Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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29 views

Can chain-linked genetic segment data be used to reliably assign unknown relatives to either the donor's mother or father?

I am analyzing DNA matching segment data, and I am trying to broadly group all DNA matches by my donor's parents. Based on documented evidence, I can confidently identify "Person 'B'" as a ...
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Meaning of ‘motif’ in molecular biology

I would like to understand the meaning of the term motif as used in molecular biology. In an article in Nature Biotechnology, Patrik D’haeseleer states: Sequence motifs are short, recurring patterns ...
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Do same DNA sequences lead to the same proteins in all organisms? [duplicate]

I'm not a biologist, but I am curious about a particular question about DNA. As I understand DNA encodes proteins using special sequences of nucleotides and cells decode these proteins from DNA during ...
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Why doesn't RNA polymerase just rotate?

I read A little help understanding DNA supercoiling , Understanding DNA supercoiling , and Why does underwinding create topological strain of DNA? , but there's still something I don't get. ...
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1answer
90 views

Does DNA have 5 nitrogenous bases?

Does DNA have 5 nitrogenous bases? I believe they are 5 because Uracil is not the same thing as Guanine, because, first of all, uracil "replaces" thymine, not guanine. And second, uracil ...
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1answer
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What are the prospects in synthetic biology, especially in the introduction of biological computers? [closed]

One of the interesting areas of synthetic biology is the so-called biological computers. A biological computer refers to an engineered biological system that can perform computer-like operations. I ...
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116 views

Is circular DNA the same as plasmids?

Chloroplasts have circular DNA, but would it be right to say that they have plasmids? Are plasmids and circular DNA even the same thing? Thank you in advance.
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Will a Kozak sequence within a coding sequence interfere with eukaryotic expression?

I want to make a DNA vaccine for fish by using plasmid pcDNA3.1(+) with a bacterial antigen. Unfortunately, there is a Kozak sequence in the middle of my target gene. I am concerned that this Kozak ...
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How do we know genes that are considered endogenous retroviruses are actually endogenous retroviruses and not just ordinary genes?

What makes these genes different as to be classed as an endogenous retrovirus? I've read the entirity of Wikipedia on retroviruses and didn't find the answer. I think it could be that these genes are ...
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50 views

How is the possibility of beneficial mutations ensured in the genome?

To ensure natural selection and variability, the genome must have a structure in which the occurrence of beneficial mutations has a high enough probability. But how is this ensured? The space of ...
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1answer
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What would an organism be like if its entire genome “worked”? [closed]

It is known that a large fraction of the genome of almost any organism "does not work", that is, it does not encode any proteins and does not participate in gene expression, in protein ...
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1answer
99 views

Has life on Earth explored the entire space of genomes?

Recently I came across a 2008 article, the authors of which argue that in fact the space of protein sequences is not as large as it might seem, and that life on Earth has most likely already explored ...
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1answer
43 views

Is there any way to identify if chromosomes are inherited from the same parent?

I'm a PhD student in bioinformatics working on genomic data, and I was wondering: If I have access to a person's chromosomes, is there an assay that can determine that two chromosomes come from the ...
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What is targeted gene disruption?

I am a bit confused about what targeted gene disruption means. I was reading this article in which they compare the Pyrococcus Furiosus genome with a genetically tractable strain P. Furiosus variant ...
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1answer
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How much genes can be knocked down at the same time

When experimenting on mice, gene knockdown seems to be a useful technique to deactivate individual genes to study what they are doing. In practice what's the maximum of genes that can be knocked out ...
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1answer
90 views

What is prochromosome?

My textbook says that prochromosome is a false chromosome present in the nucleoid of prokaryotes. I looked up Wikipedia and all over internet and this word is kinda sus. So I'm asking about it here. ...
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1answer
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What species is the ancestor of the African Basenji dog?

I thought domestic dogs were descended from the wolf (Canis lupus). However, this article suggests the African Basenji is one of the oldest dog breeds. But the wolf is only marginally native to Africa ...
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Cell location co-ordinates [closed]

I have just had the nails on both my big toes removed. I am much happier. But it got me to thinking, as there is no 'root structure' from which the nail grows, is there an x,y,z, type co-ordinate ...
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3answers
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Why do more complex DNA strands take longer to anneal?

My textbook and several websites told me that more complex DNA strands take longer to anneal because it is harder to find the correct sequence. A simpler, repeating sequence like ATATATATA would be ...
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2answers
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Which method of gene amplification for toehold switches?

My team and I are from a high school and are planning to carry out some research investigating some toehold switch riboregulators which we have designed in silico. However, we have little experience ...
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1answer
45 views

Does Remdesivir cause bone marrow suppression?

According to Wikipedia, Remdesivir is a prodrug of GS-441524 which is a nucleoside analog. I know that nucleotides are the building blocks of both DNA and RNA, meaning nucleotide analogues that ...
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1answer
58 views

What can be used for DNA preservation?

I am neither a student nor really advanced in biology, I am just writing a tabletop role-playing game scenario that I want as realistic as possible. In the story, the players find an old laboratory ...
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1answer
42 views

Genomic library preparation: Why does the restriction enzyme not cut into the gene?

I am currently trying to understand creating a genomic library more profoundly. In most textbooks I read (as well as wikipedia), they mentioned that the genomic library is created by isolating the DNA ...
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What does does a blood sample tell you about an individual's identity?

I am working on a fiction/mystery scene where blood is found in a particular character's residence but the character themselves is missing. I would like to understand whether the law enforcement/...
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1answer
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Virus variant transmissibility: empirical data or spike protein shape?

