Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

1
vote
0answers
13 views

What is the difference between DNA vs RNA Editing in the context of gene therapy?

As a someone with beginner knowledge on biology, I have come across the terms "RNA editing". Take this paper for example : RNA Editing with CRISPR-Cas13 From my understanding, DNA -> RNA -> Proteins ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Do all restriction enzymes have palindromic recognition sites?

I am trying to find out the requirements for a segment of DNA to be the recognition site of a restriction enzyme. Acording to the article on Restriction Enzymes in Wikipedia, "many of them" (...
2
votes
1answer
65 views

Can radiation exposure cause cancer later in life even if no traces of radioactive material are present in the body anymore?

I had a long-lasting debate with a friend of mine about the Fukushima incident. The question that we tried to solve was if radiation or toxin exposure can cause cancer later in life even if no ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

How do primers anneal to ssDNA?

In a PCR type protocol, the high temperature stage of the cycle will cause dsDNA to denature, as well as any annealed primers. At the lower temperature the denatured dsDNA will remain denatured. As ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

What do lower case nucleotides mean in this gene sequence?

The following table (image linked below) shows promoter sequences recognized by different sigma factors. The sequence given for, e.g. sigma B is "GTTTaa"; why are the "a"s lowercase? Thanks! ![From "...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Can something cause both breaks and cross-links in DNA?

A double strand break in DNA is exactly that: the strands of DNA are severed. A cross-linkage occurs when something forms a covalent bond between two nucleotides in DNA. However, is it possible for ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

What are the selective forces in molecular / protein evolution? [on hold]

When dealing with evolution on larger scales, such as at the organism level, natural selection works through reproductive fitness, due to the adversarial nature at that level. I'm wondering how does ...
2
votes
3answers
521 views

Getting PCR amplification at annealing higher than Tm!

I am amplifying a gene where in a gradient pcr i am getting amplification at an annealing temperature about 5 degrees (67) higher than Tm (62.5)? What is wrong here? Also, I am getting a very strong ...
4
votes
2answers
143 views

What did Francis Crick and James Watson discover that Rosalind Franklin didn't?

I've recently been introduced to the history of DNA research from Miescher to Franklin, Crick, and Watson, and I've found that Franklin had figured out a great many number of things out that Crick and ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Genes of the electron transport chain

Where are the genes of proteins that make the electron transport chain of mitochondria?(are they in in the nucleus or they are in the dna of the mitochondria itself?) Thanks for this answering system ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

How to convert enrichment/depletion to frequency for comparing deep sequencing to sequence profile?

I have two datasets, from different sources, that I need to compare. The first set is deep sequencing results of a directed evolution experiment, where I have the naive library and selected library ...
6
votes
3answers
314 views

Is solving cancer required in order to avoid aging?

When the telomerase enzyme is not active the telomere shortens every time the cell duplicates leading to a reproductive limit (Hayflicks limit). On one hand this is a believed reason for aging. On the ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Are barcodes single or double stranded after amplification?

After amplification in PCR using barcoded primers; are the barcode sequence single or double stranded?
3
votes
2answers
72 views

Can DNA be flattened?

DNA is always shaped like a double helix. But could you flatten the double helix (which is essentially just a twisted ladder) and would DNA still be able to duplicate and control cells?
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Is it possible to Clone a Dinosaur with a full strand of their DNA? [duplicate]

If you have a full strand of Dinosaur DNA would it be possible to make it living and hatch a dinosaur? Or would it be a failure? Could you use a bird or alligator, for replacein
0
votes
1answer
55 views

Where can I find DNA decryption research? [closed]

What is the name of the science that studies the mathematics of DNA? Where can I learn about maths, statistics, types of code, numbers, patterns and graphs for genes and information found in DNA?
0
votes
1answer
166 views

What is the expected amount of DNA shared by first cousins and the people between them in a family tree?

What is the expected amount of DNA that is shared by all of the people between first cousins, including the first cousins, in a family tree?
2
votes
0answers
15 views

Need help to determine % difference between DNA-strand from two different haplotypes. Known nucleotide diversity and more

Backround: 229 DNA sequences 493 bp in length Haplotype diversity: 0.9956 Average number of nucleotide differences: 12.50544 Polymorphic sites: 145 Nucleotide diversity: 0.02426 Is it possible ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Design rules for DNA linkers

I want to use double stranded DNA linkers to physically bind two "things" together, by grafting ssDNA on each one of them and using DNA hybridization as the locking mechanism. I do not expect the ...
0
votes
1answer
268 views

Heat shock vs electroporation

I've been transforming E. coli via heat shock in order to insert oligonucleotides (around 50 nt); however, none of my experiments have given positive results so far. I begin to question the efficiency ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Is newly produced sperm healthy if there was previous DNA damage?

I read that sperm cannot repair DNA damage. So does this mean that if your sperm has DNA damage, then all of your sperm (whether present or future) has DNA damage? Or does it just mean that the ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Will DNA nanostructures be useful for medical applications?

There is a lot of work being done on developing small nanomechanical structures and even small nanomechanical actuators built with DNA. I have heard researchers motivate this research with claims ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

How would two SNPs interact to affect CYP3A5 gene activity?

