Questions tagged [dna-damage]

A structural aberrancy in DNA, as opposed to a sequence change (mutation). Often caused by reactive species.

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Is double stranded DNA denatured to single stranded DNA in retorted canned tuna?

A PCR reaction has a cycle of about 55°C annealing, 72°C extension and 95°C denaturing with short time spans. Retorting canned tuna heats the tuna to 115°C to 121°C for 30 min to 2 hr depending on ...
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If aging is caused by "DNA Damage" why is the process of aging generally similar between people?

When I hear the phrase "DNA Damage" I imagine completely random changes in the DNA of a person's cells. If this is the case, then it seems like every person would age differently depending ...
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What does genetically tractable strain mean?

I want to study the properties of Pyrococcus Furiosus in surving to gamma irradiation by exploiting the analysis of DNA sequencing data as a bioinformatics study. Before learning how to analyse this ...
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Why does ionizing radiation cause only DNA double strand breaks?

It's known that ionizing radiation such as X-ray and $\gamma$-ray, cause DNA damage, specifically double strand break. Why is it so? I mean, why not single strand break, why not pyrimidine dimer?
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What would happen if we place denatured DNA in acidic medium?

DNA can be denatured at high temperatures or in alkaline solutions. But DNA can be annealed at low temperatures. I want to ask, could it be annealed in acidic medium?
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How can prokaryotes repair double strand breaks by homologous recombination if they're haploids?

Title says it all, I must be going crazy.
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How can DNA replication result in hair pin structures?

My professor said that one of the reasons SSB proteins are so important was to prevent the formation of hair pin structures, I can't see how or why DNA would form hairpin structures and there's not ...
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Why does inbreeding cause genetic defects, but cell division in one's own body does not?

I was watching a DNA transcription video when I realized that cells basically create copies of DNA all the time in our body. There may be a few mutations/errors, but it works out fine. However, when ...
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How far can free radicals from UV radiation diffuse through the skin?

UV radiation damages DNA through two separate mechanisms. Direct damage occurs when a photon is absorbed by DNA. Indirect damage occurs when a photon is absorbed by a chromophore, and the excited ...
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Changes in dna from dioxin poisoning

A person sprayed with a dioxin, how long would it take for a dna change? Instant or over time? Would that person having children afterwards pass on any(if any) dna changes?
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Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young?

As I understand, when I am getting older DNA becomes more and more damaged in my body. Does it make sense to make my own DNA copy (kind of backup) while I am young (38 years old or for my kids) in ...
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Replacing, instead of repairing, DNA

I've been doing some light reading on DNA damage theory of aging. One of the main ideas from that theory that I got is that the accumulation of damage in our DNA is one of the biggest causes of why we ...
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Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
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Is newly produced sperm healthy if there was previous DNA damage?

I read that sperm cannot repair DNA damage. So does this mean that if your sperm has DNA damage, then all of your sperm (whether present or future) has DNA damage? Or does it just mean that the ...
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What part of the skin is damaged under sun exposure?

How exactly does extensive sun exposure lead to skin damage and increase cancer risk. In which part of the skin is the sun doing the most damage. Is it in the epidermis or beneath ? I would like to ...
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Is reverse senescence/"anti-aging" actually scientifically possible among humans yet?

I have been very interested in this since I myself am interested in reversing my skin's aging/genes/damage/etc. I also am interested in volunteering any future genetic altering of skin quality. ...
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DNA preservation at room temperature

I am considering preserving the DNA of a family member who passed away. The funeral home offers a service called DNA Memories from a Canadian company (CG Labs). They have two options: Store the DNA in ...
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Error frequency of DNA replication without proof reading activity of DNA polymerase?

Different domains of DNA polymerase contain different activity, like 5'->3' polymerisation and 3'->5' proof reading ...
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Why replication collapse but not stall leads to DNA break?

I have been looking into the concept of replication dynamics and was wondering why collapsing but not stalling leads to a DNA break.
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Is there a point in our life when ALL the atoms from our childhood's body get replaced?

The evolutionary biologist and Oxford professor Richard Dawkins makes on his TED talk the rather interesting suggestion that we human beings, are in nature more similar to a wave than an object. In ...
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Is it possible for a human to live forever if he/she didn't catch any diseases?

Aging is not a disease, but it's the gradual weakening of the body, as the body gets weaker it gets more prone to diseases. So one doesn't die from aging but from diseases. So if one didn't catch any ...
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Why does asbestos cause cancer?

We are probably all familiar with the dangers of asbestos in your rooftop or in various pieces of old equipment as it has been shown that the microscopic asbestos particles reach our lungs and can ...
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Non-cavitating ultrasound for denaturation of short strands of DNA (~20 bp)?

I know that there is existing research on ultrasound-induced transient cavitation bubbles that mechanically denature DNA by generating violent shock waves locally in solution. I would like to know ...
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What do white blood cells do with FOREIGN white blood cells?