Well first I am not in the field of Biology or Medical Sciences. Since these days we are waiting scientists to tell us if the Indian variant of SARS Cov 2 is more transmissible than the original virus,...
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1answer
100 views

Can a strand not be synthesised in 5' -> 3' direction?

I've been solving some biology questions, and according to one of them ( I have the responses too) the following phrase is false: "Both strands are always synthesised in the 5' to 3' direction.&...
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Why is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) less effective for interspecies?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), a process for replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with a nucleus containing genetic information of a different animal, seems to be very useful for cloning and ...
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52 views

Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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1answer
66 views

How do you determine “in which direction” DNA is shared between groups of people

In popular DNA ancestry tests you can read lines like "you have 2% neanderthal dna" or "you have 20% italian". How can you distinguish between a person having 20% italian vs ...
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How was gene knock out done in pre CRISPR era?

I am trying to understand how CRISPR has made the gene knockout or gene editing process simpler to make transgenic animals. Here is an old (pre CRISPR) flowchart from Manis, 2007 that shows how ...
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Are there any “in vivo” DNA replication fidelity assays?

I haven't been able to find a way to assess the fidelity of DNA replication in vivo as opposed to in vitro. I was wondering, would it be possible to find this by sequencing the DNA of individual cells ...
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By selecting sex cells after meiosis, would it be possible to create two offspring with inverse parental DNA of one another? [closed]

Would it theoretically be possible to select two sex cells after a male meiosis (filtering out the two where crossover had taken place) and combine each with two sex from a female meiosis (imagining ...
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1answer
89 views

Why is DNA replication not 100% accurate

I've been reading about DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and how this process improves DNA fidelity. However, I was wondering, what is stopping MMR from correcting all mistakes in the daughter DNA with 100% ...
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1answer
160 views

Forward or Reverse Strand: Is there a difference when encoding genetic devices?

Background: In synthetic biology, and also in nature, there are lots of examples of genes in both the forward and reverse orientation. It seems in synthetic biology/bioengineering, most genetic ...
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659 views

What if target DNA doesn’t have restriction sites

All the examples on DNA cloning I have encountered have assumed that the target gene and vector both have compatible restriction sites at just the right locations (probably for ease of explanation). ...
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2answers
81 views

Geometric Interpretations of the DNA Double Helix

In mathematics, a helix is a shape which has constant curvature and constant torque (see Wikipedia here. What are the biological implications of the DNA double helix having constant curvature and ...
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1answer
64 views

Traceability of a mature tree to its original seed via DNA

Is it possible to trace a specific seed to a fully mature tree? For example, Can a seed be traced to the full-grown plant based on DNA? Would it be possible for me to catalog a seed DNA and then ...
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1answer
98 views

Nomenclature of substrates for DNA synthesis

I have read in my school textbooks that both deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate and deoxynucleotide triphosphate are used in DNA Replication as substrates. However, it is unclear to me whether the terms ...
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Can a blood type O be born from AB and A parents?

I have a basic understanding of genetics, and I'm really puzzled by this. My grandma's blood type is A (I don't know if it's heterozygous or homozygous) and my grandpa is AB. Yet my mother is type O. ...
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1answer
67 views

Are there any species whose descendants can meet their ancestors from 100 generations back?

I.e. Humans can sometimes meet even their great-great-grandparents, but are there any species that can be alive at the same time as their great-great-……-great-grandparents? I imagine it would be those ...
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1answer
52 views

What can you learn about someone's mother and father by examining their DNA?

Disclaimer: I ask this question from the position of having paid absolutely no attention throughout school/highschool science classes. I am incredibly ignorant, but I don't know how to find the answer ...
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Assembling small DNA parts using Golden Gate

Background I've always been told that DNA assembly can be tricky when using very small DNA parts due to low efficiency. I've also seen this when using 3A biobrick assembly to assemble promoters and ...
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2answers
272 views

How do gene locations change during crossing over events?

Suppose you have two variants from the same species, which have slightly different chromosomes I's to each other. Genes may be in slightly different positions on the chromosome, and the lengths of the ...
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Dealing with heterochromatin during DNA replication

Heterochromatin are present along the chromosome (uncoiled state). With the highly-condensed structure relative to euchromatin, RNA polymerase cannot get into the DNA base pairs in heterochromatin and ...
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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1answer
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Are there ribozymes that cut double strands

the header already says: Are there any ribozymes known that cut double strands? A kind of ribozyme equivalent to the Ribonuclease III. With cut, I mean that the backbone of both strands, forming the ...
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34 views

If aging is caused by “DNA Damage” why is the process of aging generally similar between people?

When I hear the phrase "DNA Damage" I imagine completely random changes in the DNA of a person's cells. If this is the case, then it seems like every person would age differently depending ...
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1answer
93 views

Why do microarrays require a priori knowledge of the genome?

Reading this paper they said this: Contemporary microarrays emerged in the wake of genome sequencing projects for one obvious reason: arrays require a priori knowledge of the query genome Why do you ...
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Why does DNA synthesis require nucleoside triphosphates? [closed]

Writing the DNA sequence is done with nuclosides that have three phosphates attached to them, and two of these phosphate are thrown away back into "phosphate pool" of cell. What are main ...
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1answer
118 views

When the sister chromatids are joined in the centromere, why is it stated that the number of chromosomes is 46 and not 72?

Before the DNA is replicated in a human somatic cell, the cell has 46 chromosomes. Also, after the sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase, the chromosome number in the cell doubles to 72, so ...

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