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Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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How much variation is there between DNA molecules from the same organism

If different but in tact molecules of DNA were extracted from my body, for example hair sample, blood sample, and mouth swab, how much variation would there be between DNA molecules?
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Non-coding DNA correlation with rate of evolution

Non-coding DNA can be helpful in generating useful mutations that can go on to become new features/functionality of an organism. Non-coding DNA also indirectly reduces chances of mutation of useful/...
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How to preserve tissue DNA without using formalin?

Except using formalin to preserve human corpse for autopsy. I heard from the news that technique damages the DNA in the organs Question: Suppose corpse will be investigated next by another juridical ...
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What can I research for thesis on DNA data storage from math? [closed]

I'm a math researcher, I just finished a Master on Error Correcting Codes. I recently saw a presentation on DNA-based data storage that I loved. I wish to continue my studies on (applied mathematics) ...
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3answers
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Can the central dogma work in reverse?

Theoretically, is it possible to obtain the original gene from the protein’s amino acid sequence as its “template”, as in, the reverse of how gene’s codons were “templates” for the amino acid sequence ...
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How to find the amino acid in the DNA protein

3' A T A G T A C C G C A T G T A C G G G C G A G A C A T T C G A G C A T T C A T 5' This a Template DNA. How to find the number of amino acids amino acids ...
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How is the mechanism that reads dna passed?

DNA is how a species stores genetic information. Somehow the body needs to know what to do with this information. somehow the "machinery" that translates the DNA into proteins needs to be passed along ...
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Paper saying that humans and animals are (mostly) the same age

I'm brazilian and today I've came across this news published in a religious brazilian site. It's about a recent study that says that 9 to 10 species on Earth today, including humans, came into being ...
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What happens to the complementary base when the other undergoes a base substitution mutation?

From what I know only the base pairs A and T/U, or G and C can occur due to hydrogen bonding. So if a base substitution mutation occurs, say an A is replaced by a C on the strand, does it affect only ...
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2answers
56 views

What dictates which protein to synthesize at a given time?

I understand how DNA is replicated and how it directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids through RNA polymerase, RNA and ribosomes. Now I want to understand how it works in the big picture. ...
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1answer
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Does all cells in individual has same mitochondrial DNA?

I read that genetic code is universal except for mitochondrial DNA. However, I want to clarify (generally speaking, regarding humans especially): does all mitochondria in the same cell have almost ...
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1answer
42 views

Human genome, chromosomes

I have a very basic question, but it seems the hardest to me. So we have 46 chromosomes (23, 2 copies of each). Do all chromosomes have the same DNA? If so, does it mean that in different cells with ...
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1answer
284 views

What is the purpose of the “No DNA control”?

What is the purpose of the “No DNA control”? Recently I have done a forensic DNA lab experiment and I still cannot understand the use of “No DNA control”
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How specific are Vitamin D promotors in the DNA?

As far as I understand there are genes that get regulated by the amount of Vitamin D that comes in contact with DNA. How specific are those promoters? Are there promotors that for example only get ...
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Gibson Assembly Primers

exchange biologists, Currently having some trouble getting a Gibson assembly to work and as it's my first time working with this method I thought I'd ask for some advice. See the bottom of this post ...
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best thawing strategy for -80C frozen double-spun plasma

What's the best thawing strategy for -80C frozen double-spun plasma in order to preserve the cfDNA contained in the plasma? Looking at different web searches, it seems like slowly thawing at 4C is ...
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1answer
40 views

How does one identify a seed's species & variety?

How does one identify a seed's species & variety, could it be done by some means of DNA or by use of a microscope? Say for example, I had a pumpkin seed, I knew that it was a "small sugar pumpkin"...
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2answers
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Why the genome is divided into several chromosomes and not just a single big chromosome?

In many eukaryote species, there are several chromosomes. In humans, for example, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Why are there several chromosomes and not just a join of all chromosomes into a ...
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How diverse are the sperm cells of an individual male due to random mutations?

Due to the sheer number of sperm cells in an individual and the rate of mutations, are they likely to be incredibly diverse and encompass most of what we see across our species? For instance would it ...
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2answers
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complete DNA transfer across different organism zygotes

Consider we have a monkey zygote (i.e. single cell just fused) and a tiger zygote. If we extract the nucleus of monkey zygote and place it into tiger zygote where nucleus of tiger zygote is already ...
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How to perform TUNEL Assay for yeast?

Currently, I am working on yeast strain CEN PK and I want to carry out TUNEL Assay to detect the amount of damage upon treatment with some damaging agent. We have a kit in the name of TUNEL Assay Kit -...
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63 views

Prion Protein folding

PrPsc can promote the conversion of PrPc into PrPsc, which goes on to convert (misfold) other PrPc. How can an essentially dead protein, with NO nucleic acids in it, cause a good protein to become ...
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1answer
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Where can I find the pZ189vector plasmid vector sequence?

I need this sequence since it was used in this paper https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/em.1046. They say that the plasmid was prepared as in this paper http://www.jbc.org/content/271/16/...
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Genes and Intelligence

Assuming that intelligence has a genetic component, • do we know which genes contribute to it? and, if so, • can we predict intelligence from genomic analysis?
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How does the number of chromosomes evolve through generations? [duplicate]

Mitosis is a complex mechanism that, through mutations and crossover, determines how a chromosome is composed. But at that point, the number of chromosomes is already determined: how can this number ...
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1answer
38 views

is having more copies of gene better then having it less? if it's why is it ?

