Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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1answer
23 views

Genomic library preparation: Why does the restriction enzyme not cut into the gene?

I am currently trying to understand creating a genomic library more profoundly. In most textbooks I read (as well as wikipedia), they mentioned that the genomic library is created by isolating the DNA ...
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What does does a blood sample tell you about an individual's identity?

I am working on a fiction/mystery scene where blood is found in a particular character's residence but the character themselves is missing. I would like to understand whether the law enforcement/...
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1answer
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Virus variant transmissibility: empirical data or spike protein shape?

Well first I am not in the field of Biology or Medical Sciences. Since these days we are waiting scientists to tell us if the Indian variant of SARS Cov 2 is more transmissible than the original virus,...
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Can a strand not be synthesised in 5' -> 3' direction?

I've been solving some biology questions, and according to one of them ( I have the responses too) the following phrase is false: " both strands are always synthesised in the 5' to 3' direction&...
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Why is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) less effective for interspecies?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), a process for replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with a nucleus containing genetic information of a different animal, seems to be very useful for cloning and ...
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Can DNA transfer revive a dead E. Coli? [closed]

(This is not for homework. I'm way beyond homework age. I'm reading a book on biotech and stumbled upon dead viruses revived by fresh infusion of new genetic materials and became infectious again. I ...
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Length of the human genome, base length of each chromosome [closed]

A human cell usually has one set of paternal genome and one set of maternal genome. For example, we often see ambiguous expressions such as The human genome is about $3*10^9$ bp long. The DNA genome ...
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39 views

Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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1answer
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How do you determine “in which direction” DNA is shared between groups of people

In popular DNA ancestry tests you can read lines like "you have 2% neanderthal dna" or "you have 20% italian". How can you distinguish between a person having 20% italian vs ...
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How was gene knock out done in pre CRISPR era?

I am trying to understand how CRISPR has made the gene knockout or gene editing process simpler to make transgenic animals. Here is an old (pre CRISPR) flowchart from Manis, 2007 that shows how ...
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Are there any “in vivo” DNA replication fidelity assays?

I haven't been able to find a way to assess the fidelity of DNA replication in vivo as opposed to in vitro. I was wondering, would it be possible to find this by sequencing the DNA of individual cells ...
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By selecting sex cells after meiosis, would it be possible to create two offspring with inverse parental DNA of one another? [closed]

Would it theoretically be possible to select two sex cells after a male meiosis (filtering out the two where crossover had taken place) and combine each with two sex from a female meiosis (imagining ...
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Why is DNA replication not 100% accurate

I've been reading about DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and how this process improves DNA fidelity. However, I was wondering, what is stopping MMR from correcting all mistakes in the daughter DNA with 100% ...
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1answer
151 views

Forward or Reverse Strand: Is there a difference when encoding genetic devices?

Background: In synthetic biology, and also in nature, there are lots of examples of genes in both the forward and reverse orientation. It seems in synthetic biology/bioengineering, most genetic ...
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1answer
650 views

What if target DNA doesn’t have restriction sites

All the examples on DNA cloning I have encountered have assumed that the target gene and vector both have compatible restriction sites at just the right locations (probably for ease of explanation). ...
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2answers
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Geometric Interpretations of the DNA Double Helix

In mathematics, a helix is a shape which has constant curvature and constant torque (see Wikipedia here. What are the biological implications of the DNA double helix having constant curvature and ...
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1answer
60 views

Traceability of a mature tree to its original seed via DNA

Is it possible to trace a specific seed to a fully mature tree? For example, Can a seed be traced to the full-grown plant based on DNA? Would it be possible for me to catalog a seed DNA and then ...
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1answer
79 views

Nomenclature of substrates for DNA synthesis

I have read in my school textbooks that both deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate and deoxynucleotide triphosphate are used in DNA Replication as substrates. However, it is unclear to me whether the terms ...
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Can a blood type O be born from AB and A parents?

I have a basic understanding of genetics, and I'm really puzzled by this. My grandma's blood type is A (I don't know if it's heterozygous or homozygous) and my grandpa is AB. Yet my mother is type O. ...
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1answer
60 views

Are there any species whose descendants can meet their ancestors from 100 generations back?

I.e. Humans can sometimes meet even their great-great-grandparents, but are there any species that can be alive at the same time as their great-great-……-great-grandparents? I imagine it would be those ...
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1answer
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What can you learn about someone's mother and father by examining their DNA?

Disclaimer: I ask this question from the position of having paid absolutely no attention throughout school/highschool science classes. I am incredibly ignorant, but I don't know how to find the answer ...
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Assembling small DNA parts using Golden Gate

Background I've always been told that DNA assembly can be tricky when using very small DNA parts due to low efficiency. I've also seen this when using 3A biobrick assembly to assemble promoters and ...
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2answers
268 views

How do gene locations change during crossing over events?

Suppose you have two variants from the same species, which have slightly different chromosomes I's to each other. Genes may be in slightly different positions on the chromosome, and the lengths of the ...
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Dealing with heterochromatin during DNA replication

Heterochromatin are present along the chromosome (uncoiled state). With the highly-condensed structure relative to euchromatin, RNA polymerase cannot get into the DNA base pairs in heterochromatin and ...
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2answers
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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1answer
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Are there ribozymes that cut double strands

the header already says: Are there any ribozymes known that cut double strands? A kind of ribozyme equivalent to the Ribonuclease III. With cut, I mean that the backbone of both strands, forming the ...
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If aging is caused by “DNA Damage” why is the process of aging generally similar between people?

