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Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Why replication collapse but not stall leads to DNA break?

I have been looking into the concept of replication dynamics and was wondering why collapsing but not stalling leads to a DNA break.
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Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
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How many genes do viruses have? [closed]

What is the range for the number of genes any virus contains? What is the average? Are there any viruses that contain only 1 gene?
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What does chrM stand for in a VCF file? [closed]

I'm guessing the M is for Mitochondria, but Googling has not helped me to confirm this question. The wikipedia file for Variant Call Format also was not helpful.
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probability of hairpin vs self-dimer formation?

I have a linear ssDNA oligo that is designed such that the ends are complementary, and conducive to hairpin formation (see attached figure). My question is, which has a higher likelihood of formation, ...
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Are there interesting biomolecules consisting of chains of nucleotides that present multiple bond? [closed]

Watson-Crick bonds guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine helically shape DNA. If I understand correctly, a sequence in only two of the nucleotides, for instance TGGTGTGGGTG ... would determine the dual ...
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How close genetically is the most human-like chimpanzee to the most chimp-like human?

I understand that: Chimpanzees are the closest species to humans genetically. Only 1%-6% of their genes are different. Within any species there is genetic diversity, i.e. no two individuals have the ...
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Calculating Possible Combinations of Bases in a DNA Strand of a Given Length

In my Biology class we were asked this question: This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. How many different sequences of eight bases can you make? Explain how you found your ...
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DNA replication - how many times and when does it occur?

I’m currently learning about DNA replication in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. And my lecturer has mentioned that replication is a once in a lifetime activity. And I’m not sure what this is ...
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How do introns code for proteins? [duplicate]

The reason I am asking this is because my textbook states that: Some introns may themselves encode proteins, and some may become short non-coding lengths of RNA involved in gene regulation. Some ...
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Calculate a global dN dS ratio for the all tree

I'm using the codeml application with the python package ete3 in order to calculate the dN/dS ratio of my trees, but it appears that there is no possibility to calculate a such ratio for all the three....
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Why can't this be 1st meiotic division non-disjunction as well?

The child has gotten 2 "sick" chromosomes from his dad and 1 healthy from his mom, leaving it with trisomy 13. I can see how this can happen in the second meiotic division of the father but I can ...
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Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

Chargaff's rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to ...
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What happens after the purification step in Hi-C sequencing?

I am a statistician reading an article on Hi-C, and I am trying to better understand one of the steps in the DNA isolation and sequencing process. Since I'm a statistician, please try to avoid too ...
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How is it possible for phosphate to form two ester bonds in DNA replication?

I understand that in phosphodiester bond formation, two hydroxl groups on the phosphate molecule bind to the 3' and 5' OH groups on two independent pentose sugars. This is a condensation reaction, so ...
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Is there a biological mechanism for evolution encoded into our DNA?

Throughout high school, I remember learning about Darwin's theory of evolution as if it were near-fact. But something always seemed wrong about the ideas presented. Survival of the fittest Random ...
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1answer
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Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...
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How does the nucleophilic attack in DNA replication occur?

Hi there, I am confused about how the nucleophilic attack occurs in DNA replication.I watched this video from a biology professor (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4hKibS2fAo) I watched this video ...
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Computer Virus that infects DNA?

I have watched a talk by Mikko Hypponen (CEO of the security company F-Secure) called Silicon Plague. There, roughly at minute 51 of the talk, he mentions a computer code that is supposed to be able ...
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Why does size decrease across the sequence of human chromosomes?

The following graph shows a decrease in the number of base pairs per chromosome across the sequential set of human chromosomes: Is this because chromosomes were originally numbered by their size on ...
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2k views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
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2answers
334 views

How does UV light damage the DNA when the chromosomes are deep inside the cell?

When UV light falls on the skin it has to go through the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane to reach the chromosomes. So it looks like that the DNA is protected but it probably isn't. Won't ...
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How does DNA still work after recombination?

If you take two computer programs and randomly swapped pieces from each of them. The result is not going to work. It will just be garbage. If you take two novels and randomly swapped chapters the ...
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Are there examples of cells with more than one nucleus?

I've always wondered why cells have only one nucleus, as having multiple would seemingly prevent mutation. Are there examples of organisms with multiple nucleuses? If not, is there a reason?
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How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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How does bonding between non-complementary bases occur?