I was learning about elephants rarely getting cancer and learn that elephants have 40 copies of genes while human only has 2 copies of genes each from parents. so I wonder if it's better to have more ...
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False positive in relationships tests

What are the chances of false positive in paternity, maternity and sibling DNA test? Many labs offer 99.99% accuracy in paternity test, which means 1 in 10000 random sample will pass as father.
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1answer
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Chart of intra-species genetic diversity across species / phyla?

I am looking for information on how genetic diversity within a species (not between species) differs between taxa. In other words: Is the "spread" in the genetic pool, if measured, for instance, in ...
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1answer
78 views

Why can a zygote develop into all different types of cell, whereas a differentiated cell cannot? [closed]

A cell formed by the fertilization between two gametes has all the DNA and can lead the development of a human person (or other animals in other species). But other cells in a human person has also ...
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UV-lamp, DNA and RNA extraction lab

I'm equipping a lab room (~3x5 meters) that's supposed to be used for DNA and RNA extractions. I know about the basic safety precautions when working with RNA and DNA extraction (fresh gloves, ...
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22 views

Question about Neanderthal and Human DNA [duplicate]

If non African sapiens share 2% of their DNA with neanderthal, does that mean that their DNA differs from Africans by 2%? https://gizmodo.com/humans-have-even-more-neanderthal-dna-than-we-realized-...
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2answers
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What determines the physical location of differentiated cells in an organism?

Exposition: As a little kid, I always thought of DNA as being a description of how to build an organism. For example a human DNA would have "Add two legs and two arms", a dogs DNA would have ...
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1answer
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If evolution is true, how do all organisms have varying amount of chromosomes? [duplicate]

I thought genetic mutation changes genes and therefore evolution happens, but it doesn't explain how chromosomes are created/removed if the first organism had a set amount and now all the organisms ...
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1answer
177 views

Heat shock vs electroporation

I've been transforming E. coli via heat shock in order to insert oligonucleotides (around 50 nt); however, none of my experiments have given positive results so far. I begin to question the efficiency ...
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Hi, im trying make a work about Hayflick limit, and I have a question about the DNA replication. [duplicate]

What I do not understand is why in almost the whole literature it is written that the telomere shortening will only be on the lagging chain, although the leading chain at the beginning with the end ...
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0answers
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With respect to which METRIC is my DNA 99% similar to any other person's DNA? [duplicate]

I clarified my question, by editing the title. Using the comments and links below, I have answered it myself: The answer to my question is: The similarity is between 98.4%-99.9%, depending on which ...
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1answer
330 views

Why are prokaryotic promoter sequences written 5' to 3', when transcription proceeds from 3' to 5'?

It seems that the promoter regions are written from the 5' to 3' direction. My lecture notes, for example, give the -35 and -10 promoter regions sequences like so: Wikipedia seems to agree, on their ...
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Can ribosomes read ssDNA?

My question is whether translation can be done, either naturally or artificially, through a ribosome reading (single-stranded) DNA directly. If not, I would like to know what allows ssRNA to be ...
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1answer
113 views

Questions on DNA structural motifs [closed]

In the recent Nature Chemistry paper I-motif DNA structures are formed in the nuclei of human cells (open access link in LATimes) figure 1a shows "Schematic of i-motif and G4 structures." I'm not a ...
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Why is the Mongolian Horse superior in stamina?

I've heard a lot about the Mongolian Horse over the years, especially that it has more stamina than the Arabian Horse. It's a little smaller/lighter than an Arabian. Apparently the Mongol Horse can ...
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2answers
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Insertion of an additional base at start codon make the protein still functional?

So the question is if: a deletion of a codon for the amino acid lysine (AAG) is more or less likely to cause nonfunctionality of the protein than: Insertion of an additional base (C) within the ...
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2answers
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Pyura DNA extraction

I'm am struggling with genomic DNA extraction from different samples of Pyura chilensis; the DNA is degraded as can be seen on the gel. We've always used GeneJET Genomic DNA purification Kit (by ...
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3answers
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Knockout and knockdown of gene

Out of curiosity, I got this question whether knocking out (deletion) of a gene on one side and knocking down (RNAi) of the same gene on the other side will affect the cell in a similar manner or not. ...
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1answer
39 views

Number of DNA in a chromosome [closed]

I wanted to know the number of DNA in a chromosome. I previously knew that there are 2 DNAs per chromosome, but later I think I saw somewhere that it was trying to imply that the number of DNA is one ...
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2answers
347 views

Do chromosomes change with time?

An offspring is 23 chromosomes of mother and 23 of father, if one of the mate learns say music after the birth of their first child— will their second offspring have better music skills than former? ...
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What are the interactions between mtDNA and nucelus' DNA?

In an exam situation I have been presented with the following question by the teacher: What are the interactions between the mitochondrial DNA and the cell's nuclear DNA? To my knowledge there is ...
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1answer
126 views

How would one go about isolating a specific mRNA out of a pool of others? [closed]

I'm writing an essay about DNA recombinant techniques where the question asks to outline all the steps to arrive at having a colony of bacteria expressing a gene of interest.The question makes you ...
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1answer
18 views

In a Sanger sequencing, what would be happen if different DNA sequence binds to same primer? And how this situation avoided if problematic?

Sanger's PCR chain-termination sequencing, by its theory, is a simple method to sequence DNA from organisms. But what will happen if there are 2 allelic DNA with same primer binding site, but ...
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4answers
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Why does DNA mutate?

I just read that pregnancy in space would be super dangerous because - among other reasons - of a higher risk of mutations due to radiation. This made me wonder: why does the DNA in organisms mutate? ...
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1answer
898 views

Are drones from one honey bee queen all clones?

The Honey Bee queen lays eggs that develop into worker bees (female) if she fertilizes the egg. If she does not fertilize the egg, it will develop into a drone (male). The drone only has the queen'...