White blood cells or leukocytes are known to fight invaders, infections or basically anything foreign. They also contain DNA (while red blood cells don't). But what about foreign "white blood cells" ...
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Which frequency of UV light damages DNA?

I have read that UV light can damage pure DNA (DNA that has been extracted and purified). Is there a particular frequency threshold where this damage occurs or is it more of a gradient where the high ...
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Why doesn’t p53 cause the repair of cellular DNA that has been altered experimentally?

When scientists mutate bacteria or even embryos of lambs and other animals, why doesn't the p53 reverse whatever mutation the scientists cause? I know that the p53 stops the DNA from mutating and ...
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Does the SMUG1 enzyme break single-stranded DNA?

The SMUG1 gene codes for the enzyme single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase. This enzyme can remove uracil from single-strand (unpaired) DNA. (Uracil can occur in DNA due to ...
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Using UV to kill bacteria in shoes

I see that UV-C is the best to kill bacteria generally. We are interested in using to kill off odor in shoes. What illuminance is needed to kill most bacteria with UV-C? Thanks!
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How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
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Color of DNA, available absorption energy levels of DNA molecule, mutations

I have done a couple of DNA separations and observe that the clumped strands of DNA are white. Is that an artifact of the chemicals used in standard separations? Or is it indeed the case that the DNA ...
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Does vitamin C decrease after reacting with oxygen free radicals?

From the research that I have done, I know that antioxidants such as vitamin c donate electrons to oxygen free radicals and effectively neutralize them. They themselves do not become free radicals as ...
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Are nucleotides at the ends of DNA stripped on aging?

I had the following understanding (now after reading a popular science article seeming wrong understanding): DNA in (regular) cells (in human and some other organisms) are protected by telomers. ...
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Does the second law of thermodynamics cause aging? [closed]

What is the current understanding as to why organisms age and die? In the following explanation on Ask an Engineer, entropy is not even considered (despite it being answered by an engineer). Unless ...
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How do mutations actually occur?

DNA replication seems so mechanical- the DNA polymerase just running along the template strand. I just don't understand how mutations can arise. When it comes to substitutions, I get that a wrong ...
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Are missing limbs hereditary?

So with my basic understanding of biology, DNA can change over time. Does this mean that if one (or both) parents have something major missing (like a limb), the kid will come out without a limb? ...
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tandem repeat sequence; causes of contraction and/or expansion question

Question: Which of the following events, occurring within a tandem repeat sequence, will cause an expansion or contraction of the array? A) Endoduplication B) homologous recombination C) ...
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meaning of "usually greater than 200 base pairs"

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: Homologous recombination. All cellular organisms have molecular functions dedicated to recognizing and recombining DNA ...
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How does NHEJ cause indels?

I was reading up on CRISPR-cas9 and how it works and I am having trouble wrapping my head around how NHEJ to repair the DSB can cause indels to occur. Shouldn't the NHEJ just stick the two strands of ...
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transitional mutation, repair mechanism

I have read an answer to a question about dna repair during and after replication. But how is dna repaired if a deamination of of 5-methylcytosine happens? How does a repair mechanism identify which ...
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Is each generation getting older? [duplicate]

So we know that our sperm and egg cells get set aside relatively early so that they aren't going through unnecessary cell divisions and causing DNA damage or telomere shortening, but since each new ...
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RF Cautery DNA damage?

I'm concerned about the safety and mechanism of RF cautery. The frequency of the radio waves used is 4Mhz so normally there should not be any DNA damage BUT the thing you read everywhere is that only ...
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How can we create a living dinosaur using DNA technology?

I'm wondering what would we need to do to create a living dinosaur using DNA technology? If it is not possible with current technology, will it ever be feasible? In the movie Jurassic Park, ...
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Questions on DNA damage

I'm not strong in biology, so bear with me on this: I've been reading that as we age, our DNA is damaged by internal (e.g. errors during replication) and external (e.g. sun damage or radiation) ...
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Why AZT is selective towards HIV and doesn't impair human DNA replication?

I've found this article, which is a very old one (from the time when nucleoside analogs where researched as a possible way to prevent replication of virus genetic material, before the HIV epidemics). ...
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Repair wrong DNA pair after ending replication?

If there are wrong DNA pair, for example A=G, is there mechanism that could repair such things - after the replication was finished? Or it happens only during replication?
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The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
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How does DNA damage cause ageing in yeast?

As I understand it, in yeast ageing there is daughter cell and mother cell. The daughter cell is has newly "fresh" DNA and mother cell dies after some counts of replication. What happens to the ...
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G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
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How do nicks in the DNA strand affect the success of Long Range PCR?

Long Range PCR using NEB Master Mix - Hot Start Taq was working fine for me (amplicon sizes of ~10kb) but stopped working all of a sudden. Is it possible that many freeze-thaw cycles on the DNA ...
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