When I hear the phrase "DNA Damage" I imagine completely random changes in the DNA of a person's cells. If this is the case, then it seems like every person would age differently depending ...
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1answer
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Why do microarrays require a priori knowledge of the genome?

Reading this paper they said this: Contemporary microarrays emerged in the wake of genome sequencing projects for one obvious reason: arrays require a priori knowledge of the query genome Why do you ...
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2answers
102 views

Why does DNA synthesis require nucleoside triphosphates? [closed]

Writing the DNA sequence is done with nuclosides that have three phosphates attached to them, and two of these phosphate are thrown away back into "phosphate pool" of cell. What are main ...
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1answer
106 views

When the sister chromatids are joined in the centromere, why is it stated that the number of chromosomes is 46 and not 72?

Before the DNA is replicated in a human somatic cell, the cell has 46 chromosomes. Also, after the sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase, the chromosome number in the cell doubles to 72, so ...
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What's the difference (functionally speaking) between yeast centromeric plasmids and artificial chromosomes?

Historically, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been used for genome sequencing projects in the late 1990's. Nowadays, most researchers seem to use centromeric plasmids for expressing ...
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What is the structure of heterochromatin?

A short article about euchromatin and heterochromatin mentions that the structure of heterochromatin usually depicted in images "has never been visualized in vivo, and its existence is ...
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1answer
107 views

Get “DNA” of one parent based on its children [closed]

I'm no biology expert so bear with me, but I've been given a task to estimate alleles of an animal based on the animal's children and the children's other parents. I've looked up Mendel's laws but I'm ...
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Are archaeological DNA samples (bone fragment) stabilized and isolated the same ways as living saliva samples?

I've been studying how saliva DNA samples are suspended in a stabilization fluid then isolated using magnetic beads. Are old archaeological DNA samples of deteriorating bones put through this same ...
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1answer
56 views

Exact average molecular weight of a dsDNA basepair

I am trying to calculate the exact weight of a given dsDNA. On the Internet and the literature, different values for the av. molecular weight of one basepair are given : 660 g/mol (probably wrong), ...
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1answer
56 views

Parameters that determines the thermal stability of DNA

Why a DNA with a high GC content more stable than one with a less GC content? Is it because of the three hydrogen bonds in GC base pair which is one more than a AT base pair or is it because of the ...
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1answer
73 views

Did Mendel believe that proteins are hereditary substances?

Scientists first thought that proteins, which are found in chromosomes along with DNA, would turn out to be the sought-after genetic material. Proteins were known to have diverse amino acid sequences, ...
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1answer
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What data would Meselson and Stahl have expected if DNA replication was dispersive rather than semiconservative? [closed]

What data would Meselson and Stahl have expected if DNA replication was conservative rather than semiconservative? Answer: In the first generation, there would be two bands, one of light density and ...
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3answers
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What is the mechanism through which fractals arise in plants and animals?

Many biological organisms -- such as trees, broccoli, and the blood vessels in animals -- can be approximately described using fractals. What is the reason behind such fractals? Specifically, do we ...
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DNA extraction from parasitic worm

I have a part of a parasitic worm frozen at -20°C. Do you think that DNA extraction using DNeasy kit without any pre-treatment is sufficient for DNA extraction? Or would you recommend bead beating / ...
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1answer
97 views

Is there a term for the opposite of intergenic?

I am looking for a term that describes DNA regions that overlap genes, i.e., non-intergenic DNA regions. For example, say I am writing a paper about DNA-binding sites (i.e., DNA sequences that ...
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What are the advantages of long read sequencing for cancer oncogenomic research?

Currently I am using whole genome nanopore sequencing, Illumina short read and 10x linked read to study oncogenesis mechanisms of certain types of rare cancer. I am wondering about the advantages of ...
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Poly-G tails in NovaSeq Paired-end sequencing from museum samples

I'm currently working with DNA samples originating from museum specimens, this means they have been stored in formaldehyde for the last 50-100 years. The DNA I'm analysing has been sequenced by ...
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1answer
62 views

Purpose of EF1 alpha promoter

Context: I have seen promoters used to have gene therapy viruses target specific cells, so I am referring to that apparent function of theirs. As an example I have seen GFAP promoters used for ...
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1answer
68 views

Why are there 10 base pair steps, not 16?

In a biochemistry course I'm taking, the lecturer emphasised that there are 10 possible base pair steps; I've included a screenshot of a slide stating this. This confuses me, because I cannot work out ...
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1answer
39 views

Can Taq polymerase be stored with PCR primers?

I don't think it's possible for TAQ to be stored with the primers, but I'm not sure. This storage wouldn't be long-term (a few days, or a week at most). Thoughts?
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
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1answer
59 views

How to identify the subspecies/breed of a bee

I have been a beekeeper for a number of years and originally obtained my first colonies from a guy in my neighbourhood. However, when I sell bees to someone else, they typically ask what species of ...
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1answer
104 views

How long does foreign DNA stay intact in human blood?

How aggressively is foreign DNA in blood targeted and degraded by the human body? I am asking because we have a metagenomics project where we want to detect parasite DNA in the human blood. The ...
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1answer
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How does the order of the pairs of cross-links in DNA determine the arrangement of the amino acids?

Quoting Richard Feynman from Chapter 3 of his book Six Easy Pieces, when he talks about DNA: Attached to each sugar along the line, and linking the two chains together, are certain parts of cross-...

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