Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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2answers
16 views

What's the difference between the terms “gene map” and “genome”?

It seems some sites arbitrarily restrict "gene map" to only a single chromosome, but others don't. Supposing we don't restrict it to just a single chromosome, is it different from "genome"? Are these ...
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How could I be 10% French when there's no French in my mother or father's DNA results? [migrated]

Ancestry DNA says I'm 10% French. My father never got tested, but my half sister and cousin on my father's side both tested as 100% European Jewish. My comparison to my mother (she's on the right) is ...
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31 views

Linker DNA and Genetic Expression

So I was reading on linker DNA, and the textbook only describes it in terms of structure. I was wondering if linker DNA can ever contain genes, and if it can, whether it will always be expressed or ...
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Reptation theory of polymers [on hold]

From the repatation model of DNA, we know that DNA or any polymer acts in a snake-like manner in a viscous substance. How does this reptation model help in planning the ligase reaction for a PCR ...
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Do we have a language to understand DNA? [on hold]

I studied that DNA can be coded in terms base substance name to english letters and this applies to RNA as well. But do we have any next level language to understand the letters in easy way? Example:...
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How does the helicase enzyme break the hydrogen bonds between the strands of DNA?

I know helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds between the strands of a DNA, but how is this done? Does it put an ion between the strands of the nucleic acid so that the bond breaks apart itself or is ...
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Vitamin C: major enzymatic catalyst but no gene? [closed]

We need Vitamin C to absorb Iron. It's also a major catalyst for many other bodily functions. Yet, unlike most mammals, we don't synthesize it. Why did we loose this gene. Is this nutrient really ...
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4answers
102 views

Is variation a result of Evolution?

We know that the DNA copying mechanism that replicates DNA during cellular division is not 100% accurate and the resultant errors are the source of variation in the members of a population. At the ...
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27 views

What is the status of the cfDNA ends?

I am working on a protocol to ligate cfDNA, extracted from blood, into some vector. I have looked into the literature but I cannot find any detail about the status of the ends of the cfDNA. Are they ...
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37 views

Could DNA directly synthesize proteins without RNA?

Imagine there is no RNA. Could the DNA be modified into messenger DNA, and ribosomes made of DNA, and transfer DNAs to replace the role of RNAs to make proteins? If so, this would seem to argue that ...
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2answers
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Can 1.5 gigabytes encoded in the human genome really account for the complexity of a human being?

I read the human genome is 1.5 gigabytes in size. Thats actually not a lot; Photoshop probably takes more space. Mac OS takes 10+ gigabytes of space. Also, the genome is 1.5 gigabytes when counting ...
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Who invented dN/dS?

I am writing a paper, and I want to refer to the original paper that coined the term dN/dS (or Ka/Ks for that matter). I have found early works on dN and dS (like Miyata and Yasunaga 1980), but cannot ...
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4answers
85 views

Why do mutations not take place in mRNA of higher eukaryotes?

Is it because it is too short-lived to be mutated? Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids so how is mRNA protected? RNA viruses undergo mutations to evolve so I guess it is not immune to mutations
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1answer
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A little help understanding DNA supercoiling

I am studying molecular biology from Lewin's Genes XII and got confused in the supercoiling topic. Since then I read from several other sources and so far understood the following. However, I can't ...
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1answer
59 views

How to find which genetic pattern is responsible for structure of a cell

I studied that DNA are blueprints that describes an organism. How do I learn more specifically about DNA regions responsible for storing structure of a cell. By Structure of a cell I meant to ask ...
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1answer
44 views

Separate DNA fragments with very different size (oligo and lambda-DNA)

I am running a ligation reaction to one of the sticky ends of lambda-DNA. The oligo for the ligation is 25 bp (10x excess), whereas lambda-DNA is 48 kbp. I would like to recover the lambda-DNA and ...
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1answer
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In a Chromosome, 2 nm is the length of what?

this figure comes from the nature 2 nm at the top right hand corner is the length of what?
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1answer
38 views

DNA and Genes, which consists of which? It seems that the hot answer on quora is different to the nih post

This quora's answer has got 8.3k views and 20 Upvoters. "Genes are a part of the DNA." per nih, "Genes are made up of DNA, which is telling the truth." in my understanding, the quora version ...
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Is presence of air necessary for silica gel to absorb moisture?

I am a biologist currently doing field work where I need to quickly dry leaf samples using silica gel crystals. I use the orange indicating kind that are 2-4mm in size. The setup is like this. I ...
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1answer
26 views

Insertional inactivation using pBR322

I have questions regarding "selection using insertional inactivation". In a typical DNA recombination experiment using plasmid pBR322 where a new gene in inserted in the place of tet gene, it is ...
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1answer
44 views

Difference Junk DNA and Pseudogenes [duplicate]

1-Are Pseudogenes and Junk DNA both Non-Coding DNA or they are different entity? How much Pseudogenes & Junk DNA do we have respectively? 2-I read that Non-Coding DNA has functions, my question ...
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Is UV radiation more likely to cause mutations during mitosis?

According to Life: The Science of Biology (10th edition), UV radiation might cause the formation of pyrimidine dimers, which are the primary cause of skin cancer in humans. Are mutations more likely ...
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1answer
29 views

Can I use a basic compound microscope to analyze the ploidy of plant chromosomes?

