The very first (fertilized) cell still can divide into every other cell in the body, but as they divide further, ...
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3 votes
1 answer
129 views

How do we know DNA contains all the information necessary to build an organism?

I have always assumed that DNA contains all information necessary to generate an organism, and this appears to be the current scientific consensus. According to Nature's Scitable page on "What is ...
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Can the coding strand for an RNA act as the template for another?

Can the same strand of DNA act as a sense strand and an antisense strand at two different occasions of transcription and result in two different proteins?
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How long does it take for dead skin cells on clothing to disappear by degrading and deteriorate? Imagine the clothes untouched for several weeks

We know that by touching an Item we leave some dead skin cells on it. Let’s imagine e.g a towel touched by hand and genitals and left untouched for several weeks. Does the dead skin cells shed by hand ...
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Confusion regarding the meaning of the coding strand of DNA [duplicate]

I am having problems getting the ‘correct’ answer for the above question. I am assuming that mRNA uses the template strand (not the coding strand) for protein synthesis. So: ...
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Any reasonable avenues toward extending telomere length for humans?

Is there any biological research progress toward extending the length of telomeres for humans? It seems as though this has seen some moderate success in extending the length of life of mice -- is it ...
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Are haploid offspring of Hymenoptera insects perfect clones?

I was looking up haplodiplody and I become slightly confused. Since unfertilized eggs of Hymeniptera insects (ants, bees, wasps) are always haploid male drones, it means that they only receive ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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What is the DNA sequences between two Inverted Repeats called?

I would like to know some rules about the nomenclature of Inverted Repeats DNA sequences. More in detail, I want to know what is the name of sequences between two inverted repeats. For example, I have ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Do the quantum mechanical properties of the particles that make up DNA affect mutations in the genome?

Do quantum mechanical properties of particles, such as uncertainty, probability, tunneling, and so on, affect mutations in the genome?
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-3 votes
1 answer
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When a dog sniffs up organic material that contains DNA, is it possible his genome incorporates it? [closed]

I'm not kidding. Was just watching my German Shepherd sniffing away at a new Amazon box. ...realized she sniffs vast array of DNA from organic material when on a walk: millions of mammalian, plant, ...
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8 votes
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How much is known about dinosaur DNA condensation and crosslinking?

The conclusion section of Bailleul et al. (2020) Evidence of proteins, chromosomes and chemical markers of DNA in exceptionally preserved dinosaur cartilage is: The identification of chemical markers ...
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What are the SNPs responsible for PCSK9 expression?

My understanding is that PCSK9 is an enzyme that affects how cholesterol is cleared from the liver, and thus how how high or low the LDL cholesterol number is in a person. I'm curious to know what are ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Why do eubacterial DNA Ligases use NAD whereas eukaryotic and archaeal DNA Ligases use ATP?

DNA ligases in eukaryotes are ATP-dependent (as is the enzyme from bacteriophage T4) but in Escherichia coli the DNA ligase is NAD+-dependent. I cannot understand the reason for this. An extensive ...
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how to perform ligand and DNA alignment in pymol

I need help in inserting ligand to specific base pair in DNA. I have a drug molecule and want to insert in between the base pairs I am interested in (it is dsDNA). Please note that it is a customed ...
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Could you recreate an organism having only its DNA? [duplicate]

Or in other words: does DNA carry all the information required to fully describe the specie or is some of that information "stored" in how are its living organisms bodies structured/shaped/...
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Simulate merging of two ssDNA together

I have two .pdb files with two ssDNAs, which should form some specific shape when closed together. Is it possible to model/simulate this merging somehow? I would preferably like to have a program that ...
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2 votes
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Is the use of DNA SNPs vs amino acid variations in the description to detail the absence or presence of a consequent amino acid variation?

Studying Schizophrenia and reading some papers discussing polymorphisms in the 5HT-2A receptor gene (HTR2A). Specifically, the authors mention A-1438G, T102C, his452tyr. Was his452tyr not described as ...
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22 votes
2 answers
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Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

If we can make RNA vaccines against COVID-19 and we know which errors in our DNA leads to different kinds of cancer, can we make a vaccine that will teach our immune system to detect and destroy ...
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Occurrence of the theoretical thymine enol::guanine base pair in DNA [closed]

DNA polymerase has a proofreading exonuclease activity that can remove incorrect tautomers in the DNA template or incoming base. In theory the enol form of thymine can form three hydrogen bonds with ...
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In what sense is PCR a "nuclear-derived" technique? [closed]

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has launched an initiative, ZODIAC, to combat pandemics that originate in animals. In part, this involves the deployment of kits utilising real-time ...
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Can two of a persons relatives who are unrelated to each other, one through each parent, match on the same chromosome segment?

Regarding the title, I would like to emphasize, assuming no recent endogamy. To be clear, let's say they're distant enough that any endogamy would be expected to be less than 5 continuous ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Ordering Primers: When to choose wet vs dry delivery format?

Whenever ordering primers, I'm always asked to specify which delivery matrix I prefer to have the oligos delivered in: wet (in water or some kind of TE buffer) vs. dry. My understanding is that when ...
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Are the complementary base pairs known as genes? [closed]

In my text book ,it is written that a chromosome has 1000s of genes and it is distributed throughout the chromatids except in the centromere. But we know that the chromosomes have DNAs inside them ...
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Can we cure cancer with CRISPR dead Cas?

Here's a silly idea I had this morning: Sequence a bunch of normal patient cells. Sequence a bunch of tumor cells from a biopsy. Find a DNA sequence that we're reasonably certain exists in the cancer ...
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-6 votes
1 answer
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How many different DNA molecule classes does a person have?