If someone has a non-functional rs41303343(T;T) SNP, yet that individual also possess the partially functional rs776746(A;G) SNP, is their CYP3A5 genotype functional or nonfunctional? In other words, ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Phenotypes caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA?

Will mutations in mitochondrial DNA necessarily affect phenotypes? I have some cursory knowledge of serial endosymbiotic cell theory, and find it difficult to consider that the DNA of the former ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Klenow amplification

Am I correct in thinking that in a standard probe synthesis reaction where primer/template are heated up and then cooled down for Klenow to extend, the theoretical maximum amplification is doubling of ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Is DNA from more parents (than two) better for the fitness of the offspring?

I'm designing a system (a computer system actually) and (a whole while ago) I spoke with a friend about it and he had this opinion: If you combine DNA of more parents (than 2) it's better for the ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

PCR in different cell line

I developed a PCR cycle to amplify a 5.5 kb genomic DNA region in HEK cell line. When I tried to use the same protocol in A375 cell line I had no results but only smear. Can you help me? Thanks in ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

Why replication collapse but not stall leads to DNA break?

I have been looking into the concept of replication dynamics and was wondering why collapsing but not stalling leads to a DNA break.
6
votes
3answers
147 views

Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

probability of hairpin vs self-dimer formation?

I have a linear ssDNA oligo that is designed such that the ends are complementary, and conducive to hairpin formation (see attached figure). My question is, which has a higher likelihood of formation, ...
8
votes
3answers
819 views

How close genetically is the most human-like chimpanzee to the most chimp-like human?

I understand that: Chimpanzees are the closest species to humans genetically. Only 1%-6% of their genes are different. Within any species there is genetic diversity, i.e. no two individuals have the ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Calculating Possible Combinations of Bases in a DNA Strand of a Given Length

In my Biology class we were asked this question: This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. How many different sequences of eight bases can you make? Explain how you found your ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

DNA replication - how many times and when does it occur?

I’m currently learning about DNA replication in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. And my lecturer has mentioned that replication is a once in a lifetime activity. And I’m not sure what this is ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

How do introns code for proteins? [duplicate]

The reason I am asking this is because my textbook states that: Some introns may themselves encode proteins, and some may become short non-coding lengths of RNA involved in gene regulation. Some ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Calculate a global dN dS ratio for the all tree

I'm using the codeml application with the python package ete3 in order to calculate the dN/dS ratio of my trees, but it appears that there is no possibility to calculate a such ratio for all the three....
2
votes
2answers
837 views

Why can't this be 1st meiotic division non-disjunction as well?

The child has gotten 2 "sick" chromosomes from his dad and 1 healthy from his mom, leaving it with trisomy 13. I can see how this can happen in the second meiotic division of the father but I can ...
10
votes
4answers
8k views

Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

Chargaff's rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

What happens after the purification step in Hi-C sequencing?

I am a statistician reading an article on Hi-C, and I am trying to better understand one of the steps in the DNA isolation and sequencing process. Since I'm a statistician, please try to avoid too ...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

How is it possible for phosphate to form two ester bonds in DNA replication?

I understand that in phosphodiester bond formation, two hydroxl groups on the phosphate molecule bind to the 3' and 5' OH groups on two independent pentose sugars. This is a condensation reaction, so ...
15
votes
8answers
4k views

Is there a biological mechanism for evolution encoded into our DNA?

Throughout high school, I remember learning about Darwin's theory of evolution as if it were near-fact. But something always seemed wrong about the ideas presented. Survival of the fittest Random ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

How does the nucleophilic attack in DNA replication occur?

Hi there, I am confused about how the nucleophilic attack occurs in DNA replication.I watched this video from a biology professor (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4hKibS2fAo) I watched this video ...
14
votes
4answers
529 views

Computer Virus that infects DNA?

I have watched a talk by Mikko Hypponen (CEO of the security company F-Secure) called Silicon Plague. There, roughly at minute 51 of the talk, he mentions a computer code that is supposed to be able ...
12
votes
1answer
765 views

Why does size decrease across the sequence of human chromosomes?

The following graph shows a decrease in the number of base pairs per chromosome across the sequential set of human chromosomes: Is this because chromosomes were originally numbered by their size on ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
0
votes
2answers
339 views

How does UV light damage the DNA when the chromosomes are deep inside the cell?

When UV light falls on the skin it has to go through the cell membrane and the nuclear membrane to reach the chromosomes. So it looks like that the DNA is protected but it probably isn't. Won't ...
11
votes
5answers
3k views

How does DNA still work after recombination?

If you take two computer programs and randomly swapped pieces from each of them. The result is not going to work. It will just be garbage. If you take two novels and randomly swapped chapters the ...
17
votes
5answers
4k views

Are there examples of cells with more than one nucleus?

I've always wondered why cells have only one nucleus, as having multiple would seemingly prevent mutation. Are there examples of organisms with multiple nucleuses? If not, is there a reason?
2
votes
1answer
75 views

How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
6
votes
1answer
57 views

How does bonding between non-complementary bases occur?

My teacher told me that when DNA polymerase makes an error (roughly every 10 million nucleotides?) that if, for example, it matches an A with a G that the error remains and is the main cause of point ...