So, I'm not really any kind of trained botanist. But I do have two things: some dandelion seeds from France, and, collecting dust in my garage along with related accessories, this thing. Normally, ...
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1answer
108 views

Explain to a layperson how cigarettes smoke might cause cancer

I have a very intelligent friend who is a light smoker, and also a Biology layperson. I wondered whether understanding exactly how cigarettes smoke can cause cancer, might encourage him to smoke less ...
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1answer
125 views

Replacing, instead of repairing, DNA

I've been doing some light reading on DNA damage theory of aging. One of the main ideas from that theory that I got is that the accumulation of damage in our DNA is one of the biggest causes of why we ...
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Why is double stranded DNA considered to be one molecule? [duplicate]

Wikipedia, for example, refers to DNA as "a" molecule, not two separate molecules forming a double-helix structure. Isn't this technically incorrect? There are two separate polynucleotide strands (...
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81 views

Number of DNA strands per chromosome

As I was reading Griffith's Introduction to genetic analysis this evidence was provided for single DNA makes single chromosome. Eventually geneticists demonstrated directly that certain chromosomes ...
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1answer
39 views

What is the difference between DNA vs RNA Editing in the context of gene therapy?

As a someone with beginner knowledge on biology, I have come across the terms "RNA editing". Take this paper for example : RNA Editing with CRISPR-Cas13 From my understanding, DNA -> RNA -> Proteins ...
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1answer
26 views

How do primers anneal to ssDNA?

In a PCR type protocol, the high temperature stage of the cycle will cause dsDNA to denature, as well as any annealed primers. At the lower temperature the denatured dsDNA will remain denatured. As ...
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1answer
59 views

Do all restriction enzymes have palindromic recognition sites?

I am trying to find out the requirements for a segment of DNA to be the recognition site of a restriction enzyme. Acording to the article on Restriction Enzymes in Wikipedia, "many of them" (...
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1answer
80 views

Can radiation exposure cause cancer later in life even if no traces of radioactive material are present in the body anymore?

I had a long-lasting debate with a friend of mine about the Fukushima incident. The question that we tried to solve was if radiation or toxin exposure can cause cancer later in life even if no ...
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2answers
58 views

Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
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1answer
70 views

What do lower case nucleotides mean in this gene sequence?

The following table (image linked below) shows promoter sequences recognized by different sigma factors. The sequence given for, e.g. sigma B is "GTTTaa"; why are the "a"s lowercase? Thanks! ![From "...
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Genes of the electron transport chain

Where are the genes of proteins that make the electron transport chain of mitochondria?(are they in in the nucleus or they are in the dna of the mitochondria itself?) Thanks for this answering system ...
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2answers
171 views

What did Francis Crick and James Watson discover that Rosalind Franklin didn't?

I've recently been introduced to the history of DNA research from Miescher to Franklin, Crick, and Watson, and I've found that Franklin had figured out a great many number of things out that Crick and ...
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Is it possible to Clone a Dinosaur with a full strand of their DNA? [duplicate]

If you have a full strand of Dinosaur DNA would it be possible to make it living and hatch a dinosaur? Or would it be a failure? Could you use a bird or alligator, for replacein
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1answer
57 views

Where can I find DNA decryption research? [closed]

What is the name of the science that studies the mathematics of DNA? Where can I learn about maths, statistics, types of code, numbers, patterns and graphs for genes and information found in DNA?
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Can DNA be flattened?

DNA is always shaped like a double helix. But could you flatten the double helix (which is essentially just a twisted ladder) and would DNA still be able to duplicate and control cells?
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Need help to determine % difference between DNA-strand from two different haplotypes. Known nucleotide diversity and more

Backround: 229 DNA sequences 493 bp in length Haplotype diversity: 0.9956 Average number of nucleotide differences: 12.50544 Polymorphic sites: 145 Nucleotide diversity: 0.02426 Is it possible ...
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2answers
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Phenotypes caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA?

Will mutations in mitochondrial DNA necessarily affect phenotypes? I have some cursory knowledge of serial endosymbiotic cell theory, and find it difficult to consider that the DNA of the former ...
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1answer
19 views

Is newly produced sperm healthy if there was previous DNA damage?

I read that sperm cannot repair DNA damage. So does this mean that if your sperm has DNA damage, then all of your sperm (whether present or future) has DNA damage? Or does it just mean that the ...
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1answer
61 views

Is DNA from more parents (than two) better for the fitness of the offspring?

I'm designing a system (a computer system actually) and (a whole while ago) I spoke with a friend about it and he had this opinion: If you combine DNA of more parents (than 2) it's better for the ...
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28 views

PCR in different cell line

I developed a PCR cycle to amplify a 5.5 kb genomic DNA region in HEK cell line. When I tried to use the same protocol in A375 cell line I had no results but only smear. Can you help me? Thanks in ...
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1answer
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How would two SNPs interact to affect CYP3A5 gene activity?

If someone has a non-functional rs41303343(T;T) SNP, yet that individual also possess the partially functional rs776746(A;G) SNP, is their CYP3A5 genotype functional or nonfunctional? In other words, ...
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3answers
157 views

Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
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1answer
31 views

probability of hairpin vs self-dimer formation?

I have a linear ssDNA oligo that is designed such that the ends are complementary, and conducive to hairpin formation (see attached figure). My question is, which has a higher likelihood of formation, ...
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How do introns code for proteins? [duplicate]

The reason I am asking this is because my textbook states that: Some introns may themselves encode proteins, and some may become short non-coding lengths of RNA involved in gene regulation. Some ...
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Calculate a global dN dS ratio for the all tree

I'm using the codeml application with the python package ete3 in order to calculate the dN/dS ratio of my trees, but it appears that there is no possibility to calculate a such ratio for all the three....
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How is it possible for phosphate to form two ester bonds in DNA replication?

I understand that in phosphodiester bond formation, two hydroxl groups on the phosphate molecule bind to the 3' and 5' OH groups on two independent pentose sugars. This is a condensation reaction, so ...
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1answer
53 views

Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...