Books always refer to human DNA as a unique molecule, and two different humans generally have different DNA molecules. But how many different types of DNA molecule does a person have? In order to make ...
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Why don't we use hybridization instead of PCR? [closed]

So, I would like to ask, why don't we use just DNA hybridization instead of PCR primer amplification to diagnise some illness? I know, when you have a really small amount of DNA from virus or cell you ...
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How to generate PDB file for custom DNA squence(10 base pairs)

I am trying to study docking of drug-DNA interaction and for that I need PDB file. How can I get a pdb file for my custom dsDNA sequence (10-11 base pairs long)? I will really appreciate if you can ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why is there no wavelength change in the hyperchromic shift in DNA?

From Wikipedia article on hyperchromicity (emphasis my own): "When the bases become unstacked, the wavelength of maximum absorbance does not change, but the amount absorbed increases by 37%.&...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Why can mRNA come out of the nucleus but not enter it?

I am a mechatronics engineer who stopped learning biology after high school - but this is bothering me. mRNA is, if I recall correctly, created in the nucleus of the cells and migrates out of the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Why does Diphenylamine only react with the deoxyribose of purines?

The deoxyribose in DNA in the presence of acid forms β-hydroxylevulinaldehyde which reacts with diphenylamine to give a blue color with a sharp absorption maximum at 595nm. In DNA, only the ...
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2 votes
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Can chain-linked genetic segment data be used to reliably assign unknown relatives to either the donor's mother or father?

I am analyzing DNA matching segment data, and I am trying to broadly group all DNA matches by my donor's parents. Based on documented evidence, I can confidently identify "Person 'B'" as a ...
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5 votes
2 answers
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Meaning of ‘motif’ in molecular biology

I would like to understand the meaning of the term motif as used in molecular biology. In an article in Nature Biotechnology, Patrik D’haeseleer states: Sequence motifs are short, recurring patterns ...
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Do same DNA sequences lead to the same proteins in all organisms? [duplicate]

I'm not a biologist, but I am curious about a particular question about DNA. As I understand DNA encodes proteins using special sequences of nucleotides and cells decode these proteins from DNA during ...
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6 votes
1 answer
142 views

Why doesn't RNA polymerase just rotate?

I read A little help understanding DNA supercoiling , Understanding DNA supercoiling , and Why does underwinding create topological strain of DNA? , but there's still something I don't get. ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Does DNA have 5 nitrogenous bases?

Does DNA have 5 nitrogenous bases? I believe they are 5 because Uracil is not the same thing as Guanine, because, first of all, uracil "replaces" thymine, not guanine. And second, uracil ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What are the prospects in synthetic biology, especially in the introduction of biological computers? [closed]

One of the interesting areas of synthetic biology is the so-called biological computers. A biological computer refers to an engineered biological system that can perform computer-like operations. I ...
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4 votes
1 answer
157 views

Is circular DNA the same as plasmids?

Chloroplasts have circular DNA, but would it be right to say that they have plasmids? Are plasmids and circular DNA even the same thing? Thank you in advance.
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Will a Kozak sequence within a coding sequence interfere with eukaryotic expression?

I want to make a DNA vaccine for fish by using plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) with a bacterial antigen. Unfortunately, there is a Kozak sequence in the middle of my target gene. I am concerned that this Kozak ...
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How do we know genes that are considered endogenous retroviruses are actually endogenous retroviruses and not just ordinary genes?

What makes these genes different as to be classed as an endogenous retrovirus? I've read the entirity of Wikipedia on retroviruses and didn't find the answer. I think it could be that these genes are ...
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How is the possibility of beneficial mutations ensured in the genome?

To ensure natural selection and variability, the genome must have a structure in which the occurrence of beneficial mutations has a high enough probability. But how is this ensured? The space of ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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What would an organism be like if its entire genome "worked"? [closed]

It is known that a large fraction of the genome of almost any organism "does not work", that is, it does not encode any proteins and does not participate in gene expression, in protein ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Has life on Earth explored the entire space of genomes?

Recently I came across a 2008 article, the authors of which argue that in fact the space of protein sequences is not as large as it might seem, and that life on Earth has most likely already explored ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Is there any way to identify if chromosomes are inherited from the same parent?

I'm a PhD student in bioinformatics working on genomic data, and I was wondering: If I have access to a person's chromosomes, is there an assay that can determine that two chromosomes come from the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is targeted gene disruption?

I am a bit confused about what targeted gene disruption means. I was reading this article in which they compare the Pyrococcus Furiosus genome with a genetically tractable strain P. Furiosus variant ...
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1 answer
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How much genes can be knocked down at the same time

When experimenting on mice, gene knockdown seems to be a useful technique to deactivate individual genes to study what they are doing. In practice what's the maximum of genes that can be knocked out ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is prochromosome?

My textbook says that prochromosome is a false chromosome present in the nucleoid of prokaryotes. I looked up Wikipedia and all over internet and this word is kinda sus. So I'm asking about it here. ...
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2 votes
0 answers
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Is there a resource that lists the quantity of active transposons for various species?

I read the thesis that transposons are a major factor in human aging. To study that thesis I want to see how the count of active transposons differs by species. Is there an existing database or study ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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What species is the ancestor of the African Basenji dog?

I thought domestic dogs were descended from the wolf (Canis lupus). However, this article suggests the African Basenji is one of the oldest dog breeds. But the wolf is only marginally native to Africa ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Cell location co-ordinates [closed]

I have just had the nails on both my big toes removed. I am much happier. But it got me to thinking, as there is no 'root structure' from which the nail grows, is there an x,y,z, type co-ordinate ...
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3 votes
3 answers
149 views

Why do more complex DNA strands take longer to anneal?

My textbook and several websites told me that more complex DNA strands take longer to anneal because it is harder to find the correct sequence. A simpler, repeating sequence like ATATATATA would be ...
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