Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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For this question would d be correct

Which of the following best describes a gene? A A single DNA molecule wound around proteins B. One leg of a pair of blue denim pants C an allele that exists in 2 or more forms D a sequence of DNA ...
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What animal classes has also “Like Humans” XY Chromosomes for Males and XX for Females?

Are other mammals. birds, reptiles, or even insects same to humans in that the male organisms have XY Chromoson at the end and female XX? Thanks for the ansver
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Why does the structure of RNA change?

RNA only has one strand, but like DNA, is made up of nucleotides. RNA strands are shorter than DNA strands. RNA sometimes forms a secondary double helix structure, but only intermittently. Why does ...
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Can DNA rings, i.e. plasmids, form as Möbius strips?

I know that plasmids can be present in a coiled form, which keeps the DNA strands together when they degenerate, by forming catenases. I was wondering, however, whether it has been documented to ...
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Available Protein sequence alignment dataset and HMM model

I am new to biology and I find my algorithm may be used in the Protein sequence alignment, since it is a henced HMM model. I find that people use HMM to generate noisy copies of the consensus sequence ...
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What do genetic variations within a species look like before it evolves into two species via cladogenesis?

Theories of evolution show that for cladogenesis to happen, two populations within the same parent species need to be reproductively isolated. When genetic differences become large enough for their ...
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Removing DNA from a cell

Stupid question perhaps but what does happen if one completely removes DNA from a single cell organism? As far as I know DNA is only needed for propagating information to descendants doing it's ...
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How can a homozygous mutation, considered pathogenic, occur on a gene such as HFE without the disease developing?

What happens when you have a homozygous mutation on a gene (eg. a swapped base), that is considered pathogenic, but without developing the disease? It it were a heterozygous mutation I would get it, ...
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DNA from sweat on the hat band? [closed]

My father died in 1987. I have an old cowboy hat of his. Can I use a FamilyTreeDNA test kit to recover any DNA?
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Why do the calicheamicins bind to DNA at the minor, rather than the major, groove?

I am trying to understand why some drugs bind only to the minor groove and not to the major groove. More specifically, I am interested in calicheamicins. They target DNA and cause strand scission. ...
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Does the cell release the empty capsids?

The virus via the spike of the capsid connects to a receptor in a cell, then the DNA enters the cell wall. My question is what happens to the capsid - does it stay connected to the receptor or is ...
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Can DNA be used directly to determine the age of a mutation?

I've studied that proteins found in a sample as biochemical evidences for evolution. Its variation in structure and configuration can be used to date the age when that mutation occured, effectively ...
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Are there any known consequences of the right-handedness of the DNA double helix?

In this article it is suggested (without evidence) that the right-handedness of DNA may be the cause that "kick[s] off asymmetry in the early embryo [of snails]". On the one hand we know that ...
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identificaation of the correct fragments with desired nucleotide sequences using probes

in making of rDNA, my text book has a point that is written above(the question). what i don't get is if we already know what the nucleotide sequence is why do we need to take out the gene having the ...
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Does DNA have a phosphate group or phosphoric acid? [closed]

I am confused about the structure of nucleotide of a DNA. I have seen that it has a phosphate group(PO₄³⁻) in some books but phosphoric acid(H₃PO₄) in other ones. Which one is right?
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How does DNA shape a living organism? [closed]

I'm haven't studied biology so excuse me if I'm getting something wrong. I'm trying to understand how the DNA from a sperm and egg cause the egg too multiply and form a perticular shape (shape of a ...
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How can DNA replication result in hair pin structures?

My professor said that one of the reasons SSB proteins are so important was to prevent the formation of hair pin structures, I can't see how or why DNA would form hairpin structures and there's not ...
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Self-study genetics

I'm new at the field of genomics. I'm a theoretical physicist by training and now we would like to translate some of the ideas to the DNA, possibly in real genomic instances. The concrete example ...
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Non-radioactive nucleotide labeling compatible with reverse transcriptase?

Are there any methods for nucleotide labeling which are compatible with use for reverse-transcription, besides radiolabeling, and for which the regulatory framework in the EU / USA are permissive ? ...
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Is it possible nowadays to artificially create an organism just by inserting organism's DNA into an artificial environment?

Let's say we have a DNA of a bacteria and we want to recreate the bacteria just from this DNA. Is it possible nowadays to get this DNA and insert it into some artificial solution so that from this DNA ...
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How to determine the most likely reading frame of a DNA sequence?

This question is from a past exam paper for an introductory bioinformatics module. I'm a computer scientist doing biology for the first time. "A short bacterial gene has been sequenced, giving the ...
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What is the disadvantage of circular DNA?

I have searched online and there is little information about the disadvantage of a circular DNA. Since I know that with chromosome arrangement like human, we have telomere that held the DNA strands ...
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Why does inbreeding cause genetic defects, but cell division in one's own body does not?

I was watching a DNA transcription video when I realized that cells basically create copies of DNA all the time in our body. There may be a few mutations/errors, but it works out fine. However, when ...
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How can I classify the 3 clades(S, G, V) of the coronavirus that are found on GISAID?