My teacher told me that when DNA polymerase makes an error (roughly every 10 million nucleotides?) that if, for example, it matches an A with a G that the error remains and is the main cause of point ...
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How atom works and it's different from DNA? [closed]

I am studying atoms recently because I am writing a short story and the characters would talk about it for a bit. And I wish it's scientifically accurate. So I read a lot of articles about the atom ...
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Realistic Application of CRISPR in Human Disorders

Human trials recently began to use the genome editing technology CRISPR to treat sickle cell anemia using edited stem cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a single DNA Mutation, and is also a ...
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Do we posses technology to rebuild sequenced DNA? [closed]

Is there existing technology that would allow to rebuild DNA molecule from a digital file storing sequenced DNA? If not, does there at least exist theory explaining how such device could be built?
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Does DNA have the equivalent of IF-statements, WHILE loops, or function calls? How about GOTO?

Does DNA have anything like IF-statements, GOTO-jumps, or WHILE loops? In software development, these constructs have the following functions: IF-statements: An IF statement executes the code in a ...
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1answer
46 views

Why don't mitochondria have plasmids?

According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria are descended from specialised bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or ...
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658 views

Why does Nature use a 4-level system to encode information in DNA?

First, I am not a biologist, so this question might be naive: Computer information processing and storage is based on 2-digit system of bits with values 0 and 1. Now, DNA stores the information in a ...
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39 views

Storage DNA Condition

It is possible to store a digestion of cells with lysis buffer several days at -20 degrees and then proceed with the phenol chloroform isoamyl purification?
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How do biologists discover information from fossils? [closed]

I have a query about the study of fossils (palaeontology). Let me know about the study of fossils. How do biologist discover "DNA" information from dead and old fossils such as a dinosaur? (answer ...
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What is the structure of DNA during Interphase? Chromatin Fibre or Beads on a string(nucleosomes)?

During Interphase, does DNA predominantly exist as Chromatin Fibre (30nm fibre) or Chromatin/beads on a string structure(10nm) ?
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How do DNA viruses keep themselves in the nucleus without inserting themselves into genome?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Then how do DNA ...
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1answer
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Can CRISPR also remove DNA viruses?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Can CRISPR cut DNA ...
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1answer
67 views

Must I HPLC-purify my PCR Primers for amplicon sequencing with PacBio SMRT?

I would like to order some primers for amplicon sequencing. I am using universal tag primers (unusually long 30-mers recommended by PacBio for SMRT, both F&R) + barcodes (16-mers). The resulting ...
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1answer
32 views

How are mitochondrial diseases like MERRF inherited?

I am doing a project on the disorder MERRF in Mitochondrial DNA. I have to make a pedigree and explain how it is transferred on from generation to generation. I know that it is inherited maternally, ...
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2answers
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How much of my ancestry comes from each grandparent?

Three of my grandparents were Eastern European, back at least several generations. I recently discovered that I am less than 25% Eastern European, the rest being Western European and other. How likely ...
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1answer
53 views

Are viruses ever manufactured directly from viral DNA embedded in the genome?

Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~...
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What is the fibre axis in the Watson and Crick paper?

I was reading Watson and Crick’s original article on DNA structure in Nature 171, 737–738 (1953). The accompanying diagram (shown below) has something called the “fibre axis” going through the DNA. ...
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How many phosphates are in the 5' end of a DNA strand?

I know that the pyrophosphate of a NTP is hydrolysed so that it can create enough energy for the synthesis of DNA. But if we want to get specific we can know for sure that the 3' end of the DNA strand ...
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2answers
219 views

Is most of the human genome functionless “junk DNA”?

In January 2012, David Icke published a book (ISBN: 9780955997334) entitled “Remember where you are and where you come from” in which he challenged what he claimed to be the view of mainstream science ...
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Can a hydra get cancer?

Because hydras have immune systems, telomerase activity, and Piwi-piRNA like cancer cells I wonder if they can get cancer?
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Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms into one sperm?

Is it possible to fuse the DNA of two genetically different sperms into one singular sperm? In theory, half of the number of chromosomes in a normal sperm would come from one sperm and the other half ...
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0answers
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Projects in DNA Computing [closed]

I am physicist and have recently heard about DNA computing. I want to work in this area. I want your ideas on a "feasible but new project" (maximum time I can put on the project: 6 Months ), I can ...
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Can a dividing cell that skipped DNA replication become cancerous?

Let's assume that a cell fails to replicate its DNA during the S Phase of the cell cycle. Let's also assume that the appropriate CDKs are inactive (perhaps due to mutation or lack of cyclin proteins ...
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4k views

Why AZT is selective towards HIV and doesn't impair human DNA replication?

I've found this article, which is a very old one (from the time when nucleoside analogs where researched as a possible way to prevent replication of virus genetic material, before the HIV epidemics). ...
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If an ethnic group holds nearly 100% of a particular haplogroup, does it means that people who have this haplogroup are their descendants?

Let me give you a hypothetical example. If the Egyptians were 100% E3b1, and the Levantines 50%, and the Anatolians 25%. Does this indicate that the Levantines and Anatolians are descended from ...