On GISAID they classified the corona using 4 clades(S, G, V, Other). I would like to know exactly how these genomes were classified for my research. So how do you classify a coronavirus genome as ...
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Why does DNA have two sets of bases? [closed]

DNA has two sets of bases. Why is this the case? If one gets mutated, does the other as well?
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Are the conclusions in “The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2” legit? [duplicate]

I don't have any background in genetics and bioinformatics, so I ask you if you think that the arguments provided in the article The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2 by Andersen et al. are convincing. In ...
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A poor man's COVID-19 vaccine? [closed]

If person A is infected (COVID-19) and person B is not, could the following work as a vaccination? Person A exhales (coughs?) into a a transparent bag. The bag is radiated for a long time with a ...
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CRISPR-Cas9 knockout

With CRISPR-Cas9 I have conducted a targeted knockout of a DNA region encoding a certain protein (working with leukocytes). My question is, how long does it take until this protein is not detectable ...
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Roughly speaking how stable are short sections of single-stranded RNA in exposed environments compared to double-stranded DNA?

A search following a recent news item led me to a CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report for 23 March 2020 which says in part: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified on a variety of surfaces in cabins ...
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Where can I find the genome of the L-strain coronavirus and the S-strain coronavirus?

I read an interesting article about two strains of the coronavirus: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2236544-coronavirus-are-there-two-strains-and-is-one-more-deadly/ I would like to know how the ...
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What causes cells to inactivate one X-chromosome?

Normally, when a cell has two X-chromosomes (female genome), one is randomly inactivated. How does the cell detect that there are two X-chromosomes in the first place? Is there some kind of protein ...
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how many crossing over sections are in human dna?

i have found in wikipedia: At a given chiasma, an exchange of genetic material can occur between both chromatids, what is called a chromosomal crossover, ... In humans, there seems to be one ...
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Can I pellet DNA back from dissolved state?

I have a dissolved plasmid pellet in water. Can I pellet it again by centrifuging it at 13000 rpm? If not, why?
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The new DNA study showing that we have two DNA codes and not only one unique code

I am looking for a study that i read maybe 2-3 years ago that i cant find at the moment. Scientist has always believed that humans only have one unique DNA code that makes us who we are, but a ...
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Genes and proteins with a significantly inbalanced composition

According to Wikipedia, the median size of a protein-coding gene is 26,288 bp which makes it possible (from statistical considerations) that the nucleotides C, G, A, T appear in roughly equal amounts ...
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A question about dna triplex

Short DNA triplex strands have been identified in various organsims. But, would injecting a single strand of DNA or RNA (with its bases complementary to the bases of DNA found in the major groove of a ...
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How to measure DNA concentration from Acetonitrile Cell Lysis of plant cells?

I'm currently trying to normalise my data to the number of cells present in each sample. Currently, I lyse the cells with cold ACN and centrifuge. The supernatant contains what I'm interested in, and ...
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Changes in DNA and forensic cases

If DNA changes over time, how is it that forensic DNA gathered decades ago can be matched to a person today for solving crimes?
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How to calculate the quantification of qPCR to the equivalent of the number of nuclei in fungi?

I have a question about the quantification through qPCR. The my question is: if I made the qPCR of a fungal functional gene, how is possible to obtain from the quantification number (in nanogram) the ...
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What is the charge of (bacterial) ribosome?

Ribosomes are negatively charged and thus electrostaticaly repelled from DNA. However, I could not find a good reference that would allow me to estimate the magnitude of negative charge on a ribosome. ...
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Is the total of all human DNA (23 pairs) the longest of all species?

The human DNA molecule is about 2 meters in length. See here. We have 46 of them, so in total 82 meters. In this article it is said that the genome of the Protopterus aethiopicus (a.k.a The marbled ...
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Why does absorption (at 260nm) of ssDNA increase with temperature?

In the graph below, I understand why A260 of double stranded DNA would increase with temperature increase, as more of the DNA becomes single stranded (and A260 of ssDNA is higher than that of dsDNA ...
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How hard is it to build a promotor in a DNA that initiates DNA transcription when specific hormones are around

I have an idea that you could find out which substances are within a sample in vitro that you are investigating by creating DNA that has a bunch of different promotors for different substances you are ...
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Is it possible to distinguish between coding and template strands from the sequence?

Let’s say you have the following DNA sequence fragment: 5’-ACCAGTACTTCGT-3’ 3’-TGGTCATGAAGCA-5’ Is there any way to determine which strand is the template ...
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How to calculate percentage of DNA that ancestors contributed?

In David Reich's book "Who we are and how we got here" there is a graph explaining that more we go back in our ancestors generations, the least we have chances to have any DNA inherited from one of ...
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Significance of the resequencing of the chimpanzee genome

Introductory remark: I am not a biologist, but a somewhat knowledgeable layperson. I have been told that sequencing of chimpanzee DNA until recently has been done almost exclusively using human DNA ...
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What's the transposon difference between chimps and humans?

I was reading that humans and chimps share 98-99% of the same DNA sequence but I also read humans and chimps only share around 20% of the same proteins. Also, 45% of the human genome is transposable ...
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In theory, could a woman that has fathers and mothers cromosome identical, be able to live?

What Im getting at is something totally impossible, but im making some mental experiences. Assuming I have a machine that can produce a living being just from a DNA code (like in the movie The Fly)....
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Which DNA polymerase can use a nick as priming site?

Which DNA polymerase (commercially available) can initiate polymerization at nicks, without a standard primer? My goal is to perform rolling circle amplification starting at a nick.
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How to design a permanent vaccine to cholera using CRISPR?

I know that Vibrio Cholerae infects the body through the GM1 ganglioside. So, would it be possible to engineer a CRISPR gene editing tool to prevent Vibrio Cholerae from getting into our cells? ...

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